Chapter 16: Endocrine System Disorders My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 16: Endocrine System Disorders

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What kind of control mechanism is indicated when increased blood glucose levels stimulate increased secretion of insulin?

a.

Control by releasing hormones

b.

Control by tropic hormones

c.

Negative feedback control

d.

Hypothalamus/hypophysis coordination

ANS: C REF: 403-404

2. What is the most common cause of endocrine disorders?

a.

Malignant neoplasm

b.

Infection

c.

Congenital defect

d.

Benign tumor

ANS: D REF: 406

3. Choose the statement that applies to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

a.

Onset often occurs during childhood.

b.

Relative insufficiency of insulin or insulin resistance develops.

c.

It can be treated by diet, weight control and exercise, or oral hypoglycemics.

d.

Complications rarely occur.

ANS: A REF: 406

4. Why does polyuria develop with diabetes mellitus?

a.

Increased thirst and hypoglycemia

b.

Ketoacidosis

c.

Osmotic pressure due to glucose

d.

Diabetic nephropathy

ANS: C REF: 407

5. What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?

a.

Excess insulin in the body

b.

Loss of glucose in the urine

c.

Failure of the kidney to excrete sufficient acids

d.

Increased catabolism of fats and proteins

ANS: D REF: 408

6. What is a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis?

a.

Skipping a meal

b.

Anorexia

c.

Serious infection

d.

Insulin overdose

ANS: C REF: 410

7. Which of the following may cause insulin shock to develop?

a.

Strenuous exercise

b.

Missing an insulin dose

c.

Eating excessively large meals

d.

Sedentary lifestyle

ANS: A REF: 409

8. Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?

a.

Deep, rapid respirations

b.

Flushed dry skin and mucosa

c.

Thirst and oliguria

d.

Staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion

ANS: D REF: 409

9. Which of the following are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person?

a.

Pale moist skin

b.

Thirst and poor skin turgor

c.

Deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor

d.

Tremors and strong rapid pulse

ANS: C REF: 410

10. Immediate treatment for insulin shock may include:

a.

administration of bicarbonates.

b.

consumption of fruit juice or candy.

c.

induced vomiting.

d.

consumption of large amounts of water.

ANS: B REF: 409

11. What causes loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis?

a.

Toxic effects of excessive insulin

b.

Excessive glucose in the blood

c.

Metabolic acidosis

d.

Lack of glucose in brain cells

ANS: C REF: 411

12. Which of the following does NOT usually develop as a complication of diabetes?

a.

Osteoporosis

b.

Nephropathy

c.

Impotence

d.

Peripheral neuropathy

ANS: A REF: 412-413

13. How do many oral hypoglycemic drugs act?

a.

To replace insulin in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

b.

To transport glucose into body cells

c.

To prevent gluconeogenesis

d.

To stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin

ANS: D REF: 409

14. Diabetes may cause visual impairment through damage to the lens; this is referred to as:

a.

cataracts.

b.

macular degeneration.

c.

myopia.

d.

strabismus.

ANS: A REF: 415

15. Which of the following applies to diabetic macro-angiography?

1. It affects the small arteries and arterioles.

2. It is related to elevated serum lipids.

3. It leads to increased risk of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease.

4. It frequently causes damage to the kidneys.

a.

1, 3

b.

1, 4

c.

2, 3

d.

2, 4

ANS: C REF: 412

16. Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?

a.

Necrosis and gangrene in the feet and legs

b.

Lack of glucose to the cells in the feet and legs

c.

Severe dehydration in the tissues

d.

Elevated blood glucose increasing blood viscosity

ANS: A REF: 412

17. A type of diabetes that may develop during pregnancy and disappear after delivery is called:

a.

temporary maternal diabetes.

b.

fetal diabetes.

c.

acute developmental diabetes.

d.

gestational diabetes.

ANS: D REF: 407

18. Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?

a.

Type 1 diabetic patients

b.

Type 2 diabetic patients

c.

Patients with a poor stress response

d.

Patients with a regular exercise and meal plan

ANS: A REF: 406

19. Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addisons disease?

a.

Increased glucocorticoids

b.

Decreased glucocorticoids

c.

Deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

d.

Deficit of T3 and T4

ANS: B REF: 423

20. Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?

a.

Increased glucocorticoids

b.

Decreased glucocorticoids

c.

Deficit of ADH

d.

Deficit of T3 and T4

ANS: D REF: 422

21. Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?

a.

Increased insulin

b.

Decreased glucocorticoids

c.

Deficit of ADH

d.

Deficit of T3 and T4

ANS: C REF: 407

22. What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?

a.

Hypocalcemia

b.

Tetany

c.

Bone demineralization

d.

Deficit of vitamin D

ANS: C REF: 416

23. What is caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism?

1. Skeletal muscle twitching or spasm

2. Weak cardiac contraction

3. Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)

4. Decreased serum phosphate level

a.

1, 2

b.

1, 3

c.

2, 3

d.

3, 4

ANS: A REF: 415

24. Which of the following applies to acromegaly?

a.

It occurs in infants and children.

b.

It causes excessive longitudinal bone growth.

c.

It results from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH).

d.

It does not change soft tissue growth.

ANS: C REF: 416

25. Which of the following may cause goiter?

1. Hyperthyroidism

2. Hypothyroidism

3. Lack of iodine in the diet

4. Pheochromocytoma

a.

1, 4

b.

2, 3

c.

1, 2, 3

d.

1, 2, 3, 4

ANS: C REF: 419

26. Which signs are typical of Graves disease?

a.

Facial puffiness, bradycardia, and lethargy

b.

Exophthalmos and tachycardia

c.

delayed physical and intellectual development

d.

Goiter and decreased basal metabolic rate (BMR)

ANS: B REF: 420

27. Characteristics of Cushings syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:

a.

Heavy body and round face

b.

Atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs

c.

Staring eyes with infrequent blinking

d.

Atrophy of the lymph nodes

ANS: C REF: 422-423

28. Which of the following is an effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?

a.

Decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland

b.

An increased inflammatory response to irritants

c.

Hypotension and poor circulation

d.

Increased number of hypersensitivity reactions

ANS: A REF: 422

29. Which of the following is an effect of Addisons disease?

a.

Elevated blood glucose levels

b.

High blood pressure

c.

Low serum potassium levels

d.

Poor stress response

ANS: D REF: 423

30. What is the most common cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus?

a.

Increased glucose production in the liver

b.

Destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction

c.

Increased resistance of body cells to insulin action

d.

Chronic obesity

ANS: B REF: 406

31. Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?

a.

Excess ketoacids displace glucose into the filtrate.

b.

Excess water in the filtrate draws more glucose into the urine.

c.

The amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit.

d.

Sufficient insulin is not available for glucose reabsorption.

ANS: C REF: 407

32. Which of the following are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma?

1. Persistent headaches

2. Hemianopia

3. Hypertension

4. Papilledema

a.

1, 4

b.

2, 3

c.

1, 2

d.

1, 3, 4

ANS: C REF: 422

33. Which of the following does NOT apply to inappropriate ADH syndrome?

a.

The cause is excess ADH secretion.

b.

Severe hyponatremia results.

c.

Excessive sodium is retained.

d.

Fluid retention increases.

ANS: C REF: 418

34. What is/are the effect(s) of thyrotoxic crisis?

a.

Hyperthermia and heart failure

b.

Hypotension and hypoglycemia

c.

Toxic goiter and hypometabolism

d.

Decreased stress response

ANS: A REF: 420

35. Which of the following conditions may precipitate or exacerbate hyperglycemia?

a.

Hypothyroidism

b.

Cushings disease

c.

Addisons disease

d.

Growth hormone deficit

ANS: B REF: 423

36. Which of the following conditions may cause immunosuppression?

a.

Graves disease

b.

Acromegaly

c.

Cushings disease

d.

Diabetes insipidus

ANS: C REF: 423

37. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC) more frequently develops in patients with:

a.

type 1 diabetes.

b.

type 2 diabetes.

c.

Graves disease.

d.

hyperparathyroidism.

ANS: B REF: 411

38. Which of the following is recommended for immediate treatment of hypoglycemic shock?

1. If conscious, immediately give sweet fruit juice, honey, candy, or sugar.

2. If unconscious, give nothing by mouth (require intravenous glucose 50%).

3. Treat immediately with insulin.

4. Give large quantity of clear fluids for shock.

a.

1, 2

b.

1, 3

c.

2, 3

d.

1, 3, 4

ANS: A REF: 410

39. All these tissues use glucose without the aid of insulin EXCEPT:

a.

liver.

b.

digestive system.

c.

exercising skeletal muscle.

d.

brain.

ANS: A REF: 406

40. Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes include which of the following?

a.

Type 1 diabetes weight gain is common, and type 2 weight loss often occurs.

b.

Type 1 diabetes leads to fewer complications than does type 2 diabetes.

c.

Type 1 diabetes may be controlled by adjusting dietary intake and exercise, but type 2 diabetes requires insulin replacement.

d.

Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in children and adolescents, and type 2 diabetes occurs more often in adults.

ANS: D REF: 406-407

41. Complications of diabetes mellitus include:

a.

peripheral neuropathy.

b.

frequent infections.

c.

cataracts.

d.

A, B, and C.

ANS: D REF: 412-413

42. Which of the following often causes hyperparathyroidism?

a.

A malignant tumor in the parathyroid glands

b.

End-stage renal failure

c.

Osteoporosis

d.

Radiation involving the thyroid gland and neck area

ANS: D REF: 416

43. Dwarfism is caused by:

a.

excessive levels of somatotropin (GH).

b.

a deficit of somatotropin (GH).

c.

excessive levels of insulin.

d.

excessive levels of parathyroid hormone.

ANS: B REF: 416

44. Which of the following results from a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

a.

Inappropriate ADH syndrome

b.

Gigantism

c.

Diabetes insipidus

d.

Myxedema

ANS: C REF: 418

45. Goiters occur more frequently in persons living in the:

a.

Great Lakes or mountainous regions.

b.

southwest United States.

c.

temperate regions.

d.

areas bordering the oceans.

ANS: A REF: 419

46. Which of the following is caused by Graves disease?

a.

Hypermetabolism

b.

Decreased size of thyroid gland

c.

Bradycardia and hypothermia

d.

Decreased blood levels of T3, T4, and TSH

ANS: A REF: 420

47. Goiters may be caused by:

a.

hypothyroid conditions only.

b.

either hypothyroid or hyperthyroid conditions.

c.

hyperthyroid conditions only.

d.

fungal infections such as candidiasis.

ANS: B REF: 419

48. Severe impairment of all aspects of growth and development, including difficulty feeding, mental retardation, and stunted skeletal growth, are associated with:

a.

myxedema.

b.

Cushings syndrome.

c.

diabetes insipidus.

d.

cretinism.

e.

Graves disease.

ANS: D REF: 422

49. A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine is called:

a.

pheochromocytoma.

b.

Cushings syndrome.

c.

Graves disease.

d.

Addisons disease.

ANS: A REF: 422

50. The anterior pituitary gland secretes all of the following hormones EXCEPT:

a.

prolactin (PRL).

b.

glucagon.

c.

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

d.

growth hormone (GH).

ANS: B REF: 403

51. Which of the following applies to oxytocin?

1. It stimulates contraction of the uterus after delivery.

2. It stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation.

3. It stimulates mammary gland production of milk.

4. It is released from the adenohypophysis.

a.

1, 2

b.

1, 4

c.

1, 3, 4

d.

1, 2, 3, 4

ANS: A REF: 404

52. Which of the following is a major function of the hormone norepinephrine?

a.

Inhibition of an excessive stress response

b.

Visceral and cutaneous vasoconstriction

c.

Increased force of heart contraction

d.

Vasodilation in skeletal muscle

ANS: B REF: 404

53. Early signs of hyperglycemia include polyphagia, which means:

a.

thirst.

b.

increased urine output.

c.

hunger.

d.

glucose in the urine.

ANS: C REF: 411

54. Which of the following hormones is involved in both the stress response and the anti-inflammatory response?

a.

Aldosterone

b.

Norepinephrine

c.

Thyroxine

d.

Cortisol

ANS: D REF: 404

55. Polydipsia occurs with diabetes mellitus when:

a.

lack of insulin causes hunger.

b.

ketone levels rise in the blood.

c.

polyuria causes dehydration.

d.

glucosuria causes ketoacidosis.

ANS: C REF: 407

56. Metabolic syndrome is marked by:

a.

abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism.

b.

periodic hypotension.

c.

deficit of glucagon.

d.

early onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

ANS: A REF: 407

57. Compensation mechanisms occurring in the early stage of diabetic ketoacidosis include:

a.

Kussmauls respirations.

b.

polydipsia.

c.

ketonuria.

d.

seizures.

ANS: A REF: 410

58. Which of the following may occur with a pituitary adenoma?

a.

Low blood pressure and bradycardia

b.

Headache and seizures

c.

Vomiting and diarrhea

d.

Loss of vision in one eye

ANS: B REF: 416

59. Which of the following may cause hypertension?

a.

Hypoparathyroidism

b.

Hypoglycemia

c.

Pheochromocytoma

d.

Addisons disease

ANS: C REF: 422

60. Catabolic effects of Cushings syndrome include:

a.

osteoporosis.

b.

hypertension.

c.

increased erythrocyte production.

d.

moon face and buffalo hump.

ANS: A REF: 423

61. Blood glucose levels are increased by:

1. glucocorticoids.

2. glucagon.

3. epinephrine.

4. norepinephrine.

5. parathyroid hormone (PTH)

a.

1, 2

b.

1, 2, 3

c.

2, 4, 5

d.

1, 3, 4, 5

ANS: B REF: 403

62. Which of the following are likely present in a patient immobilized for a long period of time?

a.

Hypocalcemia and low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels

b.

Hypocalcemia and high serum PTH levels

c.

Hypercalcemia and low serum PTH levels

d.

Hypercalcemia and high serum PTH levels

ANS: C REF: 416

63. Which of the following may cause high serum levels of parathyroid hormone?

a.

Hypoparathyroidism

b.

Chronic renal failure

c.

Hypercalcemia

d.

Adenoma in the thyroid gland

ANS: B REF: 416

64. Diabetic retinopathy results from:

a.

degeneration of large blood vessels supplying the eye.

b.

abnormal metabolism in the lens of the eye.

c.

neuropathy affecting the optic nerve.

d.

obstruction or rupture of retinal blood vessels.

ANS: D REF: 412

65. Why does hypocalcemia cause tetany?

a.

Skeletal muscle contractions are weaker.

b.

Nerves to skeletal muscle are more excitable.

c.

Calcium is not stored in skeletal muscle cells.

d.

Serum phosphate levels are low.

ANS: B REF: 415

Leave a Reply