Chapter 14: Nutrition for Childbearing My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 14: Nutrition for Childbearing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which pregnant woman should restrict her weight gain during pregnancy?

a.

Woman pregnant with twins

b.

Woman in early adolescence

c.

Woman shorter than 62 inches or 157 cm

d.

Woman who was 20 pounds overweight before pregnancy

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A higher weight gain in twin gestations may help prevent low birth weights.

B

Adolescents need to gain weight toward the higher acceptable range, which will provide for their own growth as well as for fetal growth.

C

In the past women of short stature were advised to restrict their weight gain; however, evidence to support these guidelines has not been found.

D

A weight gain of 5 to 9 kg will provide sufficient nutrients for the fetus. Overweight and obese women should be advised to lose weight prior to conception in order to achieve the best pregnancy outcomes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 280

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. The major source of nutrients in the diet of a pregnant woman should be composed of

a.

Simple sugars

b.

Fats

c.

Fiber

d.

Complex carbohydrates

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The most common simple carbohydrate is table sugar, which is a source of energy but does not provide any nutrients.

B

Fats provide 9 kcal in each gram, in contrast to carbohydrates and proteins, which provide only 4 kcal in each gram.

C

Fiber is supplied mainly by the complex carbohydrates.

D

Complex carbohydrates supply the pregnant woman with vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 281

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. To increase the absorption of iron in a pregnant woman, the iron preparation should be given with

a.

Milk

b.

Tea

c.

Orange juice

d.

Coffee

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The calcium and phosphorus in milk decrease iron absorption.

B

Tannin in the tea reduces the absorption of iron.

C

A vitamin C source may increase the absorption of iron.

D

A decreased intake of caffeine is recommended in pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 285

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. Health teaching during routine prenatal care includes providing patients with the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. For a woman with a single fetus who begins pregnancy at a normal weight, this amount is _____ lb.

a.

10 to 15

b.

15 to 20

c.

37 to 50

d.

28 to 40

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A 10-lb weight gain is not sufficient to meet the needs of the pregnancy.

B

A 15- to 20-lb weight gain is recommended for women who are overweight before the pregnancy.

C

A 37- to 50-lb weight gain is recommended for women who are carrying twins. When women with a multifetal pregnancy gain the recommended amount of weight, they are less likely to deliver prior to 32 weeks and infants are more likely to weigh more than 2500 gm.

D

A weight gain of 28 to 40 lb is believed to reduce intrauterine growth retardation that may result from inadequate nutrition and also allows variations in individual needs. No precise weight gain is appropriate for every woman.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 279

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. A pregnant womans diet may not meet her need for folates. A good source of this nutrient is

a.

Chicken

b.

Cheese

c.

Potatoes

d.

Green leafy vegetables

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Chicken is an excellent source of protein, but it is poor in folates.

B

Cheese is an excellent source of calcium, but it is poor in folates.

C

Potatoes contain carbohydrates and vitamins and minerals, but are poor in folates.

D

Sources of folates include green leafy vegetables, whole grains, fruits, liver, dried peas, and beans.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 283 | Table14-3

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. One danger in using nonfood supplementation of nutrients is

a.

Increased absorption of all vitamins

b.

Development of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)

c.

Increased caloric intake

d.

Toxic effects on the fetus

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Supplements do not have better absorption than natural vitamins and minerals.

B

There is no relationship between supplements and PIH.

C

Supplements do not contain calories.

D

The use of supplements in addition to food may increase the intake of some nutrients to doses much higher than the recommended amounts. Overdoses of some nutrients have been shown to cause fetal defects.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 286

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. When providing care to the prenatal patient, the nurse understands that pica is defined as

a.

Intolerance of milk products

b.

Iron deficiency anemia

c.

Ingestion of nonfood substances

d.

Episodes of anorexia and vomiting

ANS: C

Feedback

A

This is termed lactose intolerance.

B

Pica may produce iron deficiency anemia if proper nutrition is decreased.

C

The practice of eating substances not normally thought of as food is called pica. Clay or dirt and solid laundry starch are the substances most commonly ingested.

D

Pica is not related to anorexia and vomiting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 292

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. The breastfeeding woman whose recommended prepregnant caloric intake was 2000 calories per day needs how many calories per day to meet her current needs?

a.

2300

b.

2500

c.

2750

d.

3000

ANS: B

Feedback

A

2300 calories is not enough calories to meet her needs.

B

The increase for a breastfeeding mother is 500 calories above her recommended prepregnant caloric intake.

C

2750 calories may be too many calories and may lead to weight gain.

D

3000 calories is too many for this mother and will lead to weight gain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 281 | Table14-2

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. The most important reason for evaluating the pattern of weight gain in pregnancy is to

a.

Prevent excessive adipose tissue deposits.

b.

Identify potential nutritional problems or complications of pregnancy.

c.

Assess the need to limit caloric intake in obese women.

d.

Determine cultural influences on the womans diet.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Excessive adipose tissue may occur with excess weight gain, but it is not the reason for monitoring the weight gain pattern.

B

Deviations from the recommended pattern of weight gain may indicate nutritional problems or developing complications.

C

It is important to monitor the pattern of weight gain for developing complications.

D

The pattern of weight gain is not influenced by cultural influences.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 280

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. If a patients normal prepregnancy diet contains 45 g of protein daily, how many more grams of protein should she consume per day during pregnancy?

a.

5

b.

10

c.

26

d.

30

ANS: C

Feedback

A

5 g will not be enough to meet her protein needs during pregnancy.

B

10 g will not be enough extra protein to meet her needs during pregnancy.

C

The recommended intake of protein for the pregnant woman is 71 g.

D

30 g is more than is necessary and will add extra calories.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 281 | Table14-2

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. A pregnant patient would like to know a good food source of calcium other than dairy products. Your best answer is

a.

Legumes

b.

Yellow vegetables

c.

Lean meat

d.

Whole grains

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Although dairy products contain the greatest amount of calcium, it also is found in legumes, nuts, dried fruits, and some dark green leafy vegetables.

B

Yellow vegetables are rich in vitamin A.

C

Lean meats are rich in protein and phosphorus.

D

Whole grains are rich in zinc and magnesium.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 285 | Table14-1

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. To determine the cultural influence on a patients diet, the nurse should first

a.

Evaluate the patients weight gain during pregnancy.

b.

Assess the socioeconomic status of the patient.

c.

Discuss the four food groups with the patient.

d.

Identify the food preferences and methods of food preparation common to that culture.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Evaluating a patients weight gain during pregnancy should be included for all patients, not just for those who are culturally different.

B

The socioeconomic status of the patient may alter the nutritional intake, but not the cultural influence.

C

Teaching the food groups to the patient should come after assessing food preferences.

D

Understanding the patients food preferences and how she prepares food will assist the nurse in determining whether the patients culture is adversely affecting her nutritional intake.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 288

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. Which pregnant adolescent is most at risk for a nutritional deficit during pregnancy?

a.

A 15-year-old of normal height and weight

b.

A 17-year-old who is 10 pounds underweight

c.

A 16-year-old who is 10 pounds overweight

d.

A 16-year-old of normal height and weight

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A 15-year-old has special nutritional needs during pregnancy, but she is not at the highest risk for deficiency.

B

The adolescent who is pregnant and underweight is most at risk, because she is already deficient in nutrition and must now supply the nutritional intake for both herself and her fetus.

C

An overweight pregnant teen is at risk for deficiency, but is not at the highest risk. Being underweight is the most risky because she is already deficient.

D

A 16-year-old has special nutritional needs during pregnancy, but she is not at the highest risk for deficiency.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 289-290

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. What is a goal of a patient with the following nursing diagnosis: Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to diet choices inadequate to meet nutrient requirements of pregnancy?

a.

Gain a total of 30 lb.

b.

Take daily supplements consistently.

c.

Decrease intake of snack foods.

d.

Increase intake of complex carbohydrates.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A weight gain of 30 lb is one indication that the patient has gained a sufficient amount for the nutritional needs of pregnancy.

B

A daily supplement is not the best goal for this patient. It does not meet the basic need of proper nutrition during pregnancy.

C

Decreasing snack foods may be the problem and should be assessed. However, assessing the weight gain is the best method of monitoring nutritional intake for this pregnancy.

D

Increasing the intake of complex carbohydrates is important for this patient, but monitoring the weight gain should be the end goal.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 279

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. A patient who is in week 28 of gestation is concerned about her weight gain of 17 lb. The nurses best response is

a.

You should try to decrease your amount of weight gain for the next 12 weeks.

b.

You have gained an appropriate amount for the number of weeks of your pregnancy.

c.

You should not gain any more weight until you reach the third trimester.

d.

You have not gained enough weight for the number of weeks of your pregnancy.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The woman has gained the appropriate amount of weight. It would be inappropriate to have her decrease her weight gain.

B

A woman in her 28th week of gestation should have gained between 17 and 20 lb. The normal pattern of weight gain is 2 to 3 lb total in the first trimester (by 13 weeks) and 1 lb per week after that.

C

Weight gain needs to be consistent during the last part of the pregnancy and should not be suppressed.

D

She has gained an appropriate amount of weight and should not increase the weight gain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 280

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. In teaching the pregnant adolescent about nutrition, the nurse should

a.

Emphasize the need to eliminate common teen snack foods, because they are too high in fat and sodium.

b.

Determine the weight gain needed to meet adolescent growth and add 35 lb.

c.

Suggest that she not eat at fast-food restaurants, to avoid foods of poor nutritional value.

d.

Realize that most adolescents are unwilling to make dietary changes during pregnancy.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Changes in the diet should be kept at a minimum, and snacks should be included. Snack foods can be in included in moderation and other foods added to make up for the lost nutrients.

B

Adolescents should gain in the upper range of the recommended weight gain. They also need to gain weight that would be expected for their own normal growth.

C

Eliminating fast foods will make her appear different to her peers. She should be taught to choose foods that add needed nutrients.

D

Adolescents are willing to make changes; however, they still have the need to be like their peers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 280

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. The recommended diet for pregnancy differs from the recommended diet for lactation, because

a.

Lactating women require more calories and protein.

b.

Pregnant women need more calcium.

c.

Lactating women require fewer vitamins.

d.

Pregnant women require more iron and protein.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The lactating woman needs 200 calories and 5 g of protein more than the pregnant woman.

B

Calcium needs are the same for pregnancy and lactation.

C

Vitamin needs are higher during pregnancy and lactation.

D

Protein requirements are higher during lactation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 281 | Table14-2

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. The traditional diet of Asian women includes little meat or dairy products and may be low in calcium and iron. The nurse can help the woman increase her intake of these foods by

a.

Emphasizing the need for increased milk intake during pregnancy

b.

Suggesting she eat more hot foods during pregnancy

c.

Telling her husband that she must increase her intake of fruits and vegetables for the babys sake

d.

Suggesting she eat more tofu, bok choy, and broccoli

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Since milk products are not part of the of this womans diet, it should be respected and other alternatives offered. Also, lactose intolerance is common.

B

Pregnancy is considered hot; therefore the woman would eat cold foods.

C

Fruits and vegetables are cold foods and included in the diet. In family dynamics, however, the husband does not dictate to the wife in this culture.

D

The diet should be improved by increasing foods acceptable to the woman. These foods are common in the Asian diet and are good sources of calcium and iron.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 289

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

19. A pregnant womans diet consists almost entirely of whole grain breads and cereals, fruits, and vegetables. The nurse should be most concerned about this womans intake of

a.

Calcium

b.

Protein

c.

Vitamin B12

d.

Folic acid

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Depending upon the womans food choices this diet may be adequate in calcium.

B

Protein needs can be sufficiently met by a vegetarian diet.

C

This diet is consistent with that followed by a strict vegetarian (vegan). Vegans consume only plant products. Because vitamin B12 is found in foods of animal origin, this diet is deficient in vitamin B12.

D

The nurse should be more concerned with the womans intake of vitamin B12 due to her dietary restrictions. Folic acid needs can be met by enriched bread products.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 291

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. Which statement made by a lactating woman leads the nurse to believe that the woman might have lactose intolerance?

a.

I always have heartburn after I drink milk.

b.

If I drink more than a cup of milk, I usually have abdominal cramps and bloating.

c.

Drinking milk usually makes me break out in hives.

d.

Sometimes I notice that I have bad breath after I drink a cup of milk.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The woman with lactose intolerance is more likely to experience bloating and cramping, not heartburn.

B

One problem that can interfere with milk consumption is lactose intolerance, which is the inability to digest milk sugar because of a lack of the enzyme lactose in the small intestine. Milk consumption may cause abdominal cramping, bloating, and diarrhea in such people, although many lactose-intolerant individuals can tolerate small amounts of milk without symptoms.

C

A woman who breaks out in hives after consuming milk is more likely to have a milk allergy.

D

This woman should be advise to simply brush her teeth after consuming dairy products.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 291

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. To prevent GI upset, patients should be instructed to take iron supplements

a.

On a full stomach

b.

At bedtime

c.

After eating a meal

d.

With milk

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Iron supplements are best absorbed if they are taken when the stomach is empty.

B

Taking iron supplements at bedtime may reduce GI upset.

C

Iron supplements are best absorbed if they are taken when the stomach is empty. Iron can be taken at bedtime if abdominal discomfort occurs when it is taken between meals.

D

Bran, tea, coffee, milk, and eggs may reduce absorption. Iron can be taken at bedtime if abdominal discomfort occurs when it is taken between meals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 285

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

22. After you complete your nutritional counseling for a pregnant woman, you ask her to repeat your instructions so that you can assess her understanding of the instructions given. Which statement indicates that she understands the role of protein in her pregnancy?

a.

Protein will help my baby grow.

b.

Eating protein will prevent me from becoming anemic.

c.

Eating protein will make my baby have strong teeth after he is born.

d.

Eating protein will prevent me from being diabetic.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Protein is the nutritional element basic to growth. An adequate protein intake is essential to meeting the increasing demands of pregnancy. These demands arise from the rapid growth of the fetus; the enlargement of the uterus, mammary glands, and placenta; the increase in the maternal blood volume; and the formation of amniotic fluid.

B

Iron intake prevents anemia.

C

Calcium intake is needed for fetal bone and tooth development.

D

Glycemic control is needed in diabetics; protein is one nutritional factor to consider, but this is not the primary role of protein intake.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 282

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. Which nutritional recommendation about fluids is accurate?

a.

A womans daily intake should be 8-10 cups

b.

Coffee should be limited to no more than 2 cups, but tea and cocoa can be consumed without worry.

c.

Of the artificial sweeteners, only aspartame has not been associated with any maternity health concerns.

d.

Water with fluoride is especially encouraged because it reduces the childs risk of tooth decay.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

8-10 cups is the standard for fluids; however, they should be the right fluids.

B

All beverages containing caffeine, including tea, cocoa, and some soft drinks, should be avoided or should be drunk only in limited amounts.

C

Artificial sweeteners, including aspartame, have no ill effects on the normal mother or fetus. However, mothers with phenylketonuria (PKU) should avoid aspartame.

D

No evidence indicates that prenatal fluoride consumption reduces childhood tooth decay. However, it still helps the mother.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 287

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

24. Which vitamins or minerals can lead to congenital malformations of the fetus if taken in excess by the mother?

a.

Zinc

b.

Vitamin D

c.

Folic acid

d.

Vitamin A

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Zinc is vital to good maternity and fetal health and is highly unlikely to be consumed in excess. Vitamin A, taken in excess, causes a number of problems. An analog of vitamin A appears in prescribed acne medications, which must not be taken during pregnancy.

B

Vitamin D is vital to good maternity and fetal health and is highly unlikely to be consumed in excess. Vitamin A, taken in excess, causes a number of problems. An analog of vitamin A appears in prescribed acne medications, which must not be taken during pregnancy.

C

Folic acid is vital to good maternity and fetal health and is highly unlikely to be consumed in excess. Vitamin A, taken in excess, causes a number of problems. An analog of vitamin A appears in prescribed acne medications, which must not be taken during pregnancy.

D

Zinc, vitamin D, and folic acid are vital to good maternity and fetal health and are highly unlikely to be consumed in excess. Vitamin A, taken in excess, causes a number of problems. An analog of vitamin A appears in prescribed acne medications, which must not be taken during pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 282

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

25. Three servings of milk, yogurt, or cheese plus two servings of meat, poultry, or fish will adequately supply the recommended amount of protein for the pregnant woman. Many patients are concerned about the increased levels of mercury in fish and may be afraid to include this source of nutrients in their diet. Sound advice by the nurse to assist the patient in determining which fish is safe to consume includes

a.

Canned white tuna as a preferred choice

b.

Avoiding shark, swordfish, and mackerel

c.

Treating fish caught in local waterways as the safest

d.

Avoiding high levels of mercury in salmon and shrimp

ANS: B

Feedback

A

High levels of mercury can harm the developing nervous system of the fetus. It is essential for the nurse to assist the patient in understanding the differences between numerous sources of this product. A pregnant patient can eat as much as 12 ounces a week of canned light tuna; however, canned white, albacore, or tuna steaks contain higher levels of mercury and should be limited to no more than 6 ounces per week.

B

As a precaution the pregnant patient should avoid eating all of these as well as the less common tilefish.

C

This is a common misconception. Pregnant women and mothers of young children should check with local advisories about the safety of fish caught by families and friends in nearby bodies of water. If no information is available, these fish sources should be avoided, limited to less than 6 ounces, or the only fish consumed that week.

D

Commercially caught fish that is low in mercury includes salmon, shrimp, pollock, or catfish. The pregnant patient may eat up to 12 ounces per week.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 287

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Many women with anorexia have amenorrhea and do not become pregnant where as women with bulimia or subclinical anorexia may become pregnant. These condition conditions are associated with (select all that apply)

a.

Food cravings

b.

Low birth weight

c.

Food aversions

d.

Electrolyte imbalance

e.

Small for gestational age infants

ANS: B, D, E

Feedback

Correct

These conditions are associated with electrolyte imbalance, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. All women should be asked about eating disorders and nurses should watch for behaviors that may indicate disordered eating. Some women eat normally during pregnancy for the sake of the fetus, but others continue their previous dysfunctional eating patterns during pregnancy or in the early postpartum period.

Incorrect

Food cravings and aversions are normal for most women during pregnancy. Women may have a strong preference or strong dislike for certain foods. Theyre generally not harmful, and some, like aversion to alcohol, may be beneficial.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 292

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

TRUE/FALSE

1. Food continues to be the best source of nutrients for the pregnant patient. The exceptions are iron and folic acid, which may not be obtained in adequate amounts through normal food intake. Is this statement true or false?

ANS: T

Vitamin and mineral supplements are not necessary, despite the fact that most prenatal providers order prenatal vitamins. Expectant mothers who are vegetarians, lactose-intolerant, or have special problems with nutrient absorption may need supplements other than iron and folic acid. A dietary assessment will determine a womans actual needs. The nurse must carefully consider the patients age, cultural background, and knowledge of nutrition when providing teaching regarding her diet.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 282

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. The evidence regarding the effects of caffeine on nutrition during pregnancy is conflicting and more research is needed. Until the time when there is more evidence on the effect of caffeine on the fetus, caffeine intake during pregnancy should be limited to 400 mg per day. Is this statement true or false?

ANS: F

Caffeine intake should be limited to less than 200 mg per day. The nurse should discuss usual sources of caffeine with the patient. A 6-oz cup of brewed coffee contains about 103 mg, tea contains 36 mg, Cola beverages contain 3550 mg/12 ounces and cocoa contain 4 mg/6 oz. Caffeine changes calcium, thiamine, and iron absorption or excretion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 293

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

1. While providing care to a patient early in pregnancy, the nurse learns that the patient consumes alcohol almost daily. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has been associated with a condition known as _______________________ in the infant and should be avoided.

ANS:

fetal alcohol syndrome

Alcohol interferes with the absorption and use of protein, thiamine, folic acid, and zinc. It also impairs metabolism and often takes the place of food in the mothers diet. Vitamin and mineral supplementation is usually necessary for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy because nutrient stores may be depleted.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 293

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment and Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. Low-income women may have deficient diets because of lack of financial resources and nutritional education. Simple carbohydrate foods are less expensive than other, more nutritious foods items. The diet may be high in calories but low in vitamins and minerals. A referral to ___________ may be helpful.

ANS:

WIC

The WIC program is administered by the USDA to provide nutritional assessment, counseling, and education to low-income women and children up to age 5 years who are at nutritional risk. The program also provides food vouchers for items such as milk, cheese, eggs, fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Eligibility is based on an income of 185% of the federal property level or less. Women are eligible for WIC during pregnancy and for 6 months after if formula feeding and for one year if breast-feeding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 289

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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