Chapter 13 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e  (Tortora)

Chapter 13   Viruses, Viroids, and Prions

13.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) How do all viruses differ from bacteria?

A) Viruses are filterable.

B) Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites.

C) Viruses do not have any nucleic acid.

D) Viruses are not composed of cells.

E) Viruses do not reproduce.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.1

2) Which of the following statements provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?

A) They are not composed of cells.

B) They are filterable.

C) They cannot reproduce themselves outside a host.

D) They cause diseases similar to those caused by chemicals.

E) They are chemically simple.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.1

Global Outcome:  2

3) Which of the following statements about viral spikes is FALSE?

A) They are composed of carbohydrate-protein complexes.

B) They are used for attachment.

C) They may cause hemagglutination.

D) They bind to receptors on the host cell surface.

E) They are found only on nonenveloped viruses.

Answer:  E

Section:  13.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.2

4) Which of the following is NOT used as a criterion to classify viruses?

A) biochemical tests

B) morphology

C) nucleic acid

D) size

E) number of capsomeres

Answer:  A

Section:  13.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  13.2

5) Which of the following is NOT utilized to culture viruses?

A) laboratory animals

B) culture media

C) embryonated eggs

D) animal cell cultures

E) bacterial cultures

Answer:  B

Section:  13.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.5

6) Bacteriophages and animal viruses do NOT differ significantly in which one of the following steps?

A) attachment

B) penetration

C) uncoating

D) biosynthesis

E) release

Answer:  D

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.8

Global Outcome:  2

7) The definition of lysogeny is

A) phage DNA is incorporated into host cell DNA.

B) lysis of the host cell due to a phage.

C) the period during replication when virions are not present.

D) when the burst time takes an unusually long time.

E) attachment of a phage to a cell.

Answer:  A

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.9

8) A viroid is a(n)

A) complete, infectious virus particle.

B) infectious piece of RNA without a capsid.

C) capsid without nucleic acid.

D) provirus.

E) infectious protein.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  13.16

Figure 13.1

9) In Figure 13.1, which structure is a complex virus?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) All of the structures are complex viruses.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  13.2

10) The structures illustrated in Figure 13.1 are composed of

A) DNA.

B) RNA.

C) DNA or RNA.

D) Capsomeres.

E) viroids.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  13.2

11) A clear area against a confluent lawn of bacteria is called a

A) phage.

B) pock.

C) cell lysis.

D) plaque.

E) rash.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  13.5

12) Continuous cell lines differ from primary cell lines in that

A) viruses can be grown in continuous cell lines.

B) continuous cell lines always have to be re-isolated from animal tissues.

C) continuous cell lines are derived from primary cell lines.

D) continuous cell lines can be maintained through an indefinite number of generations.

E) continuous cell lines are from human embryos.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  13.6

13) Which of the following is necessary for replication of a prion?

A) DNA

B) DNA polymerase

C) lysozyme

D) PrPSc

E) RNA

Answer:  D

Section:  13.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  13.15

14) A persistent infection is one in which

A) the virus remains in equilibrium with the host without causing a disease.

B) viral replication is unusually slow.

C) the disease process occurs gradually over a long period.

D) host cells are gradually lysed.

E) host cells are transformed.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.14

15) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) A prophage is phage DNA inserted into a bacterial chromosome.

B) A prophage can pop out of the chromosome.

C) Prophage genes are repressed by a repressor protein coded for by the prophage.

D) A prophage may result in new properties of the host cell.

E) The prophage makes the host cell immune to infection by other phages.

Answer:  E

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.9

16) Lysogeny can result in all of the following EXCEPT

A) immunity to reinfection by the same phage.

B) acquisition of new characteristics by the host cell.

C) immunity to reinfection by any phage.

D) specialized transduction.

E) phage conversion.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.9

17) Which of the following would be the first step in biosynthesis of a virus with a (minus) strand of RNA?

A) synthesis of DNA from an RNA template

B) synthesis of double-stranded RNA from an RNA template

C) synthesis of double-stranded RNA from a DNA template

D) transcription of mRNA from DNA

E) synthesis of DNA from a DNA template

Answer:  B

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

18) An infectious protein is a

A) bacteriophage.

B) prion.

C) retrovirus.

D) viroid.

E) papovavirus.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  13.15

19) An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?

A) penetration

B) adsorption

C) uncoating

D) biosynthesis

E) release

Answer:  E

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

20) Which of the following statements is NOT true of lysogeny?

A) It can give infected pathogens the genetic information for toxin production.

B) Prophage is inserted into the host genome.

C) Lytic cycle may follow lysogeny.

D) It is a silent infection; the virus does not replicate.

E) It causes lysis of host cells.

Answer:  E

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.9

21) An example of a latent viral infection is

A) subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

B) cold sores.

C) influenza.

D) smallpox.

E) mumps.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.13

22) A viruss ability to infect an animal cell depends primarily upon the

A) host cells ability to phagocytize viral particles.

B) presence of receptor sites on the cell membrane.

C) type of viral nucleic acid.

D) enzymatic activity of a host cell.

E) presence of pili on the host cell wall.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.10

23) Assume you have isolated an unknown virus. This virus has a single, positive sense strand of RNA, and possesses an envelope. To which group does it most likely belong?

A) herpesvirus

B) picornavirus

C) retrovirus

D) togavirus

E) papovavirus

Answer:  D

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

24) The mechanism whereby an enveloped virus leaves a host cell is called

A) transduction.

B) budding.

C) abduction.

D) lysogeny.

E) penetration.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

25) The most conclusive evidence that viruses cause cancers is provided by

A) finding oncogenes in viruses.

B) the presence of antibodies against viruses in cancer patients.

C) cancer following injection of cell-free filtrates.

D) treating cancer with antibodies.

E) some liver cancer patients having had hepatitis.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.12

Global Outcome:  2

26) Bacteriophages derive all of the following from the host cell EXCEPT

A) lysozyme.

B) tRNA.

C) amino acids.

D) nucleotides.

E) ATP.

Answer:  A

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.8

27) Bacteriophage replication differs from animal virus replication because only bacteriophage replication involves

A) adsorption to specific receptors.

B) assembly of viral components.

C) replication of viral nucleic acid.

D) injection of naked nucleic acid into the host cell.

E) lysis of the host cell.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

28) Generally, in an infection caused by a DNA-containing virus, the host animal cell supplies all of the following EXCEPT

A) RNA polymerase.

B) nucleotides.

C) DNA polymerase.

D) tRNA.

E) None of the answers are correct; all of these are supplied by the host animal cell.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.10

29) Which of the following places these items in the correct order for DNA-virus replication?

1. Maturation

2. DNA synthesis

3. Transcription

4. Translation

A) 1; 2; 3; 4

B) 2; 3; 4; 1

C) 3; 4; 1; 2

D) 4; 1; 2; 3

E) 4; 3; 2; 1

Answer:  B

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

30) A viral species is a group of viruses that

A) has the same morphology and nucleic acid.

B) has the same genetic information and ecological niche.

C) infects the same cells and cause the same disease.

D) cannot be defined.

Answer:  B

Section:  13.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  13.3

31) Viruses that utilize reverse transcriptase belong to the virus families

A) Retroviridae and Picornaviridae.

B) Herpesviridae and Retroviridae.

C) Hepadnaviridae and Retroviridae.

D) Herpesviridae and Poxviridae.

E) Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.4

32) DNA made from an RNA template will be incorporated into the virus capsid of

A) Retroviridae.

B) Herpesviridae.

C) Hepadnaviridae.

D) bacteriophage families.

E) influenzavirus.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

33) Which of the following statements about viruses is FALSE?

A) Viruses contain DNA or RNA but never both.

B) Viruses contain a protein coat.

C) Viruses use the anabolic machinery of the cell.

D) Viruses use their own catabolic enzymes.

E) Viruses have genes.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.1

34) A lytic virus has infected a patient. Which of the following would best describe what is happening inside the patient?

A) The virus is causing the death of the infected cells in the patient.

B) The virus is not killing any cells in the host.

C) The virus is incorporating its nucleic acid with that of the patients cells.

D) The virus is slowly killing the patients cells.

E) The virus is infecting cells and then releasing only small amounts of virus.

Answer:  A

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.10

35) Some viruses, such as human herpesvirus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms. These are called

A) latent viruses.

B) lytic viruses.

C) phages.

D) slow viruses.

E) unconventional viruses.

Answer:  A

Section:  13.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.13

Figure 13.2

36) Assume a patient had chickenpox (human herpesvirus 3) as a child. Which line on the graph in Figure 13.2 would show the number of viruses present in this person as a 60-year-old with shingles (human herpesvirus 3)?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  E

Section:  13.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.13

Global Outcome:  3

37) Assume a patient has influenza. During which time on the graph in Figure 13.2 would the patient show the symptoms of the illness?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  C

Section:  13.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  3

38) The following steps occur during multiplication of herpesviruses. Which is the third step?

A) attachment

B) biosynthesis

C) penetration

D) release

E) uncoating

Answer:  E

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

39) The following steps occur during multiplication of retroviruses. Which is the fourth step?

A) synthesis of double-stranded DNA

B) synthesis of +RNA

C) attachment

D) penetration

E) uncoating

Answer:  A

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

40) Oncogenic viruses

A) cause acute infections.

B) are genetically unstable.

C) cause tumors to develop.

D) are lytic viruses that kill the host cell.

E) have no effect on the host cell.

Answer:  C

Section:  13.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.12

41) Which one of the following steps does NOT occur during multiplication of a picornavirus?

A) synthesis of + strands of RNA

B) synthesis of strands of RNA

C) synthesis of viral proteins

D) synthesis of DNA

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

42) Which of the following is most likely a product of an early gene?

A) capsid proteins

B) DNA polymerase

C) envelope proteins

D) spike proteins

E) lysozyme

Answer:  B

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

43) Most RNA viruses carry which of the following enzymes?

A) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase

B) lysozyme

C) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

D) reverse transcriptase

E) ATP synthase

Answer:  C

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

44) The following steps occur during biosynthesis of a + strand RNA virus. What is the third step?

A) attachment

B) penetration and uncoating

C) synthesis of strand RNA

D) synthesis of + strand RNA

E) synthesis of viral proteins

Answer:  C

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

45) What contributes to antigenic shift in influenza viruses?

A) worldwide distribution of the virus

B) a segmented genome

C) attachment spikes

D) ease of virus transmission

E) different virus subtypes

Answer:  B

Section:  13.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

46) ________ were first identified in cancer-causing viruses and can induce ________ in infected cells.

A) Herpes viruses; lesions

B) Oncogenes; transformation

C) T antigens; lysis

D) Glycoprotein spikes; syncytia formation

E) Segmented genomes; reassortment

Answer:  B

Section:  13.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.11

Global Outcome:  2

13.2   True/False Questions

1) The basic mechanism of viral multiplication is similar for all viruses.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

2) A viroid is a completely developed infectious agent composed of nucleic acid and surrounded by a capsid.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  13.10

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.16

3) Binomial nomenclature is used to name viruses.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  13.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  13.4

4) Glycoprotein spikes are found on the capsids of all viruses.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  13.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.2

5) Positive sense RNA strands of viruses are treated like mRNA inside the host cell.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

6) Dogs do not get measles because their cells lack the correct receptor sites for that virus.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  2

7) Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus envelope.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  13.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.2

8) Viruses are the only known infectious agents that are obligatory intracellular parasites.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  13.1

9) A segmented genome can result in antigenic shift.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  13.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

10) Most drugs that interfere with viral multiplication also interfere with host cell function.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.1

13.3   Essay Questions

1) Bacteriophages are used as vectors in genetic engineering to insert new genes into bacteria. Describe the process that makes this genetic recombination possible.

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  13.9

Global Outcome:  7

2) Compare and contrast the lytic cycle of infection of a DNA virus and an RNA virus.

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  13.10a

Global Outcome:  8

3) Discuss why viruses are considered infectious particles on the borderline between living and non-living.

Section:  13.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.1

Global Outcome:  7

4) Explain the steps involved in bacteriophage DNA entering a bacterial cell.

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.8

Global Outcome:  8

5) How is the replication of the viral genome of retroviruses unique among the viruses?

Section:  13.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  13.10

Global Outcome:  8

6) Researchers studying tissues of diseased marine mammals have identified what appear to be viral particles by electron microscopy.  Describe three methods you might use to attempt to culture this virus for further study.

Section:  13.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  4.4

Learning Outcome:  13.7

Global Outcome:  8

Leave a Reply