Chapter 13: Respiratory System Disorders My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 13: Respiratory System Disorders

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax?

a.

Air is forced out of the lungs.

b.

Lung volume increases.

c.

Intrapulmonic pressure decreases.

d.

Intrapleural pressure decreases.

ANS: A REF: 275

2. The respiratory mucosa is continuous through the:

1. upper and lower respiratory tracts.

2. nasal cavities and the sinuses.

3. nasopharynx and oropharynx.

4. middle ear cavity and auditory tube.

a.

1 only

b.

1, 2

c.

2, 3

d.

1, 3, 4

e.

1, 2, 3, 4

ANS: E REF: 273-274

3. Which of the following activities does NOT require muscle contractions and energy?

a.

Quiet inspiration

b.

Forced inspiration

c.

Quiet expiration

d.

Forced expiration

ANS: C REF: 275

4. The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the:

a.

expiratory reserve volume.

b.

inspiratory reserve volume.

c.

total lung capacity.

d.

vital capacity.

ANS: D REF: 276-277

5. Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery?

a.

PCO2 is low.

b.

PO2 is low.

c.

Hydrostatic pressure is very high.

d.

It is flowing into the left atrium.

ANS: B REF: 279

6. Which of the following causes bronchodilation?

a.

Epinephrine

b.

Histamine

c.

Parasympathetic nervous system

d.

Drugs that block 2-adrenergic receptors

ANS: A REF: 302

7. The central chemoreceptors in the medulla are normally most sensitive to:

a.

low oxygen level.

b.

low concentration of hydrogen ions.

c.

elevated oxygen level.

d.

elevated carbon dioxide level.

ANS: D REF: 277

8. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood because:

a.

PO2 is higher in the blood.

b.

PO2 is lower in the blood.

c.

CO2 is diffusing out of the blood.

d.

more CO2 is diffusing out of cells into the blood.

ANS: B REF: 278

9. Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood:

a.

as dissolved gas.

b.

attached to the iron molecule in hemoglobin.

c.

as bicarbonate ion.

d.

as carbonic acid.

ANS: C REF: 280

10. What would hypercapnia cause?

a.

Increased serum pH

b.

Decreased respirations

c.

Respiratory acidosis

d.

Decreased carbonic acid in the blood

ANS: C REF: 278

11. Which of the following would result from hyperventilation?

a.

Respiratory acidosis

b.

Respiratory alkalosis

c.

Metabolic alkalosis

d.

Metabolic acidosis

ANS: B REF: 278

12. Which of the following values is always decreased with respiratory alkalosis (compensated or decompensated)?

a.

Serum bicarbonate

b.

PaCO2

c.

Serum pH

d.

Urine pH

ANS: B REF: 282-283

13. What would be the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis?

a.

The kidneys eliminating more bicarbonate ions

b.

The kidneys producing more bicarbonate ions

c.

The kidneys reabsorbing more hydrogen ions

d.

An increase in respiratory rate

ANS: B REF: 279-280

14. What is the acid-base status of a patient with the following values for arterial blood gases?

serum bicarbonate 36.5 mmol/L (normal range: 22-28)

PCO2 75 mm Hg (normal range: 35-45)

serum pH 7.0

a.

Compensated metabolic acidosis

b.

Decompensated metabolic acidosis

c.

Compensated respiratory acidosis

d.

Decompensated respiratory acidosis

ANS: D REF: 320

15. What does carbaminohemoglobin refer to?

a.

Replacement of oxygen by carbon monoxide on hemoglobin molecules

b.

Full saturation of all heme molecules by oxygen

c.

Carbon dioxide attached to an amino group on the hemoglobin molecule

d.

Oxygen combined with iron in the hemoglobin molecule

ANS: C REF: 280

16. Approximately what percentage of bound oxygen is released to the cells for metabolism during an erythrocytes journey through the circulatory system?

a.

80%

b.

25%

c.

10%

d.

50%

ANS: B REF: 279

17. The production of yellowish-green, cloudy, thick sputum is often an indication of:

a.

bacterial infection.

b.

cancer tumor.

c.

damage of lung tissue due to smoking.

d.

emphysema.

ANS: A REF: 281

18. What does the term hemoptysis refer to?

a.

Thick, dark red sputum associated with pneumococcal infection

b.

Reddish-brown granular blood found in vomitus

c.

Bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum

d.

Bloody exudate in the pleural cavity

ANS: C REF: 281

19. Orthopnea is:

a.

very deep, rapid respirations.

b.

difficulty breathing when lying down.

c.

waking up suddenly, coughing, and struggling for breath.

d.

noisy breathing with stridor or rhonchi.

ANS: B REF: 282

20. Light bubbly or crackling breathing sounds associated with serous secretions are called:

a.

rhonchi.

b.

stridor.

c.

rales.

d.

wheezing.

ANS: C REF: 282

21. Choose the correct information applying to laryngotracheobronchitis:

a.

Viral infection in infant under 12 months

b.

Viral infection in child, 3 months to 3 years

c.

Bacterial infection in infant under 6 months

d.

Bacterial infection in child, 3 to 7 years

ANS: B REF: 283

22. Signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis usually include:

a.

serous nasal discharge and chronic cough.

b.

copious frothy sputum and dyspnea.

c.

severe localized pain in the facial bone and tenderness in the face.

d.

fetid breath and sore throat.

ANS: C REF: 283

23. What are early signs and symptoms of infectious rhinitis?

a.

Purulent nasal discharge and periorbital pain

b.

Serous nasal discharge, congestion, and sneezing

c.

Copious purulent sputum, particularly in the morning

d.

Harsh barking cough and wheezing

ANS: B REF: 285

24. Why does the influenza virus cause recurrent infection in individuals?

a.

Elderly patients are predisposed to secondary infections.

b.

The virus is transmitted by numerous routes.

c.

The virus is very difficult to destroy.

d.

Viral mutation reduces immunity from prior infections.

ANS: D REF: 285

25. What are typical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis?

a.

Hyperinflation of the chest and stridor

b.

Hoarse voice and barking cough

c.

Sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva

d.

Sneezing, mild cough, and fever

ANS: C REF: 289

26. What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?

a.

Rhinovirus

b.

Influenza virus

c.

Haemophilus influenzae

d.

Pneumococcus

ANS: B REF: 288

27. Which of the following describes lobar pneumonia?

a.

Sudden onset of fever and chills, with rales and rusty sputum

b.

Insidious onset, diffuse interstitial infection

c.

Viral infection causing nonproductive cough and pleuritic pain

d.

Opportunistic bacteria causing low-grade fever with cough and thick greenish sputum

ANS: A REF: 288

28. How does severe hypoxia develop with pneumonia?

a.

Acidosis depresses respirations.

b.

Oxygen diffusion is impaired by the congestion.

c.

Inflammatory exudate absorbs oxygen from the alveolar air.

d.

Infection reduces effective compensation by the heart.

ANS: B REF: 288

29. Rust-colored sputum in a patient with pneumonia usually indicates:

a.

secondary hemorrhage in the lungs.

b.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the infecting agent.

c.

prolonged stasis of mucous secretions in the airways.

d.

persistent coughing has damaged the mucosa in the bronchi.

ANS: B REF: 289

30. What is the cause of Legionnaires disease?

a.

Mycoplasma

b.

A fungus

c.

A gram-negative bacterium

d.

Pneumococcus

ANS: C REF: 290

31. Select the statement related to tuberculosis:

a.

The microbe is present in the sputum of all patients with a positive TB skin test.

b.

The infection is transmitted primarily by blood from an infected person.

c.

TB is usually caused by an acid-fast bacillus, resistant to many disinfectants.

d.

The microbe is quickly destroyed by the immune response.

ANS: C REF: 290-291

32. How is primary tuberculosis identified?

a.

Cavitation in the lungs and spread of the microbe to other organs

b.

Persistent productive cough, low-grade fever, and fatigue

c.

Caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs

d.

Multiple granulomas in the lungs and rapid spread of the microbe

ANS: C REF: 291

33. When does active (secondary) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with tissue destruction occur?

a.

When host resistance is decreased

b.

When a hypersensitivity reaction is initiated

c.

When the BCG vaccine is not administered immediately following exposure to the microbe

d.

When Ghon complexes form in the lungs

ANS: A REF: 290

34. Which of the following statements does NOT apply to M. tuberculosis?

a.

Microbes can survive for a long time inside tubercles.

b.

The bacilli can survive some adverse conditions such as drying and heat.

c.

Infection is limited to the lungs.

d.

The bacilli can be destroyed by antibacterial drugs.

ANS: C REF: 291

35. Which of the following confirms the presence of active (reinfection) tuberculosis?

a.

A positive skin test for TB

b.

A calcified tubercle shown on a chest X-ray

c.

Identification of acid-fast bacilli in a sputum sample

d.

A history of exposure to individuals being treated for TB

ANS: C REF: 290

36. Areas in the United States that show higher rates than the national rate of TB are areas that have a high incidence of:

a.

HIV and homelessness.

b.

obesity and tobacco use.

c.

elderly persons and radon.

d.

steroid use and alcoholism.

ANS: A REF: 293

37. Histoplasmosis is caused by a:

a.

fungus.

b.

virus.

c.

bacillus.

d.

protozoa.

ANS: A REF: 294

38. Cystic fibrosis is transmitted as a/an:

a.

X-linked recessive gene.

b.

autosomal recessive gene.

c.

autosomal dominant gene.

d.

chromosomal defect.

ANS: B REF: 294

39. The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is centered on a/an:

a.

defect of the exocrine glands.

b.

impaired function of the endocrine glands.

c.

chronic inflammatory condition of the lungs.

d.

abnormal immune response in the lungs and other organs.

ANS: A REF: 294

40. Growth and development of a child with cystic fibrosis may be delayed because of:

a.

deficit of gastric enzymes for protein digestion.

b.

mucus plugs obstructing the flow of pancreatic enzymes.

c.

lack of available treatment for steatorrhea.

d.

abnormal salivary secretions.

ANS: B REF: 294

41. Persistent thick mucus in the bronchioles of a child with cystic fibrosis may cause:

1. air trapping.

2. atelectasis.

3. repeated infections.

4. irreversible damage to lung tissue.

a.

1, 2

b.

2, 4

c.

1, 3, 4

d.

1, 2, 3, 4

ANS: D REF: 294

42. What is a common indicator of cystic fibrosis in the newborn?

a.

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

b.

Failure to excrete meconium

c.

Taste of ammonia on the skin

d.

Lack of bile secretions

ANS: B REF: 297

43. What is an early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma?

a.

Air trapping and overinflation of the lung

b.

Weight loss

c.

Bone pain

d.

Chronic cough

ANS: D REF: 296-297

44. Cigarette smoking predisposes to malignant neoplasms because smoking:

a.

can cause metaplasia and dysplasia in the epithelium.

b.

promotes malignant changes in all types of benign tumors in the lungs.

c.

causes paraneoplastic syndrome.

d.

increases exposure to carbon monoxide in the lungs.

ANS: A REF: 297

45. Why does hypercalcemia occur with bronchogenic carcinoma?

a.

Invasion of the parathyroid gland by the tumor

b.

Secretion of parathyroid or parathyroid like hormones by the tumor

c.

Destruction of the ribs

d.

Failure of the kidney to excrete calcium ions

ANS: B REF: 299

46. What is a sign indicating total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material?

a.

Hoarse cough

b.

Rapid loss of consciousness

c.

Dyspnea

d.

Inflammation of the mucosa

ANS: B REF: 299

47. Which of the following predisposes to postoperative aspiration?

a.

Reduced pressure of the abdominal organs on the diaphragm

b.

Depression of the vomiting center by anesthetics and analgesics

c.

Vomiting caused by drugs or anesthesia

d.

Lack of food intake for the previous 24 hours

ANS: C REF: 300

48. What is the pathophysiology of an acute attack of extrinsic asthma?

a.

Gradual degeneration and fibrosis

b.

Continuous severe attacks unresponsive to medication

c.

A hypersensitivity reaction involving release of chemical mediators

d.

Hyperresponsive mucosa

ANS: C REF: 300

49. During an acute asthma attack, how does respiratory obstruction occur?

1. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle

2. Edema of the mucosa

3. Increased secretion of thick, tenacious mucus

4. Contraction of elastic fibers

a.

1, 2

b.

1, 3

c.

2, 3

d.

2, 4

ANS: C REF: 303 | 322

50. What cause the expanded anteroposterior (A-P) thoracic diameter (barrel chest) in patients with emphysema?

a.

Air trapping and hyperinflation

b.

Persistent coughing to remove mucus

c.

Recurrent damage to lung tissues

d.

Dilated bronchi and increased mucous secretions

ANS: A REF: 303

51. Which of the following is typical of progressive emphysema?

a.

Vital capacity increases.

b.

Residual lung volume increases.

c.

Forced expiratory volume increases.

d.

Tidal volume increases.

ANS: B REF: 303

52. Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in:

a.

chronic bronchitis.

b.

acute asthma.

c.

emphysema.

d.

asbestosis.

ANS: C REF: 302

53. A group of common chronic respiratory disorders characterized by tissue degeneration and respiratory obstruction is called:

a.

mesothelioma.

b.

COPD.

c.

CF.

d.

MD.

ANS: B REF: 303

54. Which statement does NOT apply to emphysema?

a.

The surface area available for gas exchange is greatly reduced.

b.

A genetic defect may lead to breakdown of elastic fibers.

c.

The ventilation/perfusion ratio remains constant.

d.

Expiration is impaired.

ANS: C REF: 307

55. What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?

a.

Chronic irritation, inflammation, and recurrent infection of the larger airways

b.

A genetic defect causing excessive production of mucus

c.

Hypersensitivity to parasympathetic stimulation in the bronchi

d.

Deficit of enzymes, preventing tissue degeneration

ANS: A REF: 307

56. Which of the following is typical of chronic bronchitis?

a.

Decreased activity of the mucous glands

b.

Fibrosis of the bronchial wall

c.

Overinflation of bronchioles and alveoli

d.

Formation of blebs or bullae on the lung surface

ANS: B REF: 307

57. What are typical pathological changes with bronchiectasis?

a.

Bronchospasm and increased mucous secretion

b.

Adhesions and fibrosis in the pleural membranes

c.

Airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls

d.

Fixation of the ribs in the inspiratory position

ANS: C REF: 308

58. Which of the following are significant signs of bronchiectasis?

a.

Persistent nonproductive cough, dyspnea, and fatigue

b.

Persistent purulent nasal discharge, fever, and cough

c.

Chronic cough, producing large quantities of purulent sputum

d.

Wheezing and stridor

ANS: C REF: 302 | 304

59. Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease?

a.

The right ventricle pumps more blood than the left ventricle.

b.

Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vascular resistance.

c.

Demands on the left ventricle are excessive.

d.

Blood viscosity is increased, adding to cardiac workload.

ANS: B REF: 308

60. Restrictive lung disorders may be divided into two groups based on:

a.

patient history of obesity and exposure to other COPD.

b.

smoking history and congenital defects.

c.

previous lung disease and cardiovascular disorders.

d.

anatomical abnormality and lung disease damage, impairing expansion.

ANS: D REF: 303

61. What is caused by frequent inhalation of irritating particles such as silica?

a.

Fibrosis and loss of compliance

b.

Frequent bronchospasm

c.

Increased number of mucus-producing glands

d.

Distorted shape of the thorax

ANS: A REF: 309

62. Pulmonary edema causes severe hypoxia because of:

a.

decreased diffusion of carbon dioxide from the alveoli.

b.

interference with expansion of the lungs.

c.

constant cough and hemoptysis.

d.

decreased recoil of lungs and ineffective expiration.

ANS: B REF: 309

63. Which of the following is NOT a cause of pulmonary edema?

a.

Left-sided congestive heart failure

b.

Excessive blood volume (overload)

c.

Inhalation of toxic gases

d.

Hyperproteinemia and increasing osmotic pressure of the blood

ANS: D REF: 309

64. Which of the following is a common source of a pulmonary embolus?

a.

Mural thrombus from the left ventricle

b.

Thrombus attached to atheromas in the aorta or iliac arteries

c.

Thrombus forming in the femoral veins

d.

A blood clot in the pulmonary vein

ANS: C REF: 309-310

65. What is a large-sized pulmonary embolus likely to cause?

a.

Hypertension and left-sided heart failure

b.

Atelectasis and respiratory failure

c.

Hypotension and right-sided heart failure

d.

Pleural effusion and atelectasis

ANS: C REF: 312

66. Which manifestation(s) of atelectasis is/are associated with airway obstruction?

a.

Bradycardia and dyspnea

b.

Tracheal deviation toward the unaffected side

c.

Decreased breath sounds on the affected side

d.

Rales and rhonchi

ANS: C REF: 312

67. How does total obstruction of the airway lead to atelectasis?

a.

Decreased surfactant production impairs lung expansion.

b.

The involved lung is compressed.

c.

Air is absorbed from the alveoli distal to the obstruction.

d.

Air continues to be inspired but is trapped distal to the obstruction.

ANS: C REF: 312

68. How does a large pleural effusion lead to atelectasis?

a.

The cohesion between the pleural membranes is disrupted.

b.

There is decreased intrapleural pressure.

c.

The mediastinal contents compress the affected side.

d.

Pleuritic pain causes very shallow breathing.

ANS: A REF: 316

69. When does flail chest usually occur?

a.

An open puncture wound involves the pleural membranes.

b.

The visceral pleura is torn by a fractured rib.

c.

Several ribs are fractured at two sites.

d.

Increasing fluid in the pleural cavity causes atelectasis.

ANS: C REF: 316

70. With a flail chest injury, events during inspiration include which of the following?

a.

Air is sucked into the lung through the chest wall.

b.

The mediastinum shifts toward the unaffected side.

c.

The floating segment is pushed outward.

d.

The trachea deviates toward the affected side.

ANS: B REF: 316

71. How is cardiac output reduced with a flail chest injury?

a.

Atelectasis compresses the heart.

b.

Venous return is impaired.

c.

Intrapleural pressure is decreased.

d.

Air pressure continues to increase in the pleural space.

ANS: B REF: 314

72. Which of the following is a manifestation of a simple closed pneumothorax?

a.

Decreased respiratory rate

b.

Tracheal deviation toward the unaffected lung

c.

Asymmetrical chest movements

d.

Increased breath sounds on the affected side

ANS: C REF: 314

73. Which of the following is an effect of a large open pneumothorax (sucking wound)?

a.

Mediastinal flutter, impairing venous return

b.

Increased venous return

c.

Progressive atelectasis of both lungs

d.

Overexpansion of the unaffected lung

ANS: A REF: 316

74. With a tension pneumothorax, which factors contribute to severe hypoxia?

a.

Decreasing compression of the inferior vena cava

b.

More air leaving the pleural cavity on expiration than entering with inspiration

c.

Shift of the mediastinal contents toward the affected lung

d.

Continually increasing pressure on the unaffected lung

ANS: D REF: 319

75. Which of the following statements describe the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome?

1. Damage leading to increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membranes

2. Decreased surface tension in the alveoli

3. Excessive fluid and protein interstitially and in the alveoli

4. Multiple diffuse hemorrhages in the lungs

a.

1, 2

b.

1, 3

c.

2, 3

d.

3, 4

ANS: B REF: 317

76. Infant respiratory distress syndrome results from:

a.

insufficient surfactant production.

b.

incomplete expiration shortly after birth.

c.

retention of fluid in the lungs after birth.

d.

immature neural control of respirations.

ANS: A REF: 282

77. Obstruction in the upper airway is usually indicated by:

a.

stridor.

b.

rales.

c.

wheezing.

d.

orthopnea.

ANS: A REF: 280

78. Which of the following does NOT apply to carbon dioxide?

a.

It diffuses across membranes much more easily than does oxygen.

b.

It is carried in blood as carbaminohemoglobin.

c.

It can be converted into bicarbonate ion.

d.

It is replaced on hemoglobin by oxygen in the lungs.

ANS: D REF: 278

79. Whenever PO2 levels decrease below normal, PCO2 levels:

a.

increase.

b.

decrease also.

c.

may or may not change.

d.

increase slightly.

ANS: C REF: 283

80. Laryngotracheobronchitis is typically manifested by:

a.

drooling and difficulty swallowing.

b.

hoarse voice and barking cough.

c.

sore and scratchy throat with fever.

d.

wheezing and dyspnea.

ANS: B REF: 286

81. Lobar pneumonia is usually caused by:

a.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

b.

Streptococcus pneumoniae.

c.

Legionella pneumophila.

d.

Pneumocystis carinii.

ANS: B REF: 290

82. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a/an:

a.

rhinovirus.

b.

mycoplasma.

c.

influenza virus.

d.

coronavirus.

ANS: D REF: 290

83. SARS typically begins as a flulike syndrome followed, after a few days, by:

a.

increased exudates in the bronchial tree and pleural cavity.

b.

productive cough and lobar consolidation.

c.

interstitial lung congestion, dyspnea, and dry cough.

d.

hemoptysis and necrosis of mucous membrane.

ANS: C REF: 294

84. In addition to effects on the lungs and pancreas, cystic fibrosis results in:

a.

excess bile production.

b.

high sodium chloride content in saliva and sweat.

c.

gastric ulcers.

d.

frequent ear and sinus infections.

ANS: B REF: 297

85. Which of the following is a significant early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma in a smoker?

a.

Frequent nonproductive cough

b.

Fever, dyspnea, generalized aching

c.

Production of large volumes of purulent sputum

d.

Hemoptysis and weight loss

ANS: D REF: 297

86. Which of the following is likely to cause pneumothorax or hemothorax in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma?

a.

The tumor obstructs a major bronchus.

b.

Compression of lung tissue by the tumor causes atelectasis.

c.

The tumor causes inflammation and erosion of the pleural membranes.

d.

Inflammation around the tumor causes exudate in the small bronchi.

ANS: C REF: 292

87. Which of the following would confirm a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis?

a.

A positive tuberculin skin test

b.

Occurrence of hemoptysis

c.

Unproductive cough with absence of sputum

d.

Small areas of calcification on a chest X-ray

ANS: D REF: 293

88. Which of the following drugs is usually prescribed for prophylaxis in persons in close contact with a patient with active tuberculosis?

a.

Streptomycin

b.

Isoniazid

c.

Rifampin

d.

Streptomycin

ANS: B REF: 293

89. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a.

TB bacilli are spread by oral droplet.

b.

TB bacilli are slow-growing bacteria.

c.

Active TB must be treated in hospital for many months.

d.

Active TB can be prevented by good host resistance.

ANS: C REF: 309

90. Choose the correct reason for severe hypoxia occurring with pulmonary edema:

a.

Diffusion of oxygen into the alveoli is impaired.

b.

Fluid in the pleural cavity prevents normal lung expansion.

c.

Increased concentration of CO2 impairs diffusion of oxygen.

d.

Increased blood flow through the lungs prevents diffusion of gases.

ANS: A REF: 302

91. Which of the following drugs in an inhaler would likely be carried by individuals to provide immediate control of acute asthma attacks?

a.

A glucocorticoid

b.

Epinephrine

c.

Cromolyn

d.

A 2-adrenergic agent

ANS: D REF: 304

92. Development of emphysema in a nonsmoker may be the result of:

a.

a genetic factor.

b.

obesity.

c.

vitamin deficiencies.

d.

a developmental defect.

ANS: A REF: 312

93. Which factors contribute to postoperative atelectasis?

1. Decreased secretions in the airways

2. Drug-related respiratory depression

3. Abdominal distention and pain

4. Excessive deep-breathing and coughing

a.

1, 2

b.

2, 3

c.

3, 4

d.

1, 4

ANS: B REF: 289

94. Primary atypical pneumonia (PAP) is caused by:

a.

Klebsiella oxytoca.

b.

Candida albicans.

c.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

d.

Streptococcus pneumoniae.

ANS: C REF: 317

95. All of the following are expected with infant respiratory distress syndrome EXCEPT:

a.

severe hypoxia.

b.

respiratory alkalosis.

c.

pulmonary vasoconstriction.

d.

fluid and protein in the alveoli.

ANS: B REF: 282

96. Which factor usually causes metabolic acidosis to develop in association with hypoxia?

a.

Anaerobic metabolism

b.

Failure to excrete CO2

c.

Liver dysfunction

d.

Increased blood volume

ANS: A REF: 316

97. Mediastinal flutter associated with chest injury is likely to:

a.

cause pulmonary edema.

b.

cause hypocapnia.

c.

increase lung expansion.

d.

decrease venous return to the heart.

ANS: D REF: 292

98. Which of the following individuals is NOT considered to be at high risk for developing active tuberculosis?

a.

Homeless individuals

b.

Individuals with AIDS

c.

Persons who experience acute asthma attacks

d.

Those living in institutions

ANS: C REF: 285

99. Which of the following distinguishes influenza from infectious rhinitis?

a.

Influenza is a viral infection.

b.

Treatment is symptomatic

c.

Influenza has a sudden onset with fever, marked muscle aching, and severe malaise.

d.

Complications can occur with influenza.

ANS: C REF: 300

100. The use of a continuous positive airway pump in the treatment of sleep apnea will:

a.

reduce bronchospasm.

b.

force expansion of pleural membranes.

c.

maintain an open airway.

d.

awaken the person and increase respirations.

ANS: C REF: 309

101. Hemoptysis is a significant sign of:

a.

pleural effusion.

b.

pulmonary embolus.

c.

pulmonary edema.

d.

atelectasis.

ANS: C REF: 293

102. Which of the following applies to anthrax infection?

a.

It is caused by a virus that mutates frequently.

b.

When inhaled, it causes flulike symptoms followed by acute respiratory distress.

c.

There is a long incubation period, often months, following exposure.

d.

It is a common infection in North America.

ANS: B REF: 294

103. The mutated gene for cystic fibrosis is located on the:

a.

seventh chromosome.

b.

tenth chromosome.

c.

fifteenth chromosome.

d.

X chromosome.

ANS: A REF: 298

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