Chapter 13: Change, Innovation, and Conflict Management My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 13: Change, Innovation, and Conflict Management

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Sullivan and Decker (1997) define change as:

a.

planned and purposeful.

b.

voluntary and for ones own reasons.

c.

making something different from what it was.

d.

voluntary and carries intrinsic or extrinsic rewards.

ANS: C

Sullivan and Decker define change as making something different from what it was. Sebastian (1999) states that organizational change is planned and most change is purposeful. Personal change is change made voluntarily for ones own reasons. Personal or professional change is voluntary and carries intrinsic or extrinsic rewards.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge REF: CHANGE

2. During a job interview, the nurse recruiter informs you that the organization is undergoing several significant changes. As a new graduate, you recognize that one characteristic of organizational change is:

a.

improving efficiency.

c.

mandatory on an annual basis.

b.

spontaneous action.

d.

voluntary for self-improvement.

ANS: A

Organizational change is usually planned, and the purpose is generally to improve efficiency or financial standing, or for some other organizational purpose. Personal change is a change made voluntarily for self-improvement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: CHANGE

3. Which of the following is the change theory proposed by Lewin?

a.

Phases of change

c.

Diffusion of innovations theory

b.

Six-step change model

d.

Force-field model

ANS: D

Lewins change theory is entitled force-field model. Lippitts model is entitled phases of change. Havelocks model is six-step change model. Rogerss model is called diffusion of innovations theory of change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge REF: TRADITIONAL CHANGE THEORIES

4. Rogerss Diffusion of Innovations theory of change includes which of the following steps?

a.

Diagnose problem, assess motivation and capacity for change, assess change agents motivation and resources, select progressive change objective, choose appropriate role of change agent, maintain change, and terminate helping relationship

b.

Unfreeze, move, refreeze

c.

Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption

d.

Build relationship, diagnose problem, acquire resources, choose solution, gain acceptance, and stabilization/self-renewal

ANS: C

The steps in Rogerss diffusion of Innovations theory of change are awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. The steps in Lippitts change theory are diagnose problem, assess motivation/capacity to change, assess change agents motivation/resources, select progressive change objective, choose appropriate role of change agent, maintain change, and terminate helping relationship. Lewins force-field model includes the steps of unfreeze, move, and refreeze. Havelocks six-step change model includes the following steps: build relationship, diagnose problem, acquire resources, choose solution, gain acceptance, and stabilization/self-renewal.

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

REF: TABLE 13-2 COMPARISON CHART OF CHANGE THEORIES AND THEIR USES

5. Your organization is planning to make educational and cultural changes. Which model of change is most often used in this type of situation?

a.

Force-field model

b.

Phases of change model

c.

Six-step change model

d.

Diffusion of innovations theory of change model

ANS: C

The six-step change model is used most often for educational change or cultural change. The force-field model is used for most situations and organizations. The phases of change model is used for process changes and general change. The diffusion of innovations theory of change is for permanent change that is general in nature for organization and group change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application

REF: TABLE 13-2 COMPARISON CHART OF CHANGE THEORIES AND THEIR USES

6. The model that emphasizes the participation of key personnel and the change agent in designing and planning the intended change project is:

a.

force-field model.

b.

phases of change model.

c.

six-step change model.

d.

diffusion of innovations theory of change model.

ANS: B

Lippitts phases of change model emphasizes the participation of key personnel and the change agent in designing and planning the intended change project. Havelocks six-step change model emphasizes the planning stage. Rogerss diffusion of innovations theory of change emphasizes the innovation decision-making process. Lewins force-field model emphasizes unfreezing, moving to a new level, and refreezing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: TRADITIONAL CHANGE THEORIES

7. The theory that is based on responsiveness and flexibility is:

a.

chaos theory.

c.

diffusion of innovations theory.

b.

learning organization theory.

d.

change theory.

ANS: B

Learning organization theory is based on responsiveness and flexibility due to interrelationships. Chaos theory is based on order that is potentially unrecognizable because it does not appear in the same form twice. Diffusion of innovations theory is based on the innovation decision-making process. Change theory focuses on understanding change and the dynamics involved in change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: THEORY OF LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS

8. One discipline that is needed for an organization to achieve the learning organization status to deal effectively with chaos is:

a.

systems thinking.

c.

self-learning.

b.

group mastery.

d.

physical models.

ANS: A

Senge developed five disciplines that are necessary for organizations to achieve the learning organization status to deal effectively with chaos. These disciplines are: systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building a shared vision, and team learning. The key to development of Senges five disciplines is two-way communication or open discussion and dialogue.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: THEORY OF LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS

9. During which step in the change process would the who, how, and when of the change be determined?

a.

Assessment

c.

Implementation

b.

Planning

d.

Evaluation

ANS: B

In the planning step, the who, how, and when of the change are determined. The assessment step identifies what the problem is or the opportunity for improvement through change by collecting and analyzing data. In the implementation step, the plan actually goes live. The evaluation step includes identifying measurable expected outcomes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: PLANNING

10. As a new graduate, you recognize that one of the reasons to introduce change is to:

a.

solve a problem.

c.

sort out the causes of chaos.

b.

maintain relationships.

d.

acknowledge that change is inevitable.

ANS: A

There are three basic reasons to introduce a change: 1) to solve a problem, 2) to improve efficiency, and 3) to reduce unnecessary workload for some group. Change for the sake of change is an unnecessary and stressful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: THE CHANGE PROCESS

11. Your unit is in the process of making a major change in patient care delivery. Data has been collected; the driving and restraining forces, including costs, desirability, and feasibility, have been examined. Which issue related to change has the unit addressed?

a.

Political issue

c.

Structural issue

b.

Technology issue

d.

People issue

ANS: C

Structural issues include the costs, desirability, and feasibility of the change project. Political issues include the power groups in favor of or against the proposed change. Technology issues may include new, up-to-date equipment. People issues include the commitment of the staff, their level of education and training, and their interest in the project.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: THE CHANGE PROCESS

12. Your unit has just introduced a new system for electronic health records (EHR). Each of the staff members must be taught how to use the system. A strategy for change that focuses on teaching workers new technology is which of the following?

a.

Providing information

c.

Power coercive

b.

Training

d.

Normative reeducative

ANS: B

Training focuses on teaching workers new technology. Providing information focuses on what the change will mean to the individual. The power-coercive strategy uses authority and threat of job loss to gain compliance with change. The normative-reeducative strategy uses social orientation and the need to have satisfactory relationships in the workplace.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: PLANNING

13. The nursing manager is preparing for change on the unit and approaches the change using a rational-empirical strategy. The managers approach to change uses which of the following as a power base?

a.

Social orientation

c.

Knowledge

b.

Authority and threat

d.

Teaching

ANS: C

The rational-empirical strategy for change uses knowledge as a power base. Once workers understand the organizational need for change or understand the meaning of the change to them as individuals and the organization as a whole, they will change. Power-coercive uses authority and threat of job loss to gain compliance with change. The normative-reeducative strategy uses social orientation to support change. Training focuses on teaching.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TABLE 13-3 STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE

14. An indicator for successful implementation of a project is:

a.

people owning the change.

c.

time limits on change.

b.

change perceived as neutral.

d.

learning curve status.

ANS: A

There are two characteristics that indicate successful implementation of a project. The most important is that the people affected by the change begin to own the change. The second characteristic of successful implementation is that the change is perceived as an improvement. Usually not enough time is allowed for the change to be effective, and a learning curve must be identified.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGE STRATEGIES

15. Your hospital is making changes to improve patient satisfaction. You recognize that many of your colleagues are satisfied with the current functioning of the hospital. In examining their response, you realize that the most typical response to change is which of the following?

a.

Trust

c.

Status quo

b.

Coping

d.

Resistance

ANS: D

The most typical response to change is resistance. Humans enjoy routine and the status quo. Two factors that affect resistance to change are trust and an individuals ability to cope with change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: PLANNING

16. According to Jones (2007), a factor that affects an individuals ability to cope with change is:

a.

individual perception of loss.

c.

evaluation of previous situations.

b.

anticipated group consequences.

d.

ability to adapt to change.

ANS: D

Jones identifies four factors that affect an individuals ability to cope with change: 1) the ability to adapt to change, 2) evaluation of the immediate situation, 3) anticipated consequences of change and the impact it will have on a person, and 4) perception of group and individual wins and losses in the change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: RESPONSES TO CHANGE

17. Your unit is undergoing planned change. Most of the nurses have expressed openness and receptivity to change. These nurses would be considered which of the following?

a.

Innovator

c.

Early majority

b.

Early adopter

d.

Late majority

ANS: B

Early adopters are open and receptive to change, but they are not obsessed with change. Innovators embrace change and enjoy the challenge of change. The early majority enjoys and prefers the status quo, but does not want to be left behind. The late majority adopts change after expressing negative feelings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TABLE 13-4 RESPONSES TO CHANGE

18. The last group to adopt change is called the:

a.

rejectors.

c.

early majority.

b.

laggards.

d.

late majority.

ANS: B

The laggards are the last group to adopt a change. They prefer tradition and stability to innovation. Rejectors openly oppose and reject change. The early majority enjoys the status quo but does not want to be left behind. The late majority adopts change after expressing negative feelings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: TABLE 13-4 RESPONSES TO CHANGE

19. The nurse manager of your unit has often been referred to as a real change agent. You recognize that one characteristic you manager depicts in her role as change agent is which of the following?

a.

Restrained

c.

Objective

b.

Manages change

d.

Trustworthy

ANS: D

Characteristics of a change agent are trustworthy, open, respected, maintains vision of change, able to empower people, and intuitive.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: THE CHANGE AGENT

20. A change agent can manage the process of change by:

a.

ignoring rumors.

c.

maintaining consistent meetings.

b.

ignoring political forces.

d.

accepting appointed change project team.

ANS: C

Strategies a change agent can use in managing the change process: 1) set up consistent meetings, 2) articulate vision clearly and concisely, 3) develop a timeline, 4) plant seeds and mention ideas to key individuals, 5) select the change project team, 5) share updates, 6) check out rumors, 7) maintain a positive attitude, 8) be alert to political forces, 9) know the informal and formal leaders, and 10) have self-confidence and trust in oneself.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TABLE 13-5 CHANGE AGENT APPROACHES

21. Two nurses disagree on the approach to be taken when caring for a hostile patient. One nurse feels the patient should be treated in the same manner that the patient treats the nurse. The second nurse feels that the patient should be further assessed to determine the possible cause of the patients hostility. These nurses are experiencing which type of conflict?

a.

Intrapersonal conflict

c.

Organizational conflict

b.

Interpersonal conflict

d.

System conflict

ANS: B

In interpersonal conflict, the source of disagreement may be between two people or groups or work teams. Intrapersonal conflict is the type of conflict that occurs within the individual. Organizational conflict is often referred to as intergroup conflict. Conflict can be defined as a disagreement about something of importance to each person involved.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: TYPES OF CONFLICT

22. The conflict resolution technique in which each side gives up something and gains something is called:

a.

avoiding.

c.

competing.

b.

accommodating.

d.

compromising.

ANS: D

In compromising, each side gives up something and gains something. Avoiding is ignoring the conflict. In accommodating, one side gives in to the other side. In competing, two or three sides are forced to compete for the decision.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

23. Which conflict resolution technique has the advantage of being the best solution for the conflict and encompassing all important goals to all sides?

a.

Competing

c.

Collaboration

b.

Confrontation

d.

Negotiating

ANS: C

The advantage of the collaboration conflict resolution technique is that it is the best solution for the conflict, and it encompasses all important goals to all sides. In competing, the advantage is that it produces a winner and is good when time is short and stakes are high. The advantage of confrontation is that it does not allow conflict to take root. In negotiating, stakes are very high, the solution is rather permanent, and it often involves powerful groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

24. Which conflict resolution technique might have the disadvantage of becoming bigger than anticipated and being more important to one person or group than to others?

a.

Collaboration

c.

Competing

b.

Confrontation

d.

Avoiding

ANS: D

The disadvantage of avoiding is that it can become bigger than anticipated, and it might be more important to one person or group than to others. In collaboration, the disadvantage is that it takes a lot of time and requires commitment in order to succeed. The disadvantage of confrontation is that it may leave an impression that conflict is not tolerated, and it may make something big out of nothing. In competing, the disadvantage is that it produces a loser, which may cause anger and resentment on the losing side.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

25. The two biggest problems in health care today are related to:

a.

centralized patient data and flow of information.

b.

patient safety and soaring health care costs.

c.

physician/patient conflicts and consumer groups.

d.

clinical expertise and conflict management skills.

ANS: B

The two biggest problems in health care today are related to patient safety and soaring costs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension REF: INNOVATION

26. A conflict management technique where both sides work together to develop an optimal outcome is called:

a.

avoiding.

c.

confronting.

b.

competing.

d.

collaborating.

ANS: D

Collaborating is when both sides work together to develop an optimal outcome. Avoiding is ignoring the conflict. Competing is when two or three sides are forced to compete, and it produces a winner. Confronting is an obvious movement to stop conflict at the very start.

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

REF: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

27. The nurse manager wants to change the care delivery model from one of team nursing to that of primary nursing. The nurse manager decides to approach the change using Havelocks model. Which steps would need to be completed during Havelocks planning stage?

a.

Gaining acceptance

c.

Acquiring resources

b.

Choosing a solution

d.

Stabilizing and self-renewal

ANS: C

According to Havelocks model of change, the nurse manager would acquire resources during the planning stage. Other steps to be accomplished during this stage include building relationships and diagnosing the problem. Gaining acceptance and choosing a solution are steps in the moving stage. Stabilizing and self-renewal occur during the refreezing stage.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TRADITIONAL CHANGE THEORIES

28. A new graduate nurse has been having difficulty working with one of the older nurses and has requested to be assigned to the evening shift. Which approach to conflict management has the new nurse chosen?

a.

Avoiding

c.

Competing

b.

Collaboration

d.

Accommodation

ANS: A

The new graduate has chosen to avoid the older nurse by being transferred to the evening shift. Avoidance is common and it may be on a conscious or unconscious level. There may be circumstances where avoidance is appropriate such as: (1) one of the parties is leaving so the conflict will resolve itself, (2) the conflict is not solvable and not all that important, and (3) there are other more important issues at stake and conflict management is not worth the time and energy required at this point. A better solution would be for the new graduate to discuss the situation with the older nurse.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

29. The local hospital in your area has begun to implement evidence-based nursing care. The last patient care unit to implement the change has frequently been skeptical and suspicious about the change. According to Rogerss theory, these individual would be considered which of the following?

a.

Rejectors

c.

Innovators

b.

Laggards

d.

Late majority

ANS: B

Laggards are the last group to adopt a change. They prefer tradition and stability to innovation and tend to be somewhat suspicious of change. Rejectors openly oppose and reject change. They may be surreptitious or covert in their opposition and may even hinder the change process to the point of sabotage. Innovators embrace change, enjoy the challenge of change, and often lead change. The late majority, often known as the followers, are often skeptics, but they adopt change after expressing their negative feelings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: RESPONSES TO CHANGE

30. A group of Nurse Practitioners have been informed that changes are being planned for a new computerized charting system. The NPs are excited about the change and have offered to lead the change. According to Rogers, these NPs would be considered which of the following?

a.

Innovators

c.

Early majority

b.

Early adopters

d.

Laggards

ANS: A

According to Rogers, the NPs would be considered Innovators. Innovators embrace change, enjoy the challenge of change, and often lead change. Early adopters are open and receptive to change, but they are not obsessed with it. Early majority enjoy and prefer the status quo, but they do not want to be left behind; consequently, they adopt change before the average person. Laggards are the last group to adopt a change. They prefer tradition and stability to innovation, and they are somewhat suspicious of change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analysis REF: RESPONSES TO CHANGE

31. The nurse manager knows that for change to be successful which of the following must occur?

a.

Autocratic approach must be used.

b.

Only RNs should be involved in the change process.

c.

Empowerment of those involved in the change must occur.

d.

Physicians should be the initiators of change on the unit.

ANS: C

For change to be successful, the change agent must empower people to control the change project as it affects their lives. Those most affected by the change must be involved in assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating the change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: THE CHANGE AGENT

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. You have had concerns regarding the charting method used on your unit. You decide a change needs to be made and begin the change process using Lippitts model. Which steps are included in this model? Select all that apply.

a.

Diagnosing the problem

b.

Assessing the motivation and capacity for change

c.

Eliminating the routines and habits of people affected by the change

d.

Choosing the solution

e.

Choosing an appropriate role for the change agent

f.

Maintaining change after it has been started

ANS: A, B, E, F

Lippitts phases of change include diagnosing the problem, assessing the motivation and capacity for change, choosing an appropriate role for the change agent, and maintaining change after it has been started. Choosing the solution is a step in Havelocks model. It is not suggested that eliminating the routines and habits of people affected by the change should be eliminated. Incorporating the routines and habits of those affected by the change would facilitate acceptance of the change.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TRADITIONAL CHANGE THEORIES

2. In your role of change agent, which of the following approaches would be important? Select all that apply.

a.

Maintain a positive attitude

b.

Look for possible conflicts

c.

Constantly check the timeline for targeted activities

d.

Map out a tentative timeline

e.

Back away from any possible conflict

f.

Select the change project team carefully

ANS: A, C, D, F

Your approach as change agent should include maintaining a positive attitude, mapping out a tentative timeline, selecting the change project team carefully, and checking the timeline for targeted activities. You would not look for possible conflicts, but if conflict occurs, you should never back away from it.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: TABLE 13-5 CHANGE AGENT APPROACHES

3. The nursing staff have been informed that changes will be implemented. The most common people issue related to change includes which of the following? Select all that apply.

a.

Fear of leadership

d.

Fear of promotion

b.

Fear of making mistakes

e.

Competition

c.

Fear of job loss

f.

Fear of not being valued

ANS: C, F

Driving and restraining forces related to change include political issues, technology issues, cost and structural issues, and people issues. The most common people issues include fear of job loss and fear of not being valued.

PTS: 1 DIF: Application REF: RESPONSES TO CHANGE

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