Chapter 16: Labor and Birth Processes My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 16: Labor and Birth Processes

Lowdermilk: Maternity & Womens Health Care, 11th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A new mother asks the nurse when the soft spot on her sons head will go away. What is the nurses best response, based upon her understanding of when the anterior frontal closes?

a.

2 months

b.

8 months

c.

12 months

d.

18 months

ANS: D

The larger of the two fontanels, the anterior fontanel, closes by 18 months after birth. The posterior fontanel closes at 6 to 8 weeks. The remaining three options are too early for the anterior fontanel to close.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 367

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. The nurse is performing an initial assessment of a client in labor. What is the appropriate terminology for the relationship of the fetal body parts to one another?

a.

Lie

b.

Presentation

c.

Attitude

d.

Position

ANS: C

Attitude is the relationship of the fetal body parts to one another. Lie is the relationship of the long axis (spine) of the fetus to the long axis (spine) of the mother. Presentation refers to the part of the fetus that enters the pelvic inlet first and leads through the birth canal during labor at term. Position is the relationship of the presenting part of the fetus to the four quadrants of the mothers pelvis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 369

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. When assessing the fetus using Leopolds maneuvers, the nurse feels a round, firm, and movable fetal part in the fundal portion of the uterus and a long, smooth surface in the mothers right side close to midline. What is the position of the fetus?

a.

ROA

b.

LSP

c.

RSA

d.

LOA

ANS: C

Fetal position is denoted with a three-letter abbreviation. The first letter indicates the presenting part in either the right or the left side of the maternal pelvis. The second letter indicates the anatomic presenting part of the fetus. The third letter stands for the location of the presenting part in relationship to the anterior, posterior, or transverse portion of the maternal pelvis. Palpation of a round, firm fetal part in the fundal portion of the uterus would be the fetal head, indicating that the fetus is in a breech position with the sacrum as the presenting part in the maternal pelvis. Palpation of the fetal spine along the mothers right side denotes the location of the presenting part in the mothers pelvis. The ability to palpate the fetal spine indicates that the fetus is anteriorly positioned in the maternal pelvis. This fetus is anteriorly positioned in the right side of the maternal pelvis with the sacrum as the presenting part. RSA is the correct three-letter abbreviation to indicate this fetal position. ROA denotes a fetus that is anteriorly positioned in the right side of the maternal pelvis with the occiput as the presenting part. LSP describes a fetus that is posteriorly positioned in the left side of the pelvis with the sacrum as the presenting part. A fetus that is LOA would be anteriorly positioned in the left side of the pelvis with the occiput as the presenting part.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 370

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. Which statement by the client would lead the nurse to believe that labor has been established?

a.

I passed some thick, pink mucus when I urinated this morning.

b.

My bag of waters just broke.

c.

The contractions in my uterus are getting stronger and closer together.

d.

My baby dropped, and I have to urinate more frequently now.

ANS: C

Regular, strong contractions with the presence of cervical change indicate that the woman is experiencing true labor. Although the loss of the mucous plug (operculum) often occurs during the first stage of labor or before the onset of labor, it is not the indicator of true labor. Spontaneous rupture of membranes often occurs during the first stage of labor; however, it is not an indicator of true labor. The presenting part of the fetus typically becomes engaged in the pelvis at the onset of labor but is not the indicator of true labor.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 376

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. The nurse has received a report regarding a client in labor. The womans last vaginal examination was recorded as 3 cm, 30%, and 2. What is the nurses interpretation of this assessment?

a.

Cervix is effaced 3 cm and dilated 30%; the presenting part is 2 cm above the ischial spines.

b.

Cervix is dilated 3 cm and effaced 30%; the presenting part is 2 cm above the ischial spines.

c.

Cervix is effaced 3 cm and dilated 30%; the presenting part is 2 cm below the ischial spines.

d.

Cervix is dilated 3 cm and effaced 30%; the presenting part is 2 cm below the ischial spines.

ANS: B

The sterile vaginal examination is recorded as centimeters of cervical dilation, percentage of cervical dilation, and the relationship of the presenting part to the ischial spines (either above or below). For this woman, the cervix is dilated 3 cm and effaced 30%, and the presenting part is 2 cm above the ischial spines. The first interpretation of this vaginal examination is incorrect; the cervix is dilated 3 cm and is 30% effaced. However, the presenting part is correct at 2 cm above the ischial spines. The remaining two interpretations of this vaginal examination are incorrect. Although the dilation and effacement are correct at 3 cm and 30%, the presenting part is actually 2 cm above the ischial spines.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehend REF: p. 370 | pp. 373-374

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment | Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A pregnant woman is at 38 weeks of gestation. She wants to know whether there are any signs that labor is getting close to starting. Which finding is an indication that labor may begin soon?

a.

Weight gain of 1.5 to 2 kg (3 to 4 lb)

b.

Increase in fundal height

c.

Urinary retention

d.

Surge of energy

ANS: D

Women speak of having a burst of energy before labor. The woman may lose 0.5 to 1.5 kg, as a result of water loss caused by electrolyte shifts that, in turn, are caused by changes in the estrogen and progesterone levels. When the fetus descends into the true pelvis (called lightening), the fundal height may decrease. Urinary frequency may return before labor.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 376 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. Which stage of labor varies the most in length?

a.

First

b.

Second

c.

Third

d.

Fourth

ANS: A

The first stage of labor is considered to last from the onset of regular uterine contractions to the full dilation of the cervix. The first stage is significantly longer than the second and third stages combined. In a first-time pregnancy, the first stage of labor can take up to 20 hours. The second stage of labor lasts from the time the cervix is fully dilated to the birth of the fetus. The average length is 20 minutes for a multiparous woman and 50 minutes for a nulliparous woman. The third stage of labor lasts from the birth of the fetus until the placenta is delivered. This stage may be as short as 3 minutes or as long as 1 hour. The fourth stage of labor, recovery, lasts approximately 2 hours after the delivery of the placenta.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 376 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. The nurse expects which maternal cardiovascular finding during labor?

a.

Increased cardiac output

b.

Decreased pulse rate

c.

Decreased white blood cell (WBC) count

d.

Decreased blood pressure

ANS: A

During each contraction, 400 ml of blood is emptied from the uterus into the maternal vascular system, which increases cardiac output by approximately 10% to 15% during the first stage of labor and by approximately 30% to 50% in the second stage of labor. The heart rate increases slightly during labor. The WBC count can increase during labor. During the first stage of labor, uterine contractions cause systolic readings to increase by approximately 10 mm Hg. During the second stage, contractions may cause systolic pressures to increase by 30 mm Hg and diastolic readings to increase by 25 mm Hg.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 379 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. What is the correct term describing the slight overlapping of cranial bones or shaping of the fetal head during labor?

a.

Lightening

b.

Molding

c.

Ferguson reflex

d.

Valsalva maneuver

ANS: B

Molding also permits adaptation to various diameters of the maternal pelvis. Lightening is the mothers sensation of decreased abdominal distention, which usually occurs the week before labor. The Ferguson reflex is the contraction urge of the uterus after the stimulation of the cervix. The Valsalva maneuver describes conscious pushing during the second stage of labor.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 367

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Which presentation is accurately described in terms of both the resenting part and the frequency of occurrence?

a.

Cephalic: occiput, at least 96%

b.

Breech: sacrum, 10% to 15%

c.

Shoulder: scapula, 10% to 15%

d.

Cephalic: cranial, 80% to 85%

ANS: A

In cephalic presentations (head first), the presenting part is the occiput; this presentation occurs in 96% of births. In a breech birth, the sacrum emerges first; this presentation occurs in approximately 3% of births. In shoulder presentations, the scapula emerges first; this presentation occurs in only 1% of births. In a cephalic presentation, the part of the head or cranium that emerges first is the occiput; cephalic presentations occur in 96% of births.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 368 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. A labor and delivery nurse should be cognizant of which information regarding how the fetus moves through the birth canal?

a.

Fetal attitude describes the angle at which the fetus exits the uterus.

b.

Of the two primary fetal lies, the horizontal lie is that in which the long axis of the fetus is parallel to the long axis of the mother.

c.

Normal attitude of the fetus is called general flexion.

d.

Transverse lie is preferred for vaginal birth.

ANS: C

The normal attitude of the fetus is called general flexion. The fetal attitude is the relationship of the fetal body parts to each one another. The horizontal lie is perpendicular to the mother; in the longitudinal (or vertical) lie, the long axes of the fetus and the mother are parallel. Vaginal birth cannot occur if the fetus stays in a transverse lie.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 369 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. A womans position is an important component of the labor progress. Which guidance is important for the nurse to provide to the laboring client?

a.

The supine position, which is commonly used in the United States, increases blood flow.

b.

The laboring client positioned on her hands and knees (all fours position) is hard on the womans back.

c.

Frequent changes in position help relieve fatigue and increase the comfort of the laboring client.

d.

In a sitting or squatting position, abdominal muscles of the laboring client will have to work harder.

ANS: C

Frequent position changes relieve fatigue, increase comfort, and improve circulation. Blood flow can be compromised in the supine position; any upright position benefits cardiac output. The all fours position is used to relieve backache in certain situations. In a sitting or squatting position, the abdominal muscles work in greater harmony with uterine contractions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 375

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning | Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. Certain changes stimulate chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid bodies to prepare the fetus for initiating respirations immediately after birth. Which change in fetal physiologic activity is not part of this process?

a.

Fetal lung fluid is cleared from the air passages during labor and vaginal birth.

b.

Fetal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) decreases.

c.

Fetal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) increases.

d.

Fetal respiratory movements increase during labor.

ANS: D

Fetal respiratory movements actually decrease during labor. Fetal lung fluid is cleared from the air passages during labor and vaginal birth. Fetal PO2 decreases, and fetal PaCO2 increases.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 379

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. Which description of the four stages of labor is correct for both the definition and the duration?

a.

First stage: onset of regular uterine contractions to full dilation; less than 1 hour to 20 hours

b.

Second stage: full effacement to 4 to 5 cm; visible presenting part; 1 to 2 hours

c.

Third stage: active pushing to birth; 20 minutes (multiparous woman), 50 minutes (nulliparous woman)

d.

Fourth stage: delivery of the placenta to recovery; 30 minutes to 1 hour

ANS: A

Full dilation may occur in less than 1 hour, but in first-time pregnancies full dilation can take up to 20 hours. The second stage of labor extends from full dilation to birth and takes an average of 20 to 50 minutes, although 2 hours is still considered normal. The third stage of labor extends from birth to the expulsion of the placenta and usually takes a few minutes. The fourth stage begins after the expulsion of the placenta and lasts until homeostasis is reestablished (approximately 2 hours).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: pp. 376-377 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. Nurses should be cognizant of what regarding the mechanism of labor?

a.

Seven critical movements must progress in a more or less orderly sequence.

b.

Asynclitism is sometimes achieved by means of the Leopolds maneuver.

c.

Effects of the forces determining descent are modified by the shape of the womans pelvis and the size of the fetal head.

d.

At birth, the baby is said to achieve restitution; that is, a return to the C-shape of the womb.

ANS: C

The size of the maternal pelvis and the ability of the fetal head to mold also affect the process. The seven identifiable movements of the mechanism of labor simultaneously occur in combinations, not in precise sequences. Asynclitism is the deflection of the babys head; the Leopolds maneuver is a means of judging descent by palpating the mothers abdomen. Restitution is the rotation of the babys head after the infant is born.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 377

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning | Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Which statement related to fetal positioning during labor is correct and important for the nurse to understand?

a.

Position is a measure of the degree of descent of the presenting part of the fetus through the birth canal.

b.

Birth is imminent when the presenting part is at +4 to +5 cm below the spine.

c.

The largest transverse diameter of the presenting part is the suboccipitobregmatic diameter.

d.

Engagement is the term used to describe the beginning of labor.

ANS: B

The station of the presenting part should be noted at the beginning of labor to determine the rate of descent. Position is the relationship of the presenting part of the fetus to the four quadrants of the mothers pelvis; station is the measure of degree of descent. The largest diameter is usually the biparietal diameter. The suboccipitobregmatic diameter is the smallest, although one of the most critical. Engagement often occurs in the weeks just before labor in nulliparous women and before or during labor in multiparous women.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 370

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Which basic type of pelvis includes the correct description and percentage of occurrence in women?

a.

Gynecoid: classic female pelvis; heart shaped; 75%

b.

Android: resembling the male pelvis; wide oval; 15%

c.

Anthropoid: resembling the pelvis of the ape; narrow; 10%

d.

Platypelloid: flattened, wide, and shallow pelvis; 3%

ANS: D

A platypelloid pelvis is flattened, wide, and shallow; approximately 3% of women have this shape. The gynecoid pelvis is the classic female shape, slightly ovoid and rounded; approximately 50% of women have this shape. An android or malelike pelvis is heart shaped; approximately 23% of women have this shape. An anthropoid or apelike pelvis is oval and wide; approximately 24% of women have this shape.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 374

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. What is the nurses understanding of the appropriate role of primary and secondary powers?

a.

Primary powers are responsible for the effacement and dilation of the cervix.

b.

Effacement is generally well ahead of dilation in women giving birth for the first time; they are closer together in subsequent pregnancies.

c.

Scarring of the cervix caused by a previous infection or surgery may make the delivery a bit more painful, but it should not slow or inhibit dilation.

d.

Pushing in the second stage of labor is more effective if the woman can breathe deeply and control some of her involuntary needs to push, as the nurse directs.

ANS: A

The primary powers are responsible for dilation and effacement; secondary powers are concerned with expulsion of the fetus. Effacement is generally well ahead of dilation in first-time pregnancies; they are closer together in subsequent pregnancies. Scarring of the cervix may slow dilation. Pushing is more effective and less fatiguing when the woman begins to push only after she has the urge to do so.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 372 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. Which statement regarding the care of a client in labor is correct and important to the nurse as he or she formulates the plan of care?

a.

The womans blood pressure will increase during contractions and fall back to prelabor normal levels between contractions.

b.

The use of the Valsalva maneuver is encouraged during the second stage of labor to relieve fetal hypoxia.

c.

Having the woman point her toes will reduce leg cramps.

d.

Endogenous endorphins released during labor will raise the womans pain threshold and produce sedation.

ANS: D

The endogenous endorphins released during labor will raise the womans pain threshold and produce sedation. In addition, physiologic anesthesia of the perineal tissues, caused by the pressure of the presenting part, decreases the mothers perception of pain. Blood pressure levels increase during contractions but remain somewhat elevated between them. The use of the Valsalva maneuver is discouraged during the second stage labor because of a number of unhealthy outcomes, including fetal hypoxia. Pointing the toes can cause leg cramps, as can the process of labor itself.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 380 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. Which adaptation of the maternal-fetal exchange of oxygen occurs in response to uterine contraction?

a.

The maternal-fetal exchange of oxygen and waste products continues except when placental functions are reduced.

b.

This maternal-fetal exchange increases as the blood pressure decreases.

c.

It diminishes as the spiral arteries are compressed.

d.

This exchange of oxygen and waste products is not significantly affected by contractions.

ANS: C

Uterine contractions during labor tend to decrease circulation through the spiral electrodes and subsequent perfusion through the intervillous space. The maternal blood supply to the placenta gradually stops with contractions. The exchange of oxygen and waste products decreases. The exchange of oxygen and waste products is affected by contractions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 379

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. Which statement is the best rationale for assessing the maternal vital signs between uterine contractions?

a.

During a contraction, assessing the fetal heart rate is the priority.

b.

Maternal circulating blood volume temporarily increases during contractions.

c.

Maternal blood flow to the heart is reduced during contractions.

d.

Vital signs taken during contractions are not accurate.

ANS: B

During uterine contractions, blood flow to the placenta temporarily stops, causing a relative increase in the mothers blood volume, which, in turn, temporarily increases blood pressure and slows the pulse. Monitoring fetal responses to the contractions is important; however, this question concerns the maternal vital signs. Maternal blood flow is increased during a contraction. Vital signs are altered by contractions but are considered accurate for that period.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 379

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22. What is the primary difference between the labor of a nullipara and that of a multipara?

a.

Amount of cervical dilation

b.

Total duration of labor

c.

Level of pain experienced

d.

Sequence of labor mechanisms

ANS: B

In a first-time pregnancy, the descent is usually slow but steady; in subsequent pregnancies, the descent is more rapid, resulting in a shorter duration of labor. Cervical dilation is the same for all labors. The level of pain is individual to the woman, not to the number of labors she has experienced. The sequence of labor mechanisms is the same with all labors.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 378

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. Which nursing assessment indicates that a woman who is in second-stage labor is almost ready to give birth?

a.

Fetal head is felt at 0 station during the vaginal examination.

b.

Bloody mucous discharge increases.

c.

Vulva bulges and encircles the fetal head.

d.

Membranes rupture during a contraction.

ANS: C

During the active pushing (descent) phase, the woman has strong urges to bear down as the presenting part of the fetus descends and presses on the stretch receptors of the pelvic floor. The vulva stretches and begins to bulge, encircling the fetal head. Birth of the head occurs when the station is +4. A 0 station indicates engagement. Bloody show occurs throughout the labor process and is not an indication of an imminent birth. Rupture of membranes can occur at any time during the labor process and does not indicate an imminent birth.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: pp. 376-377

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. Nurses can help their clients by keeping them informed about the distinctive stages of labor. Which description of the phases of the first stage of labor is accurate?

a.

Latent: Mild, regular contractions; no dilation; bloody show; duration of 2 to 4 hours

b.

Active: Moderate, regular contractions; 4- to 7-cm dilation; duration of 3 to 6 hours

c.

Lull: No contractions; dilation stable; duration of 20 to 60 minutes

d.

Transition: Very strong but irregular contractions; 8- to 10-cm dilation; duration of 1 to 2 hours

ANS: B

The active phase is characterized by moderate, regular contractions; 4- to 7-cm dilation; and a duration of 3 to 6 hours. The latent phase is characterized by mild-to-moderate and irregular contractions; dilation up to 3 cm; brownish-to-pale pink mucus, and a duration of 6 to 8 hours. No official lull phase exists in the first stage. The transition phase is characterized by strong- to-very strong and regular contractions; 8- to 10-cm dilation; and a duration of 20 to 40 minutes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 376 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which changes take place in the womans reproductive system, days or even weeks before the commencement of labor? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Lightening

b.

Exhaustion

c.

Bloody show

d.

Rupture of membranes

e.

Decreased fetal movement

ANS: A, C, D

Signs that precede labor may include lightening, urinary frequency, backache, weight loss, surge of energy, bloody show, and rupture of membranes. Many women experience a burst of energy before labor. A decrease in fetal movement is an ominous sign that does not always correlate with labor.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 376

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning | Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which factors influence cervical dilation? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Strong uterine contractions

b.

Force of the presenting fetal part against the cervix

c.

Size of the woman

d.

Pressure applied by the amniotic sac

e.

Scarring of the cervix

ANS: A, B, D, E

Dilation of the cervix occurs by the drawing upward of the musculofibrous components of the

cervix, which is caused by strong uterine contractions. Pressure exerted by the amniotic fluid while the membranes are intact or by the force applied by the presenting part can also promote cervical dilation. Scarring of the cervix as a result of a previous infection or surgery may slow cervical dilation. Pelvic size or the size of the woman does not affect cervical dilation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 374 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. At least five factors affect the process of labor and birth. These are easily remembered as the five Ps. Which factors are included in this process? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Passenger

b.

Passageway

c.

Powers

d.

Pressure

e.

Psychologic response

ANS: A, B, C, E

The five Ps are passenger (fetus and placenta), passageway (birth canal), powers (contractions), position of the mother, and psychologic response. Pressure is not one of the five Ps.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 367

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. Because of its size and rigidity, the fetal head has a major effect on the birth process. Which bones comprise the structure of the fetal skull? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Parietal

b.

Temporal

c.

Fontanel

d.

Occipital

e.

Femoral

ANS: A, B, D

The fetal skull has two parietal bones, two temporal bones, an occipital bone, and a frontal bone. The fontanels are membrane-filled spaces.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 367

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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