Chapter 15- Medical Errors My Nursing Test Banks

 

1.

When describing the issue of medical errors in health care, which of the following would most likely be included?

A)

Medical errors received national attention with the passage of Medicare in 1965.

B)

Medication errors are the leading cause of adverse events in patients.

C)

The overwhelming majority of medical errors are the result of provider negligence.

D)

Most medical errors are the result of organization, system, or process failures.

Ans:

D

2.

A student is reviewing the literature involving benchmark studies related to medical errors. Which of the following would the student expect to find?

A)

Thomas, Studdert, Newhouse, et al., found that the more than one half of adverse events found could not be prevented.

B)

To Err Is Human reported that the elderly were at greatest risk for medication errors, experiencing harmful medication errors three times more often than children.

C)

To Err Is Human found that deaths due to medical errors in the United States could be considered the eighth leading cause of death in 1999.

D)

The July 2004 HealthGrades study found that medical-error statistics published by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had overestimated the problem by as much as 50%.

Ans:

C

3.

A nursing instructor is discussing the impact of the IOMs report, To Err Is Human. Which of the following would the instructor most likely include in the discussion?

A)

Received little press at the time it was published but became the seminal work on medical errors by the year 2005

B)

Resulted in U.S. Senate and House hearings on the issue within weeks of the reports release

C)

Garnered immediate national attention but was fairly ineffective as a catalyst for promoting long-term change

D)

Was of limited value to consumers because it was written at a level appropriate only for the scientific and academic communities of interest

Ans:

B

4.

A group of students is reviewing for an examination on medical errors in health care. The students demonstrate understanding of the information when they identify which of the following as part of the IOMs four-pronged approach to reducing medical errors?

A)

Progressive disciplinary consequences for employees who made errors

B)

Decreasing the responsibility of oversight organizations, group purchasers, and professional groups and transferring it to health care organizations themselves

C)

Identifying and learning from medical errors through both mandatory and voluntary reporting systems

D)

Closing hospitals and health care practices that had more than twice the average number of medical errors

Ans:

C

5.

A health care institution is reviewing process performance using a Six Sigma approach for safety management. The process having which sigma would show the best performance?

A)

2

B)

3

C)

4

D)

5

Ans:

D

6.

A nurse is reviewing research related to the effects of fully disclosing a medical error. Which of the following would the nurse be most likely to find?

A)

Reduced likelihood of a lawsuit

B)

Increase in change in physician

C)

Decreased patient satisfaction

D)

Decreased physician trust

Ans:

A

7.

Which of the following best reflects the actions of most health care providers related to medical errors?

A)

Report all of the medical errors they make or are aware of to their employer but not to the patients or families involved

B)

Report all of the medical errors they make or are aware of to the patients or families involved in accordance with professional ethical guidelines

C)

Are reluctant to report errors to their employer, patients, or families for fear of legal liability and/or disciplinary action

D)

Appropriately hide medical errors from patients and families to reduce the legal liability of their employer

Ans:

C

8.

To move from a culture of blame to one of safety management will require

A)

Legal protections for medical error reporting to prevent voluntarily shared information from being subpoenaed or used in legal discovery.

B)

Increasingly severe disciplinary penalties for employees who commit errors that harm patients.

C)

That each employee keep a portfolio documenting errors he or she has made for review at his or her annual performance appraisal.

D)

That organizations keep their quality-control data confidential so as not to unduly alarm consumers.

Ans:

A

9.

An in-service instructor is preparing a presentation for a group of staff nurses about reducing medical errors. The instructor is planning to describe The Leapfrog Group. Which of the following would the instructor expect to include?

A)

Is the leading producer of software products in the United States directed at reducing the incidence of medical errors

B)

Has endorsed the use of computerized physician/provider order entry to assist in reducing medical errors

C)

Has suggested that quality of care in hospital intensive care units would improve if patients were cared for by their own personal physician

D)

Is an elite group of hospitals who have made safety management organization-wide, comprehensive, pervasive, and visible

Ans:

B

10.

Which of the following strategies would likely be most proactive in reducing the number of medical errors in an organization?

A)

Development of a systems approach to medical errors that examines all causes of failure, including components, subsystems, processes, interactions, and functions

B)

Development of a standardized form for all employees to use in reporting medical errors and mandate its use for all types of errors

C)

Hiring of a quality-management team to investigate errors that are made and educate staff regarding how to avoid repeating those same errors

D)

Purchasing of the latest technology available to complete patient care tasks and train staff how to use that technology

Ans:

A

11.

A group of students is reviewing information in preparation for a test on the various national committees and groups formed to address the IOMs goals. The students demonstrate understanding of the information when they identify which of the following as being responsible for creating a list of serious reportable events?

A)

Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act of 2001

B)

National Quality Forum

C)

Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force

D)

The National Patient Safety Foundation

Ans:

B

12.

Which of the following terms would be used to identify an injury occurring to a patient resulting from treatment?

A)

Medical error

B)

Medication error

C)

Adverse event

D)

Sentinel event

Ans:

C

13.

A review of the results of the study of medical errors by HealthGrades in 2004 would reveal which of the following as least commonly associated with patient safety incidents (PSIs)?

A)

Failure to rescue

B)

Pressure ulcer

C)

Postoperative sepsis

D)

Accidental needle stick

Ans:

D

14.

Which of the following would a hospitals interdisciplinary team most likely use to identify steps in the care process that might lead to error?

A)

Failure mode and effects analysis

B)

Root-cause analysis

C)

Sentinel-event reporting

D)

Quality-based purchasing

Ans:

A

15.

After teaching a group of nursing students about the National Patient Safety Goals for Hospitals, the instructor determines that the students need additional teaching when they identify which of the following as a goal?

A)

Improved patient-identification accuracy

B)

Reduced risk of health careassociated infections

C)

Increased patient passivity in own care

D)

Reduced risk of harm due to falls

Ans:

C

16.

Based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), Medicare will no longer reimburse for care related to which of the following if acquired in a hospital?

A)

Myocardial infarction due to coronary artery disease

B)

Urinary tract infection from a catheter

C)

Peritonitis from a ruptured appendix

D)

Fracture due to motor vehicle accident

Ans:

B

17.

When describing the use of mandatory report cards, which of the following would be most appropriate?

A)

They are fairly standard in the way that information is reported.

B)

Most provide information about the quality of care by specific groups.

C)

Similar data ratings are received regardless of the type of report card used.

D)

Most focus on the use of service data and patient satisfaction ratings.

Ans:

D

18.

When describing the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005, which of the following would be most appropriate to include?

A)

It was the first legislation passed to require bar-coding technology for patient identification and medication administration.

B)

The act provided legal protections for medical-error reporting including confidential treatment of information.

C)

It mandated the necessity for evidence-based hospital referrals for patients with high-risk conditions.

D)

It required that patients in intensive-care units receive care by individuals called intensivistswho are familiar with ICU complications.

Ans:

B

19.

A nurse is working on a hospital committee to reduce medical errors. The committee is planning to implement the concept of a just culture. Which of the following would be necessary to include?

A)

Use of negative feedback

B)

Judgmental assessment of events

C)

Rewards for error reporting

D)

Simplistic view of the situation

Ans:

C

20.

Which of the following best reflects a basic belief of the National Patient Safety Foundation?

A)

The system of health care is infallible.

B)

Patient safety is central to quality health care.

C)

Limited patient involvement in learning is required.

D)

Closed communication leads to continued improvement.

Ans:

B

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