Chapter 13: Nursing Theory: The Basis for Professional Nursing My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 13: Nursing Theory: The Basis for Professional Nursing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following best describes the meaning of the term theory?

a.

A set of beliefs about the nature of how things work and how the world should be viewed

b.

A group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that describe a certain view of nursing phenomena from which to describe or predict outcomes

c.

An organizational structure that outlines concrete connections between concepts

d.

Statements that describe linkages between concepts and propose a testable outcome

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A set of beliefs about the nature of how things work and how the world should be viewed is the definition of philosophy.

B

A group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that describe a certain view of nursing phenomena from which to describe or predict outcomes is the definition of theory.

C

An organizational structure that outlines concrete connections between concepts is the definition of conceptual framework.

D

Statements that describe linkages between concepts and propose a testable outcome is the definition of propositions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 266

2. Which component of nursing theory describes a testable outcome?

a.

Conceptual model

b.

Proposition

c.

Framework

d.

Metaparadigm

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A conceptual model provides an organizational structure, not a testable outcome.

B

A proposition describes an outcome that is testable in research or practice.

C

A framework is another name for conceptual model.

D

A metaparadigm consists of the major concepts of the discipline.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 267

3. A broad, general view of nursing that clarifies values and answers broad disciplinary questions for nursing is known as a

a.

conceptual model.

b.

metaparadigm.

c.

philosophy.

d.

theory.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A conceptual model is a broadly defined concept in an organized system to provide a focus for the integration and interpretation of information.

B

The metaparadigm is the four concepts of person, health, environment, and nursing.

C

A philosophy is a set of broad beliefs about the nature of how things work and how to view the world.

D

A theory is a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that propose a view of phenomena to describe, explain, or predict outcomes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 267

4. A specific organizational structure that makes clear connections between concepts is a

a.

conceptual model.

b.

metaparadigm.

c.

philosophy.

d.

theory.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A conceptual model is a broadly defined concept in an organized system to provide a focus for the integration and interpretation of information.

B

The metaparadigm is the four concepts of person, health, environment, and nursing.

C

A philosophy is a set of broad beliefs about the nature of how things work and how to view the world.

D

A theory is a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that propose a view of phenomena to describe, explain, or predict outcomes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 267

5. A group of concepts and propositions that describe linkages between the concepts is a

a.

conceptual model.

b.

metaparadigm.

c.

philosophy.

d.

theory.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A conceptual model is a broadly defined concept in an organized system to provide a focus for the integration and interpretation of information.

B

The metaparadigm is the four concepts of person, health, environment, and nursing.

C

A philosophy is a set of broad beliefs about the nature of how things work and how to view the world.

D

A theory is a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that propose a view of phenomena to describe, explain, or predict outcomes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 267

6. An overriding principle of Nightingales writings on nursing dealt with which aspect of nursing?

a.

The relationship between nurses, physicians, and society

b.

The relationship between patients, health, and environment

c.

The relationship between illness and health practices

d.

The relationship between hospitals, nurses, and patients

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The relationship between nurses, physicians, and society does not reflect Nightingales philosophy.

B

Nightingales philosophy was sensitive to the effect of the environment on the patients health and recovery.

C

The relationship between illness and health practices does not reflect Nightingales philosophy.

D

The relationship between hospitals, nurses, and patients does not reflect Nightingales philosophy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 269

7. The nurse adjusts the patients room to allow the patient to see the sunlight out the window and checks the patients diet tray to ensure a balanced diet. The nurse could be basing care on the philosophy of

a.

Henderson.

b.

Nightingale.

c.

Roy.

d.

Watson.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Henderson identified 14 basic needs as a general focus for patient care. She proposed that these needs shaped the fundamental elements of nursing care.

B

Nightingale believed that the health of patients was related to their environment. She recognized the importance of clean air and water, adequate ventilation and sunlight, a balanced diet, and cleanliness.

C

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasized the persons adaptive abilities.

D

Watsons carative factors guide nurses who use transpersonal caring in practice. She believes that nurses have the responsibility for creating and maintaining an environment supporting human caring while recognizing and providing for patients primary human requirements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 269

8. Which contemporary nursing theorist is best known for her definition of nursing that describes the nurses role as a substitute for the patient and as a helper and partner to the patient?

a.

Orem

b.

Henderson

c.

Watson

d.

King

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Orem described the self-care theory.

B

Hendersons theory of nursing described the nurses role as that of a substitute for the patient, a helper for the patient, or a partner with the patient.

C

Watsons theory was based on caring.

D

Kings theory was of interacting systems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 269

9. Which of the following human needs was not included in Hendersons 14 basic needs of patients?

a.

Need for work

b.

Sleep and rest

c.

Spirituality

d.

Sexuality

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The need for work was listed as one of the developmental needs.

B

Sleep and rest were listed as one of the first nine basic needs.

C

Spirituality was listed as one of the psychosocial needs.

D

Henderson did not include sexuality in the 14 basic human needs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 271 | Box 13-3

10. The nurse assists the patient with a bath in the morning because the patient has a cast on one hand and an intravenous line in the other. The nurse could be basing care on the philosophy of

a.

Henderson.

b.

Nightingale.

c.

Roy.

d.

Watson.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Henderson identified 14 basic needs as a general focus for patient care. She proposed that these needs shaped the fundamental elements of nursing care. One of these needs is to keep the body clean, and the nurse is assisting the patient to meet this need because the patient is unable to perform the function alone.

B

Nightingale believed that the health of patients was related to their environment. She recognized the importance of clean air and water, adequate ventilation and sunlight, a balanced diet, and cleanliness.

C

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasized the persons adaptive abilities.

D

Watsons carative factors guide nurses who use transpersonal caring in practice. She believes that nurses have the responsibility for creating and maintaining an environment supporting human caring while recognizing and providing for patients primary human requirements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 270

11. Which contemporary theorist is best known for her emphasis on the caring aspect of nursing?

a.

Orem

b.

Watson

c.

Henderson

d.

King

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Orem developed the self-care theory.

B

Watsons theory emphasizes the caring aspect of nursing.

C

Hendersons theory involves assisting the patient to do those things that he or she would do for himself or herself if able.

D

Kings theory describes interacting systems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 271

12. The nurse teaches the patient how to administer insulin. Before this the nurse and patient had developed a trusting relationship over several days, which included sharing feelings about having to take daily medication. The patient expressed confidence in the care provided by the nurse. The nurse could be basing care on the philosophy of

a.

Henderson.

b.

Nightingale.

c.

Roy.

d.

Watson.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Henderson identified 14 basic needs as a general focus for patient care. The function of nurses was to assist patients if they were unable to perform any of these 14 functions themselves. Examples of the 14 basic needs include breathing, eating, and drinking (care of the physical self), communication (psychosocial needs) and the need for play (developmental needs).

B

Nightingale believed that the health of patients was related to their environment. She recognized the importance of clean air and water, adequate ventilation and sunlight, a balanced diet, and cleanliness.

C

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasized the persons adaptive abilities.

D

Watsons carative factors guide nurses who use transpersonal caring in practice. She believes that nurses have the responsibility for creating and maintaining an environment supporting human caring while recognizing and providing for patients primary human requirements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 271-272 | Box 13-4

13. Which nursing model is based on the assumption that people want to be in control of their lives?

a.

Orem

b.

King

c.

Roy

d.

Watson

ANS: A

Feedback

A

An underlying assumption of Orems model is that people want to be in control of their lives and to take care of themselves.

B

Kings model of interacting systems stresses goal attainment.

C

Roys work is based on adaptation and adaptive behavior produced by changing the environment.

D

Watsons theory emphasizes the caring aspect of nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 273

14. The nurse is caring for a postoperative patient who is unable to feed himself and complete basic activities of daily living. The nurse does catheter care and changes the surgical dressing, as well as assisting with feeding and hygiene. The nurse could be basing care on the conceptual model of

a.

Johnson.

b.

King.

c.

Orem.

d.

Roy.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Johnsons model describes the person as a behavioral system that is an organized and integrated whole of seven distinct behavioral subsystems. According to Johnson, nursing is an activity that helps the person achieve and maintain an optimal state of health through the manipulation and regulation of the environment.

B

King focuses on goal attainment for and by the patient. Kings interacting systems form a framework to view whole people in their family and social contexts.

C

Orems model focuses on the patients self-care capacities and the process of designing nursing actions to meet the patients self-care needs. The nurse prescribes and regulates the nursing system on the basis of the patients self-care deficit, which is the extent to which the patient is incapable of providing effective self-care.

D

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasizes the persons adaptive abilities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 273

15. Which nursing theorist is best known for her emphasis on interacting systems, including nurse and patient in goal setting and goal attainment?

a.

Watson

b.

Roy

c.

King

d.

Orem

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Watsons carative factors guide nurses who use transpersonal caring in practice. She believes that nurses have the responsibility for creating and maintaining an environment supporting human caring while recognizing and providing for patients primary human requirements.

B

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasizes the persons adaptive abilities.

C

King focused on goal attainment for and by the patient. Kings interacting systems form a framework to view whole persons in their family and social contexts.

D

Orems model focuses on the patients self-care capacities and the process of designing nursing actions to meet the patients self-care needs. The nurse prescribes and regulates the nursing system on the basis of the patients self-care deficit, which is the extent to which the patient is incapable of providing effective self-care.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 274

16. A nurse practitioner caring for a diabetic patient thinks the patient could gain better control of the diabetes if the patient lost weight. After assessing the patients perception of weight loss, role, stresses, and support systems, the nurse and patient establish the goal of losing 5 pounds in a month. The nurse could be basing care on the conceptual model of

a.

Johnson.

b.

King.

c.

Orem.

d.

Roy.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Johnsons model describes the person as a behavioral system that is an organized and integrated whole of seven distinct behavioral subsystems. According to Johnson, nursing is an activity that helps the person achieve and maintain an optimal state of health through the manipulation and regulation of the environment.

B

King focused on goal attainment for and by the patient. Kings interacting systems form a framework to view whole persons in their family and social contexts.

C

Orems model focuses on the patients self-care capacities and the process of designing nursing actions to meet the patients self-care needs. The nurse prescribes and regulates the nursing system on the basis of the patients self-care deficit, which is the extent to which the patient is incapable of providing effective self-care.

D

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasizes the persons adaptive abilities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 274

17. Which nursing theorist based her model on the belief that adaptation to changes in the environment is the basis of health?

a.

Watson

b.

King

c.

Roy

d.

Peplau

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Watsons theory emphasizes the caring aspect of nursing.

B

Kings model stresses the relationship of the nurse to the patient in goal setting and goal attainment.

C

Roys model provides a comprehensive understanding of adaptation. When environmental demands are too high and patients adaptive mechanisms too low, behavioral responses for coping are ineffective.

D

Peplaus theory of therapeutic use of self describes the therapeutic relationship in terms of phases.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 275

18. A patient who had a broken neck in an automobile accident and was paralyzed, but eventually went back to college, obtained a law degree, and became a practicing lawyer could be said to be demonstrating

a.

adaptation.

b.

caring.

c.

self-care.

d.

homeostasis.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A person and the environment are sources of stimuli that require modification to promote adaptation in the person. The person is an adaptive system with physiologic, self-concept, role function, and interdependent modes.

B

Caring involves the development of a human-to-human relationship between nurse and patient that results in change through transpersonal caring.

C

Self-care is the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf to maintain health and well-being.

D

Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 275

19. A patient had a significant blood loss in surgery and now has a low hemoglobin level. The patient complains of fatigue. The nurse intervenes to facilitate adaptation by establishing periods of rest and scheduling activities throughout the day. The nurse could be basing care on the conceptual model of

a.

Johnson.

b.

King.

c.

Orem.

d.

Roy.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Johnsons model describes the person as a behavioral system that is an organized and integrated whole of seven distinct behavioral subsystems. According to Johnson, nursing is an activity that helps the person achieve and maintain an optimal state of health through the manipulation and regulation of the environment.

B

King focused on goal attainment for and by the patient. Kings interacting systems form a framework to view whole persons in their family and social contexts.

C

Orems model focuses on the patients self-care capacities and the process of designing nursing actions to meet the patients self-care needs. The nurse prescribes and regulates the nursing system on the basis of the patients self-care deficit, which is the extent to which the patient is incapable of providing effective self-care.

D

Roy focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasizes the persons adaptive abilities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 275

20. Peplaus theory focuses on the therapeutic relationship as the key to successful nursing intervention. Which of the following is correct about Peplaus theory?

a.

It is a grand theory that demonstrates that defining nursing was more important than application to practice.

b.

Her theory developed from her work with oncology patients.

c.

The theory describes six key nursing roles that are flexibly used, depending on the practice setting.

d.

Her theory describes nursing roles as mother, technician, salesman, scholar, and advocate.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Most nursing theorists develop midrange theories that are applicable to practice or education.

B

Peplaus work was with psychiatric patients.

C

Peplaus theory focuses on the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and patient. The nurses role is one of six that may change with the situation or practice setting.

D

Peplau described the roles of nurse as counselor, resource, teacher, technical expert, surrogate, and leader.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 276

21. The nurse has established a relationship with a patient in whom asthma was recently diagnosed. Through their interactions, the nurse helps the patient understand the mechanism of asthma and develop the skills to use a spacer with the inhaler. The nurse could be basing care on the theory of

a.

Leininger.

b.

Peplau.

c.

Orlando.

d.

Neuman.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Leininger encouraged nurses to use creativity to discover cultural aspects of human needs and use these findings to make culturally congruent therapeutic decisions.

B

Peplau focused on what happens between the nurse and patient in a therapeutic relationship. It is through the relationship that the patient is helped to deal with health issues.

C

Orlandos theory proposes how nurses process their observations of patient behavior and how they react to patients based on inferences from patients behavior.

D

Neuman focused on the person and the environment as systems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 276

22. Which nursing theorist is best known for her emphasis on inferences based on observation of patient behavior, confirmation by the patient, and results in effective care based on identified patient needs?

a.

Leininger

b.

Neuman

c.

Orlando

d.

Peplau

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Leininger encouraged nurses to use creativity to discover cultural aspects of human needs and use these findings to make culturally congruent therapeutic decisions.

B

Neuman focused on the person and the environment as systems. Within the systems, stressors are identified that result in disruption for the person, and how to maintain optimal health is explored.

C

Orlandos theory proposes how nurses process their observations of patient behavior and how they react to patients based on inferences from patients behavior.

D

Peplau focused on what happens between the nurse and patient in a therapeutic relationship. It is through the relationship that the patient is helped to deal with health issues.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 277

23. The nurse observes a patient pacing around the room. The patient expresses concern that being hospitalized will cause lost wages and create economic problems. The nurse infers that the patient is anxious, which the patient confirms. The nurse could be basing care on the theory of

a.

Leininger

b.

Neuman

c.

Orlando

d.

Peplau

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Leininger encouraged nurses to use creativity to discover cultural aspects of human needs and use these findings to make culturally congruent therapeutic decisions.

B

Neuman focused on the person and the environment as systems.

C

Orlandos theory proposes how nurses process their observations of patient behavior and how they react to patients on the basis of inferences from patients behavior.

D

Peplau focused on what happens between the nurse and patient in a therapeutic relationship. It is through the relationship that the patient is helped to deal with health issues.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 277

24. Leiningers theory uses the sunrise model. What is the major premise of Leiningers theory?

a.

Nursing care should be culturally congruent.

b.

Nursing care is based on personal, interpersonal, and social systems.

c.

Nursing care is a deliberate action based on observation.

d.

Nursing care is only possible after scientific evaluation.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Nursing care is focused on culture care preservation.

B

Nursing care based on personal, interpersonal, and social systems is from Kings theory.

C

Nursing care as a deliberate action based on observation is a premise of Orlandos theory.

D

Much nursing care tradition has not been empirically tested.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: pp. 277-278

25. The nurse is caring for a young Hispanic patient after surgery. The patient hesitates when the nurse asks about meal selections from the menu. When the parents return, the nurse asks them what foods are eaten when one is ill. The nurse could be basing care on the theory of

a.

Leininger.

b.

Neuman.

c.

Orlando.

d.

Peplau.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Leininger encouraged nurses to use creativity to discover cultural aspects of human needs and use these findings to make culturally congruent therapeutic decisions.

B

Neuman focused on the person and the environment as systems.

C

Orlandos theory proposes how nurses process their observations of patient behavior and how they react to patients on the basis of inferences from patients behavior.

D

Peplau focused on what happens between the nurse and patient in a therapeutic relationship. It is through the relationship that the patient is helped to deal with health issues.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 277-278

26. A nurse conducts theory testing and theory development research to develop nursing science. This nurse is prepared at which level of nursing education?

a.

Associate degree

b.

Bachelors degree

c.

Masters degree

d.

Doctoral degree

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Nurses prepared with an associate degree may have experienced nursing-model or theory-guided curricula or courses.

B

The baccalaureate nurse is introduced to the research process and the use of theory to guide research. These nurses are informed consumers of research relevant to evidence-based nursing practice.

C

Masters-prepared nurses use theoretical perspectives focused on the patient for specific nursing outcomes. They may use theory to frame patient care and guide research with practice questions.

D

At the doctoral level, nurses are concerned about the nature of knowledge and how it is known. It is through nursing research that new, discipline-specific knowledge is generated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 281-282

27. Which of the following best describes a middle-range theory?

a.

They are very limited in scope and are confined to one to three concepts.

b.

They do not incorporate the elements of nursings metaparadigm in use.

c.

They usually blend nursing practice with nursing research.

d.

They do not borrow concepts from other disciplines.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Middle-range theories are considered neither broad nor narrow.

B

While limited to a few concepts, the middle-range theories do not exclude the concepts from the metaparadigm.

C

Middle-range theories usually merge research and nursing practice.

D

Theories from other disciplines are often incorporated into middle-range theories.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 279

28. A nurse has been introduced to theory as a guide to research and practice. This nurse is prepared at which level of nursing education?

a.

Associate degree

b.

Bachelors degree

c.

Masters degree

d.

Doctoral degree

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Nurses prepared with an associate degree may have experienced nursing-model or theory-guided curricula or courses.

B

The baccalaureate nurse is introduced to the research process and the use of theory to guide research. These nurses are informed consumers of research relevant to evidence-based nursing practice.

C

Masters-prepared nurses use theoretical perspectives focused on the patient for specific nursing outcomes. They may use theory to frame patient care and guide research with practice questions.

D

At the doctoral level, nurses are concerned about the nature of knowledge and how it is known. It is through nursing research that new, discipline-specific knowledge is generated.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 280

29. Nursing theory provides a foundation for theory-based practice and curriculum development. Which is a primary reason for incorporating theory into education?

a.

Nursing theory helps nurses explain their practice to members of other disciplines.

b.

Nursing theory helps transmit knowledge to new professional nurses.

c.

Nursing theory contributes to professional autonomy, an important characteristic of all professions.

d.

Nursing theory is taught as a guide to nursing practice and to teach students care within the unique perspective of nursing.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Nursing theory does help nurses explain their practice to members of other disciplines.

B

Nursing theory does help transmit knowledge to new professional nurses.

C

Nursing theory does contribute to professional autonomy, an important characteristic of all professions.

D

Nursing theory is important in a curriculum because it serves as a guide to nursing practice and enhances patient care within the unique perspective of the discipline.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 280

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. What are the reasons nursing theory is important to the profession? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Nursing theory is used to guide research but not practice.

b.

The goal of nursing theory is to support excellence in practice.

c.

Nursing as a profession becomes stronger when nursing knowledge is built on sound theory.

d.

Theory is a useful tool for reasoning, critical thinking, and decision making.

e.

Nursing theory is used by other disciplines.

ANS: B, C, D

Feedback

Correct

As a profession, nursing uses theory to guide practice, has a distinct body of knowledge that needs to be built on sound theory, and theories assist in organizing information and provide a framework to look at situations.

Incorrect

Theory is important to nursing to guide not only research and the development of knowledge but also practice decisions. Nursing theory has not been used by other disciplines; however, with the increase of interdisciplinary research, this may change.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 267

2. The metaparadigm of nursing consists of which concepts? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Environment

b.

Health

c.

Caring

d.

Nursing

e.

Person

ANS: A, B, D, E

Feedback

Correct

Environment, health, nursing, and the person are the concepts contained in most nursing philosophies, models, and theories.

Incorrect

Caring is not a concept in the metaparadigm.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 267

3. Which of the following are included in Hendersons 14 basic needs of patients? (Select all that apply.)

a.

The need to eliminate body wastes

b.

The need for interdependence

c.

The need to communicate

d.

The need for self-concept

e.

The need for work and sense of accomplishment

ANS: A, C, E

Feedback

Correct

The needs to eliminate body wastes, communicate, and work are part of the 14 basic needs identified by Henderson.

Incorrect

The need for interdependence and self-concept are not part of the 14 basic needs identified by Henderson.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 271 | Box 13-3

4. Watsons 10 caritas processes include which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

The promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning

b.

The participation in recreation

c.

The instillation of faith-hope

d.

Avoidance of injuring others

e.

Assistance with the gratification of human needs

ANS: A, C, E

Feedback

Correct

The promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning, the instillation of faith-hope, and assistance with the gratification of human needs are part of the 10 carative factors identified by Watson.

Incorrect

The participation in recreation and avoidance of injuring others are not included in the 10 carative factors identified by Watson.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 271 | Box 13-4

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