Chapter 12 The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)

Chapter 12   The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths

12.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of the following statements regarding fungi is FALSE?

A) Most fungi are pathogenic for humans.

B) Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs.

C) Fungi reproduce by forming asexual or sexual spores.

D) Most fungi grow well in acidic culture condition.

E) Fungi tolerate low moisture conditions.

Answer:  A

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.1

2) Which of the following statements about helminths is FALSE?

A) They are heterotrophic.

B) They are multicellular animals.

C) They have eukaryotic cells.

D) All are parasites.

E) Some have male and female reproductive organs in one animal.

Answer:  D

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.14

3) Which of the following statements about the oomycote algae is FALSE?

A) They form hyphae.

B) They produce zoospores in a sporangium.

C) They cause plant diseases.

D) They have chlorophyll.

E) They reproduce sexually.

Answer:  D

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.8

4) Seventeen patients in ten hospitals had cutaneous infections caused by Rhizopus. In all seventeen patients, Elastoplast bandages were placed over sterile gauze pads to cover wounds. Fourteen of the patients had surgical wounds, two had venous line insertion sites, and one had a bite wound. Lesions present when the bandages were removed ranged from vesiculopustular eruptions to ulcerations and skin necrosis requiring debridement. Fungi are more likely than bacteria to contaminate bandages because they

A) are aerobic.

B) can tolerate low-moisture conditions.

C) prefer a neutral environment (pH 7).

D) have a fermentative metabolism.

E) cannot tolerate high osmotic pressure.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global Outcome:  2

5) Which of the following statements regarding lichens is FALSE?

A) Lichens are a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a protozoan.

B) Lichens represent a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga.

C) Lichens are often the first life form to colonize rock or soil.

D) The algal partner produces carbohydrates that are absorbed by the fungal partner.

E) The fungal partner provides a means of attachment and protects the algal partner from desiccation.

Answer:  A

Section:  12.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  12.5

Global Outcome:  2

6) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) Basidiomycota basidiospores

B) Ascomycota conidiospores

C) Zygomycota sporangiospores

D) microsporidia lack mitochondria

E) anamorphs lack spores

Answer:  E

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.3

Table 12.1

1-Arthroconidium 5-Chlamydoconidium

2-Ascospore 6-Conidiospore

3-Basidiospore 7-Sporangiospore

4-Blastoconidium 8-Zygospore

7) In Table 12.1, which of these spores are characteristic of Penicillium?

A) 1 and 2

B) 3 and 4

C) 2 and 6

D) 1 and 4

E) 4 and 6

Answer:  C

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  12.2

8) In Table 12.1, which of these spores are characteristic of Rhizopus?

A) 1 and 2

B) 6 and 7

C) 2 and 8

D) 1 and 4

E) 7 and 8

Answer:  E

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  12.2

9) In Table 12.1, which is a thick-walled spore formed as a segment within a hypha?

A) 1

B) 3

C) 5

D) 7

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  12.2

10) In Table 12.1, which of these spores are asexual spores?

A) 1, 4, 5, 6, 7

B) 2, 3, 6, 8

C) 1, 3, 5, 8

D) 2, 4, 6, 7, 8

E) All of the spores are asexual.

Answer:  A

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.1

Learning Outcome:  12.2

11) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) teleomorph produces both sexual and asexual spores

B) dermatomycosis fungal infection of the skin

C) dimorphic fungus grows as a yeast or a mold

D) systemic mycosis fungal infection of body organs

E) coenocytic hyphae hyphae with cross-walls

Answer:  E

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.1

12) Which of the following statements regarding protozoa is FALSE?

A) Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes.

B) Nearly all protozoa cause disease.

C) Most protozoa reproduce asexually.

D) Protozoa are common in water and soil.

E) Some protozoan pathogens are transmitted by arthropod vectors.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.10

13) In mid-December, a woman with insulin-dependent diabetes who had been on prednisone fell and received an abrasion on the dorsal side of her right hand. She was placed on penicillin. By the end of January, the ulcer had not healed, and she was referred to a plastic surgeon. On January 30, a swab of the wound was cultured at 35C on blood agar. On the same day, a smear was made for Gram staining. The Gram stain showed large (10 m) cells. Brownish, waxy colonies grew on the blood agar. Slide cultures set up on February 1 and incubated at 25C showed septate hyphae and single conidia. The most likely cause of the infection is a

A) gram-negative bacterium.

B) dimorphic fungus.

C) parasitic alga.

D) yeast.

E) protozoan.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global Outcome:  2

14) Which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in free-living helminths?

A) digestive system

B) nervous system

C) reproductive system

D) digestive and nervous systems

E) digestive, reproductive, and nervous systems

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.14

15) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) Fungi produce sexual spores.

B) Fungi produce asexual spores.

C) Fungal spores are used in identification of fungi.

D) Fungal spores are highly resistant to heat and chemical agents.

E) Fungal spores are for asexual or sexual reproduction.

Answer:  D

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  12.2

16) Which of the following pairs are mismatched?

1. arthroconidium formed by fragmentation

2. sporangiospore formed within hyphae

3. conidiospore formed in a chain

4. blastoconidium formed from a bud

5. chlamydoconidium formed in a sac

A) 1 and 2

B) 2 and 3

C) 2 and 5

D) 3 and 4

E) 4 and 5

Answer:  C

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.2

17) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) dinoflagellates paralytic shellfish poisoning

B) brown algae algin

C) red algae agar

D) diatoms petroleum

E) green algae prokaryotic

Answer:  E

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  12.8

18) Helminthic diseases are usually transmitted to humans by

A) respiratory route.

B) genitourinary route.

C) gastrointestinal route.

D) vectors.

E) aerosols.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.17

Global Outcome:  7

19) All of the following are characteristic of the Platyhelminthes EXCEPT that they

A) are hermaphroditic.

B) are dorsoventrally flattened.

C) have highly developed digestive and nervous systems.

D) can be divided into flukes and tapeworms.

E) are multicellular animals.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.16

20) In the malaria parasite life cycle, humans are the ________ host, while mosquitoes are the ________ host as well as the vector.

A) definitive; intermediate

B) intermediate; intermediate

C) temporary; final

D) vector; intermediate

E) intermediate; definitive

Answer:  E

Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.20

21) Three weeks after a river rafting trip, three family members experienced symptoms of coughing, fever, and chest pain. During the rafting trip, the family had consumed crayfish that they caught along the river banks. An examination of the patients sputum revealed helminth eggs, and serum samples were positive for antibodies to Paragonimus. All of the family members recovered following treatment with praziquantel. In the Paragonimus life cycle,

A) the crayfish are the definitive host and humans are the intermediate host.

B) humans are the definitive host and crayfish are the intermediate host.

C) both humans and crayfish are intermediate hosts.

D) both humans and crayfish are definitive hosts.

E) the source of the infection was the river water.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.16

22) The encysted larva of the beef tapeworm is called a

A) redia.

B) cercaria.

C) cysticercus.

D) metacercaria.

E) proglottid.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.16

23) Which of the following arthropods does NOT transmit diseases by sucking blood from a human host?

A) lice

B) fleas

C) houseflies

D) mosquitoes

E) kissing bugs

Answer:  C

Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.21

24) Which of the following statements about algae is FALSE?

A) They use light as their energy source.

B) They use CO2 as their carbon source.

C) They produce oxygen from hydrolysis of water.

D) All are unicellular.

E) Some are capable of sexual reproduction.

Answer:  D

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  12.7

25) Below are paired items referring to the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis. Which of the pairs is mismatched?

A) dog definitive host

B) dog sexual reproduction

C) mosquito vector

D) mosquito definitive host

E) None of the pairs is mismatched.

Answer:  D

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  12.17

Global Outcome:  2

26) All of the following are characteristic of algae EXCEPT which ONE of the following?

A) Most are photoautotrophs.

B) They are currently classified as plants.

C) They may be unicellular or multicellular.

D) Some produce harmful toxins.

E) They mostly live in aquatic habitats.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.1

Learning Outcome:  12.7

27) A definitive host harbors which stage of a parasite?

A) miracidium

B) cyst

C) adult

D) larva

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.17

28) What do tapeworms eat?

A) intestinal bacteria

B) host tissues

C) red blood cells

D) intestinal contents

E) plant matter

Answer:  D

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.18

29) Giardia and Trichomonas are unusual eukaryotes because they

A) are motile.

B) lack mitochondria.

C) lack nuclei.

D) do not produce cysts.

E) do produce cysts.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.4

Learning Outcome:  12.11

Global Outcome:  7

30) The life cycle of the fish tapeworm is similar to that of the beef tapeworm. Which of the following is the most effective preventive measure?

A) salting fish before eating

B) refrigerating stored fish

C) cooking fish before eating

D) wearing gloves while handling fish

E) not swimming in fish-infested waters

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  12.19

Global Outcome:  2

31) Which of the following is the most effective control for malaria?

A) vaccination

B) treating patients

C) eliminate Anopheles mosquitoes

D) eliminate the intermediate host

E) None of these is an effective control.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  12.12

Global Outcome:  2

32) In the microscope, you observe multinucleated amoeboid cells with sporangia that form spores. This is a(n)

A) ascomycete.

B) cellular slime mold.

C) Euglenozoa.

D) tapeworm.

E) plasmodial slime mold.

Answer:  E

Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  12.13

Global Outcome:  2

33) You observe a mass of amoeba-like cells that swarm together, form a stalk, and produce spores. This is a(n)

A) ascomycete.

B) cellular slime mold.

C) Euglenozoa.

D) tapeworm.

E) plasmodial slime mold.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  12.13

Global Outcome:  2

34) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) nematodes complete digestive tract

B) cestodes segmented body made of proglottids

C) trematodes flukes

D) nematodes many are free-living

E) cestodes all are free-living

Answer:  E

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.19

Global Outcome:  2

35) Which of the following is a nucleated, unicellular organism that, if you changed the incubation temperature, would form filaments with conidiospores?

A) ascomycete

B) cellular slime mold

C) euglenozoa

D) tapeworm

E) plasmodial slime mold

Answer:  A

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.1

Global Outcome:  2

36) Which of the following organisms is photoautotrophic protozoan?

A) oomycote

B) cellular slime mold

C) Euglena

D) Phytophthora

E) plasmodial slime mold

Answer:  C

Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  12.11

37) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) tick Rocky Mountain spotted fever

B) tick Lyme disease

C) mosquito malaria

D) mosquito Pneumocystis

E) mosquito encephalitis

Answer:  D

Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.21

38) Which of the following groups of algae does NOT produce compounds that are toxic to humans?

A) diatoms

B) dinoflagellates

C) green algae

D) red algae

E) None of the answers is correct; all of these groups of algae produce compounds toxic to humans.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.9

39) The cells of plasmodial slime molds can grow to several centimeters in diameter because

A) they have organelles.

B) they distribute nutrients by cytoplasmic streaming.

C) the large surface can absorb nutrients.

D) they form spores.

E) they have a mouth to ingest nutrients.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  12.13

Global Outcome:  2

40) Assume you have isolated a multicellular heterotrophic organism that produces coenocytic hyphae, motile zoospores, and cellulose cell walls. It is most likely a(n)

A) ascomycete fungus.

B) green alga.

C) oomycote alga.

D) tapeworm.

E) zygomycete fungus.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  12.8

Global Outcome:  2

41) If a larva of Echinococcus granulosus is found in humans, humans are the

A) definitive host.

B) infected host.

C) intermediate host.

D) reservoir.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.17

Global Outcome:  7

42) Ringworm is caused by a(n)

A) fungus.

B) cestode.

C) nematode.

D) protozoan.

E) trematode.

Answer:  A

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.4

43) Yeast infections are caused by

A) Aspergillus.

B) Candida albicans.

C) Histoplasma.

D) Penicillium.

E) Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Answer:  B

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.4

44) All of the following are characteristic of lichens EXCEPT

A) they are arranged in foliose, fruticose, or crustose morphologies.

B) they are a major food source for tundra herbivores.

C) they are used as indicators of air pollution.

D) they are a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a protozoan.

E) they serve as primary producers in rocky ecosystems.

Answer:  D

Section:  12.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.1

Learning Outcome:  12.5

Global Outcome:  2

45) You see acid-fast oocysts in a fecal sample from a patient who has diarrhea. What is the MOST likely cause?

A) Cryptosporidium

B) diatoms

C) Entamoeba

D) Giardia

E) Taenia

Answer:  A

Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.11

12.2   True/False Questions

1) Plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis are stages of the fungal sexual life cycle.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.2

2) Arthropod vectors are blood-sucking animals such as ticks, lice, and fleas that transmit microbial pathogens.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.20

3) Cercariae, metacercaria, redia, and sporocysts are all life cycle stages of trematodes.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.16

4) The Platyhelminthes group includes roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.16

5) Some species of dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that cause fish kills and red tides.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.9

6) Both the cellular slime molds and the plasmodial slime molds are members of the phylum Amoebozoa.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  12.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.13

7) In helminth life cycles, the organism that harbors the adult sexually reproductive phase of the parasite is called the intermediate host.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.17

8) The sporozoite, merozoite, gametocyte, and ring stages are all part of the Plasmodium life cycle.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  12.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.11

9) The insect vectors have six legs and include spiders, ticks, mosquitoes, and lice.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  12.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  12.20

10) Most cases of hookworm infection are acquired by ingestion of adult forms in contaminated food or water.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  12.18

12.3   Essay Questions

1) Provide an explanation for the complex life cycles exhibited by parasitic helminths. Cite specific examples in your explanation.

Section:  12.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  12.18

Global Outcome:  8

2) Explain how the presence of algae can indicate either pollution or productivity of a body of water.

Section:  12.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  12.9

Global Outcome:  8

3) Contrast the economic benefits and the harmful effects of fungi.

Section:  12.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  12.4

Global Outcome:  8

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