Chapter 15: Maternal and Fetal Nutrition My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 15: Maternal and Fetal Nutrition

Lowdermilk: Maternity & Womens Health Care, 11th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which nutrients recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is higher during lactation than during pregnancy?

a.

Energy (kcal)

b.

Iron

c.

Vitamin A

d.

Folic acid

ANS: A

Nutrient needs for energyprotein, calcium, iodine, zinc, B vitamins, and vitamin Cremain higher during lactation than during pregnancy. The need for iron is not higher during lactation than during pregnancy. A lactating woman does not have a greater requirement for vitamin A than a nonpregnant woman. Folic acid requirements are the highest during the first trimester of pregnancy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 364 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. A pregnant womans diet consists almost entirely of whole grain breads and cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Which dietary requirement is the nurse most concerned about?

a.

Calcium

b.

Protein

c.

Vitamin B12

d.

Folic acid

ANS: C

A pregnant womans diet is consistent with that followed by a strict vegetarian (vegan). Vegans consume only plant products. Because vitamin B12 is found in foods of animal origin, this diet is deficient in vitamin B12. Depending on the womans food choices, a pregnant womans diet may be adequate in calcium. Protein needs can be sufficiently met by a vegetarian diet. The nurse should be more concerned with the womans intake of vitamin B12 attributable to her dietary restrictions. Folic acid needs can be met by enriched bread products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 354

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. Which statement made by a lactating woman leads the nurse to believe that the client might have lactose intolerance?

a.

I always have heartburn after I drink milk.

b.

If I drink more than a cup of milk, I usually have abdominal cramps and bloating.

c.

Drinking milk usually makes me break out in hives.

d.

Sometimes I notice that I have bad breath after I drink a cup of milk.

ANS: B

Lactose intolerance, which is an inability to digest milk sugar because of a lack of the enzyme lactose in the small intestine, is a problem that interferes with milk consumption. Milk consumption may cause abdominal cramping, bloating, and diarrhea in such people, although many lactose-intolerant individuals can tolerate small amounts of milk without symptoms. A woman with lactose intolerance is more likely to experience bloating and cramping, not heartburn. A client who breaks out in hives after consuming milk is more likely to have a milk allergy and should be advised to simply brush her teeth after consuming dairy products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 353

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. A client states that she does not drink milk. Which foods should the nurse encourage this woman to consume in greater amounts to increase her calcium intake?

a.

Fresh apricots

b.

Canned clams

c.

Spaghetti with meat sauce

d.

Canned sardines

ANS: D

Sardines are rich in calcium. Fresh apricots, canned clams, and spaghetti with meat sauce are not high in calcium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 352 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. A 27-year-old pregnant woman had a preconceptual body mass index (BMI) of 19. What is this clients total recommended weight gain during pregnancy?

a.

20 kg (44 lb)

b.

16 kg (35 lb)

c.

12.5 kg (27.5 lb)

d.

10 kg (22 lb)

ANS: C

This woman has a normal BMI and should gain 11.5 to 16 kg during her pregnancy. A weight gain of 20 kg (44 lb) is unhealthy for most women; a weight gain of 16 kg (35 lb) is at the high end of the range of weight this woman should gain in her pregnancy; and a weight gain of 10 kg (22 lb) is appropriate for an obese woman. This woman has a normal BMI, which indicates that her weight is average.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 348 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A woman has come to the clinic for preconception counseling because she wants to start trying to get pregnant. Which guidance should she expect to receive?

a.

Discontinue all contraception now.

b.

Lose weight so that you can gain more during pregnancy.

c.

You may take any medications you have been regularly taking.

d.

Make sure you include adequate folic acid in your diet.

ANS: D

A healthy diet before conception is the best way to ensure that adequate nutrients are available for the developing fetus. A womans folate or folic acid intake is of particular concern in the periconception period. Neural tube defects are more common in infants of women with a poor folic acid intake. Depending on the type of contraception that she has been using, discontinuing all contraception at this time may not be appropriate. Advising this client to lose weight now so that she can gain more during pregnancy is also not appropriate advice. Depending on the type of medications the woman is taking, continuing to take them regularly may not be appropriate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 344 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. To prevent gastrointestinal (GI) upset, when should a pregnant client be instructed to take the recommended iron supplements?

a.

On a full stomach

b.

At bedtime

c.

After eating a meal

d.

With milk

ANS: B

Iron supplements taken at bedtime may reduce GI upset and should be taken at bedtime if abdominal discomfort occurs when iron supplements are taken between meals. Iron supplements are best absorbed if they are taken when the stomach is empty. Bran, tea, coffee, milk, and eggs may reduce absorption.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 361 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. After the nurse completes nutritional counseling for a pregnant woman, she asks the client to repeat the instructions to assess the clients understanding. Which statement indicates that the client understands the role of protein in her pregnancy?

a.

Protein will help my baby grow.

b.

Eating protein will prevent me from becoming anemic.

c.

Eating protein will make my baby have strong teeth after he is born.

d.

Eating protein will prevent me from being diabetic.

ANS: A

Protein is the nutritional element basic to growth. An adequate protein intake is essential to meeting the increasing demands of pregnancy. These demands arise from the rapid growth of the fetus; the enlargement of the uterus, mammary glands, and placenta; the increase in the maternal blood volume; and the formation of the amniotic fluid. Iron intake prevents anemia. Calcium intake is needed for fetal bone and tooth development. Glycemic control is needed in those with diabetes; protein is one nutritional factor to consider for glycemic control but not the primary role of protein intake.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: pp. 350-351 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. Pregnant adolescents are at greater risk for decreased BMI and fad dieting with which condition?

a.

Obesity

b.

Gestational diabetes

c.

Low-birth-weight babies

d.

High-birth-weight babies

ANS: C

Adolescents tend to have lower BMIs. In addition, the fetus and the still-growing mother appear to compete for nutrients. These factors, along with inadequate weight gain, lend themselves to a higher incidence of low-birth-weight babies. Obesity is associated with a higher-than-normal BMI. Unless the teenager has type 1 diabetes, an adolescent with a low BMI is less likely to develop gestational diabetes. High-birth-weight or large-for-gestational age (LGA) babies are most often associated with gestational diabetes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 356

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment | Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Maternal nutritional status is an especially significant factor of the many that influence the outcome of pregnancy. Why is this the case?

a.

Maternal nutritional status is extremely difficult to adjust because of an individuals ingrained eating habits.

b.

Adequate nutrition is an important preventive measure for a variety of problems.

c.

Women love obsessing about their weight and diets.

d.

A womans preconception weight becomes irrelevant.

ANS: B

Nutritional status draws so much attention not only for its effect on a healthy pregnancy and birth but also because significant changes are within relatively easy reach. Pregnancy is a time when many women are motivated to learn about adequate nutrition and make changes to their diet that will benefit their baby. Pregnancy is not the time to begin a weight loss diet. Clients and their caregivers should still be concerned with appropriate weight gain.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 344 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. With regard to weight gain during pregnancy, the nurse should be aware of which important information?

a.

In pregnancy, the womans height is not a factor in determining her target weight.

b.

Obese women may have their health concerns, but their risk of giving birth to a child with major congenital defects is the same as with women of normal weight.

c.

Women with inadequate weight gain have an increased risk of delivering a preterm infant with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

d.

Greater than expected weight gain during pregnancy is almost always attributable to old-fashioned overeating.

ANS: C

IUGR is associated with women with inadequate weight gain. The primary factor in making a weight gain recommendation is the appropriateness of the prepregnancy weight for the womans height. Obese women are twice as likely as women of normal weight to give birth to a child with major congenital defects. Overeating is only one of several likely causes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: pp. 347-348 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. Which nutritional recommendation regarding fluids is accurate?

a.

A womans daily intake should be six to eight glasses of water, milk, and/or juice.

b.

Coffee should be limited to no more than 2 cups, but tea and cocoa can be consumed without worry.

c.

Of the artificial sweeteners, only aspartame has not been associated with any maternity health concerns.

d.

Water with fluoride is especially encouraged because it reduces the childs risk of tooth decay.

ANS: A

Six to eight glasses is still the standard for fluids; however, they should be the right fluids. All beverages containing caffeine, including tea, cocoa, and some soft drinks, should be avoided or should be consumed only in limited amounts. Artificial sweeteners, including aspartame, have no ill effects on the normal mother or fetus. However, mothers with phenylketonuria (PKU) should avoid aspartame. Although no evidence indicates that prenatal fluoride consumption reduces childhood tooth decay, fluoride still helps the mother.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 352 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. Which minerals and vitamins are usually recommended as a supplement in a pregnant clients diet?

a.

Fat-soluble vitamins A and D

b.

Water-soluble vitamins C and B6

c.

Iron and folate

d.

Calcium and zinc

ANS: C

Iron should generally be supplemented, and folic acid supplements are often needed because folate is so important in pregnancy. Fat-soluble vitamins should be supplemented as a medical prescription, as vitamin D might be for lactose-intolerant women. Water-soluble vitamin C is sometimes naturally consumed in excess; vitamin B6 is prescribed only if the woman has a very poor diet; and zinc is sometimes supplemented. Most women get enough calcium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: pp. 344, 352 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. Which vitamins or minerals may lead to congenital malformations of the fetus if taken in excess by the mother?

a.

Zinc

b.

Vitamin D

c.

Folic acid

d.

Vitamin A

ANS: D

If taken in excess, vitamin A causes a number of problems. An analog of vitamin A appears in prescribed acne medications, which must not be taken during pregnancy. Zinc, vitamin D, and folic acid are all vital to good maternity and fetal health and are highly unlikely to be consumed in excess.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 354 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. While obtaining a diet history, the nurse might be told that the expectant mother has cravings for ice chips, cornstarch, and baking soda. Which nutritional problem does this behavior indicate?

a.

Preeclampsia

b.

Pyrosis

c.

Pica

d.

Purging

ANS: C

The consumption of foods low in nutritional value or of nonfood substances (e.g., dirt, laundry starch) is called pica. Preeclampsia is a vasospastic disease process encountered after 20 weeks of gestation. Characteristics of preeclampsia include increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and hemoconcentration. Pyrosis is a burning sensation in the epigastric region, otherwise known as heartburn. Purging refers to self-induced vomiting after consuming large quantities of food.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 355 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Assessment of a womans nutritional status includes a diet history, medication regimen, physical examination, and relevant laboratory tests. Which finding might require consultation to a higher level of care?

a.

Oral contraceptive use may interfere with the absorption of iron.

b.

Illnesses that have created nutritional deficits, such as PKU, may require nutritional care before conception.

c.

The womans socioeconomic status and educational level are not relevant to her examination; they are the province of the social worker.

d.

Testing for diabetes is the only nutrition-related laboratory test most pregnant women need.

ANS: B

A registered dietitian can help with therapeutic diets. Oral contraceptive use may interfere with the absorption of folic acid. Iron deficiency can appear if placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) results in blood loss. A womans finances can affect her access to good nutrition; her education (or lack thereof) can influence the nurses teaching decisions. The nutrition-related laboratory test that pregnant women usually need is a screen for anemia.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 356

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Which guidance might the nurse provide for a client with severe morning sickness?

a.

Trying lemonade and potato chips

b.

Drinking plenty of fluids early in the day

c.

Immediately brushing her teeth after eating

d.

Never snacking before bedtime

ANS: A

Interestingly, some women can tolerate tart or salty foods when they are nauseated. Lemonade and potato chips are an ideal combination. The woman should avoid drinking too much when nausea is most likely, but she should increase her fluid levels later in the day when she feels better. The woman should avoid brushing her teeth immediately after eating. A small snack of cereal and milk or yogurt before bedtime may help the stomach in the morning.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 362 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. Many clients are concerned about the increased levels of mercury in fish and may be reluctant to include this source of nutrients in their diet. What is the best advice for the nurse to provide?

a.

Canned white tuna is a preferred choice.

b.

Shark, swordfish, and mackerel should be avoided.

c.

Fish caught in local waterways is the safest.

d.

Salmon and shrimp contain high levels of mercury.

ANS: B

As a precaution, the pregnant client should avoid eating shark, swordfish, and mackerel, as well as the less common tilefish. High levels of mercury can harm the developing nervous system of the fetus. Assisting the client in understanding the differences between numerous sources of mercury is essential for the nurse. A pregnant client may eat as much as 12 ounces a week of canned light tuna; however, canned white, albacore, or tuna steaks contain higher levels of mercury and should be limited to no more than 6 ounces per week. Pregnant women and mothers of young children should check with local advisories about the safety of fish caught by families and friends in nearby bodies of water. If no information is available, then these fish sources should be avoided, limited to less than 6 ounces per week, or the only fish consumed that week. Commercially caught fish that is low in mercury includes salmon, shrimp, pollock, or catfish. The pregnant client may eat up to 12 ounces of commercially caught fish per week. Additional information on levels of mercury in commercially caught fish is available at www.cfsan.fda.gov.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 352 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. Nutrition is an alterable and important preventive measure for a variety of potential problems such as low birth weight and prematurity. While completing the physical assessment of the pregnant client, the nurse is able to evaluate the clients nutritional status by observing a number of physical signs. Which physical sign indicates to the nurse that the client has unmet nutritional needs?

a.

Normal heart rate, rhythm, and blood pressure

b.

Bright, clear, and shiny eyes

c.

Alert and responsive with good endurance

d.

Edema, tender calves, and tingling

ANS: D

The physiologic changes of pregnancy may complicate the interpretation of physical findings. Lower extremity edema often occurs when caloric and protein deficiencies are present; however, edema in the lower extremities may also be a common physical finding during the third trimester. Completing a thorough health history and physical assessment and requesting further laboratory testing, if indicated, are essential for the nurse. The malnourished pregnant client may display rapid heart rate, abnormal rhythm, enlarged heart, and elevated blood pressure. A client receiving adequate nutrition will have bright, shiny eyes with no sores and moist, pink membranes. Pale or red membranes, dryness, infection, dull appearance of the cornea, or blue sclerae are signs of poor nutrition. A client who is alert and responsive with good endurance is well nourished. A listless, cachectic, easily fatigued, and tired presentation would be an indication of a poor nutritional status.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 358

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. A pregnant woman reports that she is still playing tennis at 32 weeks of gestation. Which recommendation would the nurse make for this particular client after a tennis match?

a.

Drink several glasses of fluid.

b.

Eat extra protein sources such as peanut butter.

c.

Enjoy salty foods to replace lost sodium.

d.

Consume easily digested sources of carbohydrate.

ANS: A

If no medical or obstetric problems contraindicate physical activity, then pregnant women should get 30 minutes of moderate physical exercise daily. Liberal amounts of fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise because dehydration can trigger premature labor. The womans caloric intake should be sufficient to meet the increased needs of pregnancy and the demands of exercise.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 356 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. A woman in the 34th week of pregnancy reports that she is very uncomfortable because of heartburn. Which recommendation would be appropriate for this client?

a.

Substitute other calcium sources for milk in her diet.

b.

Lie down after each meal.

c.

Reduce the amount of fiber she consumes.

d.

Eat five small meals daily.

ANS: D

Eating small, frequent meals may help with heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Substituting other calcium sources for milk, lying down after eating, and reducing fiber intake are inappropriate dietary suggestions for all pregnant women and do not alleviate heartburn.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 362 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

22. Which information regarding protein in the diet of a pregnant woman is most helpful to the client?

a.

Many protein-rich foods are also good sources of calcium, iron, and B vitamins.

b.

Many women need to increase their protein intake during pregnancy.

c.

As with carbohydrates and fat, no specific recommendations exist for the amount of protein in the diet.

d.

High-protein supplements can be used without risk by women on macrobiotic diets.

ANS: A

Good sources for protein, such as meat, milk, eggs, and cheese, have a lot of calcium and iron. Most women already eat a high-protein diet and do not need to increase their intake. Protein is sufficiently important that specific servings of meat and dairy are recommended. High-protein supplements are not recommended because they have been associated with an increased incidence of preterm births.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 351 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

23. A client states that she plans to breastfeed her newborn infant. What guidance would be useful for this new mother?

a.

The mothers intake of vitamin C, zinc, and protein can now be lower than during pregnancy.

b.

Caffeine consumed by the mother accumulates in the infant, who may be unusually active and wakeful.

c.

Critical iron and folic acid levels must be maintained.

d.

Lactating women can go back to their prepregnant caloric intake.

ANS: B

A lactating woman needs to avoid consuming too much caffeine. Vitamin C, zinc, and protein levels need to be moderately higher during lactation than during pregnancy. The recommendations for iron and folic acid are lower during lactation. Lactating women should consume approximately 500 kcal more than their prepregnancy intake, at least 1800 kcal daily overall.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 365 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. The labor and delivery nurse is preparing a client who is severely obese (bariatric) for an elective cesarean birth. Which piece of specialized equipment will not likely be needed when providing care for this pregnant woman?

a.

Extra-long surgical instruments

b.

Wide surgical table

c.

Temporal thermometer

d.

Increased diameter blood pressure cuff

ANS: C

Obstetricians today are seeing an increasing number of morbidly obese pregnant women weighing 400, 500, and 600 pounds. To manage their conditions and to meet their logistical needs, a new medical subspecialty,bariatric obstetrics, has arisen. Extra-wide blood pressure cuffs, scales that can accommodate up to 880 pounds, and extra-wide surgical tables designed to hold the weight of these women are used. Special techniques for ultrasound examination and longer surgical instruments for cesarean birth are also required. A temporal thermometer can be used for a pregnant client of any size.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 345 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. Which pregnant woman should strictly follow weight gain recommendations during pregnancy?

a.

Pregnant with twins

b.

In early adolescence

c.

Shorter than 62 inches or 157 cm

d.

Was 20 pounds overweight before pregnancy

ANS: D

A weight gain of 5 to 9 kg will provide sufficient nutrients for the fetus. Overweight and obese women should be advised to lose weight before conception to achieve the best pregnancy outcomes. A higher weight gain in twin gestations may help prevent low birth weights. Adolescents need to gain weight toward the higher acceptable range, which provides for their own growth, as well as for fetal growth. In the past, women of short stature were advised to restrict their weight gain; however, evidence to support these guidelines has not been found.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 348

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26. The major source of nutrients in the diet of a pregnant woman should be composed of what?

a.

Simple sugars

b.

Fats

c.

Fiber

d.

Complex carbohydrates

ANS: D

Complex carbohydrates supply the pregnant woman with vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The most common simple carbohydrate is table sugar, which is a source of energy but does not provide any nutrients. Fats provide 9 kcal in each gram, in contrast to carbohydrates and proteins, which provide only 4 kcal in each gram. Fiber is primarily supplied by complex carbohydrates.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 361

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

27. A pregnant womans diet may not meet her increased need for folates. Which food is a rich source of this nutrient?

a.

Chicken

b.

Cheese

c.

Potatoes

d.

Green leafy vegetables

ANS: D

Sources of folates include green leafy vegetables, whole grains, fruits, liver, dried peas, and beans. Chicken and cheese are excellent sources of protein but are poor sources for folates. Potatoes contain carbohydrates and vitamins and minerals but are poor sources for folates.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 347

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. If a clients normal prepregnancy diet contains 45 g of protein daily, how many more grams of protein should she consume per day during pregnancy?

a.

5

b.

10

c.

25

d.

30

ANS: C

The recommended intake of protein for the pregnant woman is 70 g. Therefore, additional protein intakes of 5, 10, or 15 g would be inadequate to meet protein needs during pregnancy. A protein intake of 30 g is more than would be necessary and would add extra calories.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 351

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. Which action is the first priority for the nurse who is assessing the influence of culture on a clients diet?

a.

Evaluate the clients weight gain during pregnancy.

b.

Assess the socioeconomic status of the client.

c.

Discuss the four food groups with the client.

d.

Identify the food preferences and methods of food preparation common to the clients culture.

ANS: D

Understanding the clients food preferences and how she prepares food will assist the nurse in determining whether the clients culture is adversely affecting her nutritional intake. An evaluation of a clients weight gain during pregnancy should be included for all clients, not only for clients from different cultural backgrounds. The socioeconomic status of the client may alter the nutritional intake but not the cultural influence. Teaching the food groups to the client should come after assessing her food preferences.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 363

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

30. The nurse has formulated a diagnosis of Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements for the client. Which goal is most appropriate for this client to obtain?

a.

Gain a total of 30 pounds.

b.

Consistently take daily supplements.

c.

Decrease her intake of snack foods.

d.

Increase her intake of complex carbohydrates.

ANS: A

A weight gain of 30 pounds is one indication that the client has gained a sufficient amount for the nutritional needs of pregnancy. A daily supplement is not the best goal for this client and does not meet the basic need of proper nutrition during pregnancy. Decreasing snack foods may be needed and should be assessed; however, assessing weight gain is the best method of monitoring nutritional intake for this pregnant client. Although increasing the intake of complex carbohydrates is important for this client, monitoring the weight gain should be the end goal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 360 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31. Which action is the highest priority for the nurse when educating a pregnant adolescent?

a.

Emphasize the need to eliminate common teenage snack foods because they are high in fat and sodium.

b.

Determine the weight gain needed to meet adolescent growth, and add 35 pounds.

c.

Suggest that she not eat at fast-food restaurants to avoid foods of poor nutritional value.

d.

Realize that most adolescents are unwilling to make dietary changes during pregnancy.

ANS: B

Adolescents should gain in the upper range of the recommended weight gain. They also need to gain weight that would be expected for their own normal growth. Changes in the diet should be kept at a minimum. Snack foods can be included in moderation, and other foods can be added to make up for lost nutrients. Eliminating fast foods would make the adolescent appear different to her peers. The client should be taught to choose foods that add needed nutrients. Adolescents are willing to make changes; however, they still have the need to be similar to their peers.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 356

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Most women with uncomplicated pregnancies can use the nurse as their primary source for nutritional information. However, the nurse or midwife may need to refer a client to a registered dietitian for in-depth nutritional counseling. Which conditions would require such a consultation? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Preexisting or gestational illness such as diabetes

b.

Ethnic or cultural food patterns

c.

Obesity

d.

Vegetarian diets

e.

Multifetal pregnancy

ANS: A, B, C, D

The nurse should be especially aware that conditions such as diabetes can require in-depth dietary planning and evaluation. To prevent issues with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, as well as an increased risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality, the client with a preexisting or gestational illness would benefit from a referral to a dietitian. Consultation with a dietitian may ensure that cultural food beliefs are congruent with modern knowledge of fetal development and that adjustments can be made to ensure that all nutritional needs are met. The obese pregnant client may be under the misapprehension that, because of her excess weight, little or no weight gain is necessary. According to the Institute of Medicine, a client with a BMI in the obese range should gain at least 7 kg to ensure a healthy outcome. This client may require in-depth counseling on the optimal food choices. The vegetarian client needs to have her dietary intake carefully assessed to ensure that the optimal combination of amino acids and protein intake is achieved. Very strict vegetarians (vegans) who consume only plant products may also require vitamin B and mineral supplementation. A multifetal pregnancy can be managed by increasing the number of servings of complex carbohydrates and proteins.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: pp. 358-359

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity, Physiologic Adaptation

2. Foodborne illnesses can cause adverse effects for both mother and fetus. The nurse is in an ideal position to evaluate the clients knowledge regarding steps to prevent a foodborne illness. The nurse asks the client to teach back the fours simple steps of food preparation. What are they? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Purchase

b.

Clean

c.

Separate

d.

Cook

e.

Chill

ANS: B, C, D, E

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2013), the four simple steps are:

Clean: Frequently cleanse hands, food preparation surfaces, and utensils.

Separate: Avoid contact among raw meat, fish, or poultry and other foods that will not be cooked before consumption.

Cook: Cook foods to the proper temperature.

Chill: Properly store foods, and promptly refrigerate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 361

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

1. The BMI for a woman who is 51 kg before pregnancy and 1.57 m tall is _________.

ANS:

20.7

A commonly used method of evaluating the appropriateness of weight for height is the BMI, which is calculated by the following formula.

BMI = Weight in kg divided by the height in meters squared

BMI = 51 kg (1.57 m)2

51 2.47 = 20.69

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 348

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MATCHING

In providing counseling to pregnant women, the nurse can include information on the components of weight gain during pregnancy and the amount of weight that will be lost after the birth. Match the tissues contributing to maternal weight gain at 40 weeks of gestation with the approximate amount of weight gain in kilograms.

a.

0.5 to 1.8

b.

1.8 to 2.3

c.

3.2 to 3.9

d.

0.9

e.

0.9 to 1.1

1. Fetus

2. Placenta

3. Breast tissue

4. Amniotic fluid

5. Blood volume

1. ANS: C DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 349

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Other components of tissue that contribute to weight gain include: an increase in uterine tissue (0.9), increased tissue fluid (1.4 to 2.3), and increased fat stores (1.8 to 2.7). Because lactation can help gradually reduce maternal energy stores, it also provides an opportunity to promote breastfeeding.

2. ANS: E DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 349

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Other components of tissue that contribute to weight gain include: an increase in uterine tissue (0.9), increased tissue fluid (1.4 to 2.3), and increased fat stores (1.8 to 2.7). Because lactation can help gradually reduce maternal energy stores, it also provides an opportunity to promote breastfeeding.

3. ANS: A DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 349

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Other components of tissue that contribute to weight gain include: an increase in uterine tissue (0.9), increased tissue fluid (1.4 to 2.3), and increased fat stores (1.8 to 2.7). Because lactation can help gradually reduce maternal energy stores, it also provides an opportunity to promote breastfeeding.

4. ANS: D DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 349

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Other components of tissue that contribute to weight gain include: an increase in uterine tissue (0.9), increased tissue fluid (1.4 to 2.3), and increased fat stores (1.8 to 2.7). Because lactation can help gradually reduce maternal energy stores, it also provides an opportunity to promote breastfeeding.

5. ANS: B DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 349

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Other components of tissue that contribute to weight gain include: an increase in uterine tissue (0.9), increased tissue fluid (1.4 to 2.3), and increased fat stores (1.8 to 2.7). Because lactation can help gradually reduce maternal energy stores, it also provides an opportunity to promote breastfeeding.

Leave a Reply