Chapter 15: Drugs Used for Parkinsons Disease My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 15: Drugs Used for Parkinsons Disease

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which adverse effects associated with levodopa therapy would support the nursing diagnosis Risk for injury?

a.

Nausea and vomiting

b.

Orthostatic hypotension

c.

Anorexia and depression

d.

Tachycardia and palpitations

ANS: B

When initiating levodopa therapy, orthostatic hypotension may occur. Although generally mild, patients may experience dizziness and weakness. Symptoms usually resolve within 1 or 2 weeks once tolerance is developed to the levodopa therapy. Orthostatic hypotension increases the risk for injury in Parkinsons patients because they are also experiencing alterations in gait patterns. Although nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and depression are adverse effects of levodopa, they do not contribute to a risk for falling. Tachycardia and palpitations are not common adverse effects of levodopa.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 233-234 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe, Effective Care Environment

2. Which vitamin will reduce the therapeutic effects of levodopa?

a.

A

b.

B6

c.

C

d.

D

ANS: B

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) will reduce the therapeutic effects of levodopa in oral doses of 5 to 10 mg or more. Generally, diets typically have less than 1 mg of vitamin B6 and therefore are not restricted. The ingredients in multivitamins, however, must be assessed. Vitamins A, C, and D do not affect therapy with levodopa.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 229 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

3. Which cholinergic symptoms of Parkinsons disease are reduced with anticholinergic drugs?

a.

Cognitive impairments

b.

Rigidity

c.

Tremors and drooling

d.

Postural abnormalities

ANS: C

Anticholinergic drugs will reduce the severity of tremors and drooling in patients with Parkinsons disease. Anticholinergics are most useful when used in combination with levodopa. Anticholinergic drugs do not affect cognitive impairments. Anticholinergics have little effect on rigidity or on postural abnormalities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 226 OBJ: 8

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

4. What is the pharmacologic action of entacapone, a potent catechol O methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor?

a.

Slows the deterioration of dopaminergic nerve cells

b.

Inhibits the relative excess of dopaminergic activity

c.

Reduces the destruction of dopamine in peripheral tissues

d.

Enhances the cholinergic symptoms of Parkinsons disease

ANS: C

Entacapone, a COMT inhibitor, reduces dopamine destruction in peripheral tissues. This significantly increases the amount of dopamine available to reach the brain. Entacapone, when used with carbidopa levodopa therapy, results in more constant dopaminergic stimulation. Entacapone is not effective when used alone. Entacapone does not affect the nerve cells, but blocks enzymes that break down levodopa. Parkinsons disease is characterized by a relative deficit of dopaminergic activity. Entacapone does not affect cholinergic symptoms of Parkinsons disease.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 226 OBJ: 7

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

5. The nurse is teaching a patient with Parkinsons disease about levodopa. Which statement by the nurse is accurate regarding drug administration?

a.

Take this medication in between meals.

b.

Take this medication at bedtime to prevent dizziness.

c.

Take this medication when your tremors get worse.

d.

Take this medication with food or antacids to reduce GI upset.

ANS: D

Levodopa causes nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Therefore, administration should be in divided doses with food or antacids to decrease gastrointestinal (GI) irritation. Levodopa should be taken with food. Levodopa must be taken on a regular schedule as prescribed to provide therapeutic results.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 234 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

6. Dopamine agonists have been linked with which adverse effects in patients with Parkinsons disease?

a.

Oculogyric crisis

b.

Tardive dyskinesia

c.

Sudden sleep events

d.

Akathisia

ANS: C

Sleep episodes have been reported with the dopamine agonists bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, and ropinirole. These are described as sleep attacks, including daytime sleep. Oculogyric crisis is an adverse effect of neuroleptic drugs such as phenothiazines.

Tardive dyskinesia is a dystonic adverse effect of neuroleptic drugs such as phenothiazines. Akathisia, associated with neuroleptic drugs used in the treatment of mental disorders, is characterized by motor restlessness accompanied by increased nervous or restless movement. The syndrome may also occur when anti Parkinson drugs are reduced or discontinued.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 235 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

7. What is the rationale for administering levodopa instead of dopamine for treatment of Parkinsons disease?

a.

Dopamine does not cross the bloodbrain barrier when administered orally.

b.

Levodopa is much less expensive.

c.

The half life of dopamine is too short.

d.

Dopamine has too many reactions with other medications.

ANS: A

When administered orally, dopamine does not enter the brain. Levodopa does cross into the brain and is metabolized into dopamine. Dopamine is not available as an oral medication. The half life of levodopa is approximately 50 minutes; the half life of dopamine is approximately 4 days. Dopamine does not react with medications.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 233-234 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

8. The nurse is providing education to a patient recently placed on selegiline disintegrating tablets. Which statement by the patient indicates a need for further teaching?

a.

This medication will help slow the development of symptoms.

b.

I will place the tablet on my tongue before breakfast.

c.

I may need to use a stool softener for constipation.

d.

I should not push the tablet through the foil.

ANS: B

Selegiline orally disintegrating tablets should be taken in the morning before breakfast, without liquid. This medication is used to slow the development of symptoms and progression of disease. Constipation is a common adverse effect that may require the use of stool softeners. Patients should not attempt to push selegiline orally disintegrating tablets through the foil backing. Patients should peel back the backing of one or two blisters (as prescribed) with dry hands and gently remove the tablet(s).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 230 OBJ: 7

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

9. The nurse is providing information to a patient recently prescribed entacapone. Which statement is correct?

a.

This medication is not to be taken with carbidopa levodopa.

b.

Dosage is adjusted according to the patients response.

c.

There will be fewer incidences of dopaminergic effects, such as confusion.

d.

This medication increases the production of dopamine in the brain.

ANS: B

Dosage must be adjusted according to the patients response and tolerance. Entacapone may be added to carbidopa levodopa therapy to prolong the activity of the dopamine by slowing its rate of metabolism. Entacapone may increase the adverse dopaminergic effects of levodopa. Entacapone does not increase the production of dopamine in the brain.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 237 OBJ: 7

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

10. The nurse is assessing an older patient with Parkinsons disease who was started on entacapone 1 week ago. The patient has a history of coronary artery disease and takes an antihypertensive and aspirin. Which information would support the need for a reduction in medication dosage by the health care provider?

a.

Constipation

b.

Brownish orange urine

c.

Drowsiness

d.

Dizziness

ANS: D

Dizziness is a symptom of orthostatic hypotension; dosages may need to be altered. Constipation is an expected adverse effect of this medication. Brownish orange urine is an expected adverse effect of this medication. Drowsiness is an expected adverse effect that occurs when therapy is initiated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 238 OBJ: 7

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

11. When a patient taking a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor receives his dietary tray, the nurse knows to remove the:

a.

cheese.

b.

eggs.

c.

bread.

d.

coffee.

ANS: A

Patients taking monoamine oxidase B inhibitors should avoid food and beverages with a high tyramine content, such as cheeses. Eggs, bread, and coffee do not have a high tyramine content.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 231 OBJ: 7

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

12. A patient taking rasagiline is assessed by the nurse to have a lasting significant increase in blood pressure. When reviewing the patients current list of medications, the nurse decides to hold the next dose of:

a.

dextromethorphan.

b.

levodopa.

c.

ciprofloxacin.

d.

Valium.

ANS: C

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic that inhibits the metabolism of rasagiline, significantly raising rasagiline serum levels and potentially causing significant hypertension. Dextromethorphan, levodopa, and Valium are not related to significant hypertensive changes when used in conjunction with rasagiline.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 231 OBJ: 7

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe, Effective Care Environment; Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

13. Parkinsons disease has which characteristic symptom(s)? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Muscle tremors

b.

Posture alterations

c.

Muscle flaccidity

d.

Tachycardia

e.

Slow body movement

ANS: A, B, E

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease include muscle tremors, posture and equilibrium alterations, and slow body movement or bradykinesia. Muscle flaccidity is not a symptom of Parkinsons disease. Symptoms of Parkinsons disease do not include alterations in heart rate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 224 OBJ: 1

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

14. What point(s) should be included when teaching a patient about the use of apomorphine for treatment of Parkinsons disease? (Select all that apply.)

a.

The restoration of function resulting from stimulation of dopamine receptors is permanent.

b.

Apomorphine may be administered intravenously for rapid relief.

c.

Apomorphine does not have any opioid activity.

d.

A multidose injector pen is commonly used to administer apomorphine.

e.

You may experience nausea and vomiting, which can be treated with trimethobenzamide (Tigan).

f.

You may experience sleep attacks or episodes of daytime sleepiness.

ANS: C, D, E, F

Apomorphine has no opioid activity, is commonly injected by a reusable multidose pen, and may cause nausea, vomiting, or sleepiness. Apomorphine brings temporary relief from hypomobility. Apomorphine must not be administered intravenously. It may crystallize in the vein and form a thrombus or embolism.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 231-232 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

15. The nurse is preparing to begin administration of apomorphine to a patient. Before administering, the nurse will perform a baseline assessment of the patients: (Select all that apply.)

a.

mobility.

b.

orientation.

c.

intellectual ability.

d.

alertness.

e.

vital signs.

ANS: A, B, D, E

Premedication assessment prior to apomorphine therapy should include baseline vital signs, patients degree of mobility, alertness, and orientation to name, place, and time. It is not necessary to assess intellectual ability prior to apomorphine therapy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 231 OBJ: 6

TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

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