CHAPTER 12: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT My Nursing Test Banks

CHAPTER 12: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.Adolescence is broken down into how many distinct periods?

a.

two

c.

four

b.

three

d.

five

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Three, not two distinct periods in adolescence.

B

Correct. Adolescence consists of early, middle, and late periods. These periods of development are further described as prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal. Therefore, there are three distinct periods.

C

Incorrect. Three, not four distinct periods in adolescence.

D

Incorrect. Three, not five distinct periods in adolescence.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 358 Growth and Development of the Adolescent

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

2.Puberty is best defined as the:

a.

beginning of adolescence

b.

state of development then reproduction first is possible and the adolescent growth spurt starts

c.

period between childhood and adulthood in which a person matures and readies for adult life

d.

time then thinking changes to include abstraction and the consideration of others viewpoints

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Puberty is not defined as the beginning of adolescence.

B

Correct. Puberty is defined as the state of physical development then secondary sex characteristics begin to appear, sex organs mature, reproduction becomes possible, and the adolescent growth spurt starts.

C

Incorrect. Puberty is not defined as the period between childhood and adulthood in which a person matures and readies for adult life.

D

Incorrect. Puberty is not defined as being a period of time then thinking changes to include abstraction and the consideration of others viewpoints.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 358 Growth and Development of the Adolescent

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

3.The nurse is forking with a prepubescent adolescent. The family asks the nurse to explain then the adolescent will go through puberty. The nurses response will be based on the idea that the age then puberty begins:

a.

varies individually

b.

is about the same for all females

c.

is slightly different for males and females

d.

depends on the persons culture

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The age then puberty begins and how long adolescence lasts varies individually and cross-culturally.

B

Incorrect. The age of onset for puberty is not the same for all females, nor is it only slightly different for males and females.

C

Incorrect. The age of onset for puberty is not the same for all females, nor is it only slightly different for males and females.

D

Incorrect. The age then puberty begins does not depend on the persons culture.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 358 Growth and Development of the Adolescent

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

4.A 12-year-old adolescent boy who was hospitalized with complications of diabetes is concerned that his 9-year-old sister is taller than he is and asks the nurse why he is so short compared to his sister. The nurses best response would be:

a.

When we get your diabetes under control, you may see yourself having a major growth spurt.

b.

You may have inherited the genetic makeup for being short, while your sister got the tall genes.

c.

Since she does not have diabetes, she is able to take in more food and put her food intake to maximum use.

d.

Girls may begin their growth spurt as early as age 7-1/2, while boys typically start a growth spurt by age 13.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. A major growth spurt will not necessarily result from the control of ones diabetes.

B

Incorrect. Because the boy has not necessarily reached the AGS, it would not be accurate to suggest that the child has the genetic makeup for short stature.

C

Incorrect. The relationship and food intake is not the best response for the difference between height in the siblings.

D

Correct. In the adolescent growth spurt (AGS), girls may begin their growth spurt as early as 7-1/2 years of age, whereas boys may not begin their growth spurt until age 13.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 358 Growth and Development of the Adolescent

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

5.An adolescent girl who has experienced menarche asks the nurse how much she will grow before she reaches her full height. The nurses best response is to explain that once menarche has occurred, maximum growth will:

a.

have already been achieved

c.

occur within 2 years

b.

rarely be more than 2 more inches

d.

often take a spurt of 4 or 5 inches

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Full height is not typically achieved at the onset of menarche.

B

Correct. For the female adolescent who has reached menarche, it is rare for height to increase by more than 2 inches.

C

Incorrect. Full height is not typically achieved at the onset of menarche, nor will full height be achieved within 2 years.

D

Incorrect. It would be uncommon for a female adolescent to experience a growth spurt of 4 or 5 inches following the onset of menarche.

PTS:1REF:p. 359 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

6.Which of the following best describes the term peak weight velocity (PWV)?

a.

the total amount of time it takes for an adolescent to reach his or her greatest weight

b.

the top of a graph of peaks and valleys of weight gain and weight loss

c.

the period of greatest growth in weight during the adolescent growth spurt

d.

the speed of weight gain to the maximum weight to date, after any weight loss

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. PWV is not characterized by the amount of time it takes an adolescent to reach his or her greatest weight.

B

Incorrect. PWV is not characterized by the top of a graph of peaks and valleys of weight gain and weight loss.

C

Correct. PWV is the time period in which weight gain is the most rapid.

D

Incorrect. PWV is not defined by the speed of weight gain to the maximum weight to date.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

7.During a routine physical examination, the health care practitioner mentions that an adolescent girl has asymmetrical breasts. The girl is too embarrassed to ask the doctor about this, but she also notices one breast seems bigger than the other. She asks the school nurse: Why is one of my breasts bigger than the other? What is wrong? The best response by the nurse is which of the following?

a.

You have not achieved full growth. The smaller breast will eventually grow and they will be the same size.

b.

Many women have asymmetrical breasts. It is not unusual for one breast to be slightly larger.

c.

Dont worry too much about this, as the health care practitioner will surely order a mammogram.

d.

This condition will correct itself after you have experienced menarche.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. While a smaller breast may continue to grow, it is inaccurate to suggest that the breasts will necessarily become symmetrical.

B

Correct. Asymmetry of the breasts is considered a normal finding in females.

C

Incorrect. A mammogram would not be indicated.

D

Incorrect. The condition will not necessarily correct itself following the onset of menarche.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

8.During adolescence, estrogen causes which of the following changes in the female?

a.

epiphyseal maturation, which in turn inhibits long bone growth

b.

the greatest widening of the hips she will experience in her lifetime

c.

the greatest peaking of sexual interest in preparation for sexual life

d.

nesting instinct, with a desire to find a life mate and have a family

ANS: A

Estrogen promotes epiphyseal maturation, which in turn inhibits long bone growth. Estrogen is not associated with the widening of the hips, a peak of sexual interest, or a nesting instinct.

Feedback

A

Correct. Estrogen promotes epiphyseal maturation, which in turn inhibits long bone growth.

B

Incorrect. Estrogen is not associated with the widening of the hips.

C

Incorrect. Estrogen is not associated with a peak of sexual interest.

D

Incorrect. Estrogen is not associated with a nesting instinct.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

9.Which hormone causes breast changes, including enlargement and darkening of the nipple?

a.

progesterone

c.

estrogen

b.

luteinizing hormone

d.

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Progesterone is not associated with breast changes, including enlargement and darkening of the nipple.

B

Incorrect. Luteinizing hormone is not associated with breast changes, including enlargement and darkening of the nipple.

C

Correct. Estrogen causes breast changes, such as the enlargement and darkening of the nipple.

D

Incorrect. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is not associated with breast changes, including enlargement and darkening of the nipple.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

10.Eccrine and apocrine glands mature during adolescence. These glands cause:

a.

increased interest in sexuality and finding a mate

b.

a darkening and toughening of the skin in males

c.

the breasts to enlarge and the nipples to darken

d.

increased amounts of, and a distinct odor to, perspiration

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The maturation of the eccrine and apocrine glands is not associated with an increased interest in sexuality or finding a mate.

B

Incorrect. It is not associated with the darkening or toughening of the skin in males.

C

Incorrect. The enlargement of the breasts and darkening of the nipples are not associated with the maturation of the eccrine and apocrine glands.

D

Correct. The maturation of the eccrine and apocrine glands leads to increased amounts of and a distinct odor to perspiration.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

11.In males, which of the following secretions is responsible for sperm production and maturation of the seminiferous tubules?

a.

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

c.

testosterone

b.

luteinizing hormone (LH)

d.

cortisone

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. In males, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for sperm production and maturation of the seminiferous tubules.

B

Incorrect. Luteinizing hormone (LH) promotes testicular maturation and testosterone production.

C

Incorrect. Testosterone causes musculoskeletal system changes and promotes growth and development of the male reproductive system.

D

Incorrect. Cortisone is not involved in sperm production and maturation of the seminiferous tubules.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

12.An adolescent girl asks the school health nurse about pregnancy. One of her questions is about irregular menses and whether or not she can get pregnant the first month after her first period. The nurses best answer would be:

a.

You cannot become pregnant until your menses are regular.

b.

Pregnancy can occur only after the second period.

c.

You can become pregnant after your first period.

d.

Ovulation does not begin until about 6 months after menarche.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. If an adolescent girl asks whether or not she can get pregnant the first month after her first period, the nurses best answer would not be: You cannot become pregnant until your menses are regular.

B

Incorrect. If an adolescent girl asks whether or not she can get pregnant the first month after her first period, the nurses best answer would not be: Pregnancy can occur only after the second period.

C

Correct. Even though regular menstrual cycles typically begin 6-14 months aftermenarche, adolescent females can become pregnant after their first menstrual period.

D

Incorrect. If an adolescent girl asks whether or not she can get pregnant the first month after her first period, the nurses best answer would not be: Ovulation does not begin until about 6 months after menarche.

PTS:1REF:p. 360 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

13.An adolescent boy has developed gynecomastia. The nurse would share with the adolescent that this condition:

a.

may occur normally in adolescence and the elderly male and is normally temporary

b.

often causes a loss of sexual desire and an inability to perform sexually

c.

is frequently precancerous and he will need to have a mammogram

d.

is associated with weak male chromosomal makeup and strong female chromosomes

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Sixty percent of males experience transient breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and is temporary.

B

Incorrect. Gynecomastia does not often cause a loss of sexual desire and an inability to perform sexually.

C

Incorrect. Gynecomastia is not frequently precancerous and he will need to have a mammogram.

D

Incorrect. Gynecomastia is not associated with weak male chromosomal makeup and strong female chromosomes.

PTS:1REF:p. 362 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

14.The Tanner stages are a rating for which of the following in females?

a.

sequence of secondary sexual characteristics with stages describing breast and pubic hair growth

b.

ability to be independent of caregivers and care for oneself while living alone

c.

readiness for marriage or mating and readiness for childbearing activities, with a scoring of 1 to 100

d.

sequence of emotional and psychological changes occurring in adolescence and ending in maturity

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The Tanner stages are a rating for the sequence of secondary sexual characteristics with stages describing breast and pubic hair growth in females.

B

Incorrect. The Tanner stages do not measure independence.

C

Incorrect. The Tanner stages do not measure readiness for marriage or mating and readiness for childbearing activities.

D

Incorrect. The Tanner stages do not measure the sequence of emotional and psychological changes occurring in adolescence and ending in maturity.

PTS:1REF:p. 362 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

15.During adolescence the heart will:

a.

increase slightly in size

b.

decrease in size by 1/10 and in weight by 5%

c.

almost double in weight and increase in size by about 1/2

d.

stay the same size and weight as previously

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. During adolescence, the hearts size will increase a lot, not slightly.

B

Incorrect. During adolescence the heart will not decrease in size by 1/10 and in weight by 5%.

C

Correct. During adolescence the heart will almost double in weight and increase in size by about 1/2.

D

Incorrect. During adolescence the heart will not stay the same size and weight as previously.

PTS:1REF:p. 362 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

16.An adolescent boy is concerned that his pajamas are wet in the morning and worries that he is losing control over his bladder or beginning to wet the bed. His father explains that this dampness is most likely due to:

a.

nocturnal emissions, a normal occurrence in adolescents

b.

changes in the prostate gland during adolescence

c.

temporary bladder changes that occur as the male matures

d.

excessive masturbation, and he needs to decrease the amount

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Explaining the wet pajamas in the morning, the father tells the son that he is experiencing nocturnal emissions, a normal occurrence for boys after age 14.

B

Incorrect. Explaining the wet pajamas in the morning, the father does not tell the son that he is experiencing changes in the prostate gland during adolescence.

C

Incorrect. Explaining the wet pajamas in the morning, the father does not tell the son that he is experiencing temporary bladder changes that occur as the male matures.

D

Incorrect. Explaining the wet pajamas in the morning, the father does not tell the son that he is experiencing excessive masturbation, and he needs to decrease the amount.

PTS:1REF:p. 362 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

17.The nurse is taking vital signs on adolescents and keeps in mind which of the following facts about baseline vital signs?

a.

Adolescent females have a slightly lower systolic blood pressure and a slightly higher pulse and body temperature than males.

b.

The pulse of the adolescent female is often slightly irregular compared to the regular pulse of the male.

c.

It is not unusual to find a pathological murmur in the male and a physiological murmur in the female.

d.

The male body temperature, pulse, and blood pressure are usually higher than the females.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. When taking vital signs on adolescents, the nurse keeps in mind the fact that adolescent females have a slightly lower systolic blood pressure and a slightly higher pulse and body temperature than males.

B

Incorrect. When taking vital signs on adolescents, the nurse would not keep in mind that the pulse of the adolescent female is often slightly irregular compared to the regular pulse of the male.

C

Incorrect. When taking vital signs on adolescents, the nurse would not keep in mind that it is not unusual to find a pathological murmur in the male and a physiological murmur in the female.

D

Incorrect. When taking vital signs on adolescents, the nurse would not keep in mind that the male body temperature, pulse, and blood pressure are usually higher than the females.

PTS:1REF:p. 362 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

18.The caregiver of an adolescent remarks to the nurse that her child seems to have fatigue and not get enough oxygen. The physical examination and other tests are normal. Which of the following explanations by the nurse will be most helpful?

a.

The tests may have missed a cardiac or respiratory problem and the health care practitioner will probably want to repeat them later.

b.

As the heart becomes larger in adolescence, the pumping mechanism is somewhat inefficient for a while and the lungs have not yet fully matured.

c.

Adolescents fake tiredness to get out of doing chores or associating with people they consider to be boring.

d.

I suggest you take him to one of the better and larger clinics there they have more sophisticated equipment.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse not will best explain the reported fatigue and lack of oxygen by saying: The tests may have missed a cardiac or respiratory problem and the health care practitioner will probably want to repeat them later.

B

Correct. The nurse will best explain the reported fatigue and lack of oxygen by saying: As the heart becomes larger in adolescence, the pumping mechanism is somewhat inefficient for a while and the lungs have not yet fully matured.

C

Incorrect. The nurse not will best explain the reported fatigue and lack of oxygen by saying: Adolescents fake tiredness to get out of doing chores or associating with people they consider to be boring.

D

Incorrect. The nurse not will best explain the reported fatigue and lack of oxygen by saying: I suggest you take him to one of the better and larger clinics there they have more sophisticated equipment.

PTS:1REF:p. 362 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

19.It is appropriate for the nurse to recommend that an adolescent girl see a pediatrician if she has not yet begun breast development by what age?

a.

11 years

c.

15 years

b.

13 years

d.

17 years

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. It is not appropriate for the nurse to recommend that an adolescent girl see a pediatrician if she has not yet begun breast development by age 11.

B

Correct. It is appropriate for the nurse to recommend that an adolescent girl see a pediatrician if she has not yet begun breast development by age 13.

C

Incorrect. It is appropriate for the nurse to recommend that an adolescent girl see a pediatrician if she has not yet begun breast development by age 13, earlier than 15.

D

Incorrect. It is appropriate for the nurse to recommend that an adolescent girl see a pediatrician if she has not yet begun breast development by age 13, earlier than 17.

PTS:1REF:p. 363 Physiological Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

20.When working with adolescent girls, the school nurse is aware that in regard to body image:

a.

most girls are satisfied with their physical appearance

b.

few girls are satisfied with their physical appearance

c.

the majority of girls think they are too thin

d.

girls focus mainly on their abdomen and hips

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When working with adolescent girls, the school nurse is aware that in regard to body image, most girls are not satisfied with their physical appearance.

B

Correct. When working with adolescent girls, the school nurse is aware that in regard to body image, few girls are satisfied with their physical appearance.

C

Incorrect. When working with adolescent girls, the school nurse is aware that in regard to body image, the majority of girls do not think they are too thin.

D

Incorrect. When working with adolescent girls, the school nurse is aware that in regard to body image, girls do not focus mainly on their abdomen and hips.

PTS:1REF:p. 365 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

21.How much of a relationship is there between how adolescents feel about themselves and how they feel about their bodies?

a.

none

c.

a moderate relationship

b.

very little

d.

a strong relationship

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The relationship between how adolescents feel about themselves and how they feel about their bodies is strongly related.

B

Incorrect. The relationship between how adolescents feel about themselves and how they feel about their bodies is strongly related.

C

Incorrect. The relationship between how adolescents feel about themselves and how they feel about their bodies is strongly related.

D

Correct. There is a strong relationship between how adolescents feel about themselves and how they feel about their bodies.

PTS:1REF:p. 365 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

22.What ideal or model do adolescents compare themselves to then developing a sense of body image?

a.

family

c.

friends

b.

culture

d.

religion

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Adolescents do not compare themselves to the ideal or model body image of their family.

B

Correct. Adolescents compare themselves to the ideal or model body image of their culture.

C

Incorrect. Adolescents do not compare themselves to the ideal or model body image of their friends.

D

Incorrect. Adolescents do not compare themselves to the ideal or model body image of their religion

PTS:1REF:p. 365 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

23.The school nurse is forking with a group of adolescent boys who are on a sports team in the school. A few of the boys have experienced early maturation (appearance of secondary sexual characteristics). The nurse reads some studies about early maturation in adolescent boys and finds that most studies reveal that:

a.

adolescent boys usually have the same experience as adolescent girls with early maturation

b.

boys with early maturation often have a positive self-image, high status, and prestige in the peer group

c.

these adolescent boys have much more difficulty adjusting to their early maturation than adolescent females

d.

early maturing males are more likely to commit suicide than males who mature normally or late

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse reads some studies about early maturation in adolescent boys and does not find: adolescent boys usually have the same experience as adolescent girls with early maturation.

B

Correct. The nurse reads some studies about early maturation in adolescent boys and finds that most studies reveal that boys with early maturation often have a positive self-image, high status, and prestige in the peer group.

C

Incorrect. The nurse reads some studies about early maturation in adolescent boys and does not find: these adolescent boys have much more difficulty adjusting to their early maturation than adolescent females.

D

Incorrect. The nurse reads some studies about early maturation in adolescent boys and does not find: early maturing males are more likely to commit suicide than males who mature normally or late.

PTS:1REF:p. 366 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

24.The school nurse is forking with male and female adolescents who fall into two subgroups. One group is having difficulty with maturation and the other group is on a different schedule from the majority of their class. Which of the following groups of adolescents would the nurse anticipate having more risk for engaging in delinquent behavior, being more vulnerable to eating disorders and depression, and being teased more by peers?

a.

early maturing females

c.

late maturing females

b.

early maturing males

d.

late maturing males

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The group of early maturing females is more at risk for engaging in delinquent behavior, being more vulnerable to eating disorders and depression, and being teased more by peers.

B

Incorrect. The group of early maturing males is less at risk for engaging in delinquent behavior, being more vulnerable to eating disorders and depression, and being teased more by peers.

C

Incorrect. The group of late maturing females is less at risk for engaging in delinquent behavior, being more vulnerable to eating disorders and depression, and being teased more by peers.

D

Incorrect. The group of late maturing males is less at risk for engaging in delinquent behavior, being more vulnerable to eating disorders and depression, and being teased more by peers.

PTS:1REF:p. 366 Psychosexual Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

25.The nurse is forking with an adolescent client in the hospital. The adolescent requests the caregivers bring some books about puns to the hospital. He frequently uses puns in conversation and is highly critical about the hospital rules, the caregivers, and many aspects of the world. The caregivers ask the nurse why their adolescent is acting so differently in adolescence compared to then he was younger. The best answer by the nurse would include which of the following statements?

a.

This is your childs way of dealing with the stress of hospitalization.

b.

Your child has developed the ability to use abstract thinking.

c.

Perhaps some psychological tests might help determine if this is normal.

d.

Setting limits in regard to critical statements often helps stop this behavior.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. This is your childs way of dealing with the stress of hospitalization is not the best answer by the nurse concerning the adolescent who expresses criticism and likes to make puns.

B

Correct. The best answer by the nurse concerning the adolescent who expresses criticism and likes to make puns, is: Your child has developed the ability to use abstract thinking.

C

Incorrect. Perhaps some psychological tests might help determine if this is normal is not the best answer by the nurse concerning the adolescent who expresses criticism and likes to make puns.

D

Incorrect. Setting limits in regard to critical statements often helps stop this behavior is not the best answer by the nurse concerning the adolescent who expresses criticism and likes to make puns.

PTS:1REF:p. 374 Moral Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

26.A father asks the nurse why his 18-year-old daughter is so idealistic and is so often involved in political or social causes. The father is especially concerned because his daughter recently turned down a family outing to an amusement park in order to attend a rally to benefit indigenous people in a third-world country. Of the following, which response by the nurse would be best?

a.

When children do not have enough limits set at home, they often fall in with peer groups who engage in these activities.

b.

She has obvious talent for politics, and this may be something she will want to do as her lifes fork.

c.

This is your daughters way of being different from you and exerting independence from her family.

d.

This is a normal phase that adolescents go through. They interpret the world in an excessively idealistic perspective and often engage in causes.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The concerned father asking the nurse why his 18-year old daughter is so idealistic and so prone to join causes would not best be told by the nurse: When children do not have enough limits set at home, they often fall in with peer groups who engage in these activities.

B

Incorrect. The concerned father asking the nurse why his 18-year old daughter is so idealistic and so prone to join causes would not best be told by the nurse: She has obvious talent for politics, and this may be something she will want to do as her lifes fork.

C

Incorrect. The concerned father asking the nurse why his 18-year old daughter is so idealistic and so prone to join causes would not best be told by the nurse: This is your daughters way of being different from you and exerting independence from her family.

D

Correct. The concerned father asking the nurse why his 18-year old daughter is so idealistic and so prone to join causes would best be told by the nurse: This is a normal phase that adolescents go through. They interpret the world in an excessively idealistic perspective and often engage in causes.

PTS:1REF:p. 374 Moral Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

27.Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is based on the idea that the ZPD is made up of tasks that are:

a.

too difficult for individuals to master alone but can be mastered with the help of adults or more skilled adolescents

b.

close to the basic interests and instincts of the adolescent, and these are mastered first and best

c.

easily identified and easily discovered, as they are obvious and central to daily functioning

d.

easily completed and are done before the more difficult tasks, which require different types of thinking

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is based on the idea that the ZPD is made up of tasks that are too difficult for individuals to master alone but can be mastered with the help of adults or more skilled adolescents.

B

Incorrect. Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is not based on the idea that the ZPD is made up of tasks that are close to the basic interests and instincts of the adolescent, and these are mastered first and best.

C

Incorrect. Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is not based on the idea that the ZPD is made up of tasks that are easily identified and easily discovered, as they are obvious and central to daily functioning.

D

Incorrect. Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is not based on the idea that the ZPD is made up of tasks that are easily completed and are done before the more difficult tasks, which require different types of thinking.

PTS:1REF:p. 370 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

28.According to Vygotsky, the greatest growth in cognitive development occurs then adolescents are:

a.

about the age of 18, then there is a cognitive growth spurt

b.

associated with adults for greater periods of time than with other adolescents

c.

stretched to perform at the upper level of their zone of proximal development

d.

challenged to do tasks that are normally completed only by those whose IQ is over 105

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. According to Vygotsky, the greatest growth in cognitive development does not occur then adolescents are about the age of 18, then there is a cognitive growth spurt.

B

Incorrect. According to Vygotsky, the greatest growth in cognitive development does not occur then adolescents are associated with adults for greater periods of time than with other adolescents.

C

Correct. According to Vygotsky, the greatest growth in cognitive development occurs then adolescents are stretched to perform at the upper level of their zone of proximal development.

D

Incorrect. According to Vygotsky, the greatest growth in cognitive development does not occur then adolescents are challenged to do tasks that are normally completed only by those whose IQ is over 105.

PTS:1REF:p. 371 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

29.An adolescent boy in the 7th grade is having difficulty in algebra. Using Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development, the educational team (including the nurse) would most likely suggest which of the following courses of action to the student and his caregivers?

a.

Stop all television and free-time activities until the grades improve.

b.

Hire an adult tutor or a peer who understands algebra and the upper limit of the students understanding of algebra and can push the adolescent to think at the higher level.

c.

Provide sufficient rewards for doing the fork so the student has enough incentive to push himself to learn the material.

d.

Ground the adolescent from association with peers, and surround him with adults who have math skills.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Using Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development concerning an adolescent boy in the 7th grade having difficulty in algebra, the educational team (including the nurse) would not most likely suggest: stop all television and free-time activities until the grades improve.

B

Correct. Using Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development concerning an adolescent boy in the 7th grade having difficulty in algebra, the educational team (including the nurse) would most likely suggest: hire an adult tutor or a peer who understands algebra and the upper limit of the students understanding of algebra and can push the adolescent to think at the higher level.

C

Incorrect. Using Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development concerning an adolescent boy in the 7th grade having difficulty in algebra, the educational team (including the nurse) would not most likely suggest: provide sufficient rewards for doing the fork so the student has enough incentive to push himself to learn the material.

D

Incorrect. Using Vygotskys concept of the zone of proximal development concerning an adolescent boy in the 7th grade having difficulty in algebra, the educational team (including the nurse) would not most likely suggest: ground the adolescent from association with peers, and surround him with adults who have math skills.

PTS:1REF:p. 371 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

30.Selman has theorized about adolescents cognitive development between early and late childhood and has theorized that an adolescent will by late childhood develop the ability to:

a.

converse in a reasonable manner with adults

b.

make right choices 90% of the time

c.

see the reasoning behind others behavior

d.

do more than one complex task at a time

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Selmans theory about adolescent cognitive development between early and late childhood does not speak to the ability to converse in a reasonable manner with adults.

B

Incorrect. Selmans theory about adolescent cognitive development between early and late childhood does not speak to the ability to make right choices 90% of the time.

C

Correct. Selman has theorized about adolescents cognitive development between early and late childhood and has theorized that an adolescent will by late childhood develop the ability to see the reasoning behind others behavior.

D

Incorrect. Selmans theory about adolescent cognitive development between early and late childhood does not speak to the ability to do more than one complex task at a time.

PTS:1REF:p. 372 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

31.Elkind identified two types of social thinking especially evident during adolescence, one of which is imaginary audience. Which of the following statements best describes what Elkind meant by imaginary audience?

a.

a fantasy of having powerful imaginary friends who will rescue the adolescent then others are difficult or unkind

b.

adolescents feelings of always being on stage and that others are just as concerned about their appearance as they are

c.

a temporary paranoid state in which the adolescent feels watched by others at all times then awake

d.

a feeling that they are living in an audience watching their own life, as if it were on stage or in public

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Elkind did not describe imaginary audience as a fantasy of having powerful imaginary friends who will rescue the adolescent then others are difficult or unkind.

B

Correct. Elkind described imaginary audiencce as the adolescents feelings of always being on stage and that others are just as concerned about their appearance as they are

C

Incorrect. Elkind did not describe imaginary audience as a temporary paranoid state in which the adolescent feels watched by others at all times then awake.

D

Incorrect. Elkind did not describe imaginary audience as a feeling that they are living in an audience watching their own life, as if it were on stage or in public.

PTS:1REF:p. 372 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

32.An adolescent tells his caregivers that he is not going to school on a particular day because he doesnt have anything appropriate to wear and there is a zit (skin eruption) on his face. This behavior exemplifies which of the following concepts?

a.

Elkinds concept of imaginary audience

c.

adolescent instability of emotions

b.

extreme and diagnosable narcissism

d.

disrespect for the school system

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. An adolescent telling his caregivers that he is not going to school on a particular day because he doesnt have anything appropriate to wear and there is a zit (skin eruption) on his face is displaying Elkinds concept of imaginary audience.

B

Incorrect. An adolescent telling his caregivers that he is not going to school on a particular day because he doesnt have anything appropriate to wear and there is a zit (skin eruption) on his face is not best described as displaying extreme and diagnosable narcissism.

C

Incorrect. An adolescent telling his caregivers that he is not going to school on a particular day because he doesnt have anything appropriate to wear and there is a zit (skin eruption) on his face is not best described as displaying adolescent instability of emotions.

D

Incorrect. An adolescent telling his caregivers that he is not going to school on a particular day because he doesnt have anything appropriate to wear and there is a zit (skin eruption) on his face is not best described as displaying disrespect for the school system.

PTS:1REF:p. 372 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

33.Elkind had a term for adolescents exaggerated notion of their own uniqueness. He said that adolescents either experience an extreme sense of isolation, thinking no one has experienced what they have and therefore cannot understand, or think they are immortal and that bad things only happen to other people. The term Elkind used for these two beliefs was:

a.

immortality and isolation complex

c.

Eros versus Thanatos

b.

paradox of life and death

d.

personal fable

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Immortality and isolation complex is not Elkinds term for adolescents exaggerated notion of their own uniqueness.

B

Incorrect. Paradox of life and death is not Elkinds term for adolescents exaggerated notion of their own uniqueness.

C

Incorrect. Eros versus Thanatos is not Elkinds term for adolescents exaggerated notion of their own uniqueness.

D

Correct. Personal fables Elkinds term for adolescents exaggerated notion of their own uniqueness.

PTS:1REF:p. 372 Cognitive Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

34.The school nurse is forking with a 17-year-old student who has experienced a crisis period and has achieved a sense of commitment to resulting decisions. This teen is well adjusted, stable, and mature. The nurse, using Marcias theory that adolescents occupy one of four identity statuses, will find this student occupying which of the following identity statuses?

a.

identity achievement

c.

identity diffusion

b.

foreclosed

d.

moratorium

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Using Marcias expansion of Erikson, the 17-year-old having experienced a period of crisis resulting in commitments exhibiting stability, maturity and is well adjusted, has arrived at identity achievement.

B

Incorrect. The foreclosed status involves commitment but the adolescent has not questioned and explored the principles underlying the commitments.

C

Incorrect. The identity diffusion status lacks commitment and does not reflect the searching, but tends to the follower of trends and fads.

D

Incorrect. The moratorium status indicates the adolescent is currently exploring and questioning, but no commitments are evident.

PTS:1REF:p. 367 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

35.A school nurse is talking with an adolescent who shares about her ideology and career aspirations in terms of what her caregivers and other important adults in her life have to say. This adolescent cannot explain why she has these beliefs other than to quote authority figures. Using Marcias theory of adolescents occupying one of four identity statuses, the nurse will find this student occupying which of the following identity statuses?

a.

identity achievement

c.

identity diffusion

b.

foreclosed

d.

moratorium

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The adolescent displaying identity achievement has completed the exploration of certain beliefs and has made commitments to them.

B

Correct. The adolescent unable to explain why they are committed to certain beliefs indicates the foreclosed status.

C

Incorrect. The adolescent displaying identity diffusion has neither explored nor made commitments.

D

Incorrect. The adolescent at moratorium status is exploring but has not yet made commitments.

PTS:1REF:p. 367 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

36.In assessing an 18-year old college freshman, the nurse hears the adolescent talking about not declaring a major until he has time for exploring career options and making a final decision. The nurse realizes that Erikson had a term for this exploratory period before determining a life course:

a.

life anxiety stage

c.

psychosocial moratorium

b.

career delay

d.

life-planning plateau

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Eriksons term for the exploratory period before the 18-year old college freshman chooses a life course is not the life anxiety stage.

B

Incorrect. Eriksons term for the exploratory period before the 18-year old college freshman chooses a life course is not the career delay.

C

Correct. Eriksons term for the exploratory period before the 18-year old college freshman chooses a life course is the psychosocial moratorium.

D

Incorrect. Eriksons term for the exploratory period before the 18-year old college freshman chooses a life course is not the life-planning plateau.

PTS:1REF:p. 367 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

37.The way adolescents think about themselves as either male or female, their biological makeup, personal experiences, and social expectations and recommendations about how males and females should think and behave is referred to most correctly by which of the following terms?

a.

masculinity versus femininity

c.

sexual identity

b.

gender identity

d.

personal makeup

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Gender identity is more than masculinity versus femininity.

B

Correct. Gender identity refers to the way we think about ourselves as either male or female, and is a culmination of biological makeup, personal and social expectations, and recommendations about how males and females should behave.

C

Incorrect. Gender identity is more than sexual identity.

D

Incorrect. Gender identity is not personal makeup.

PTS:1REF:p. 368 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

38.Compared to children or adults, adolescents gender attitudes and behavior are found to be:

a.

about the same

c.

somewhat more liberal

b.

far more liberal

d.

more traditional

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Compared to children or adults, adolescents gender attitudes and behavior are not found to be about the same.

B

Incorrect. Compared to children or adults, adolescents gender attitudes and behavior are not found to be far more liberal.

C

Incorrect. Compared to children or adults, adolescents gender attitudes and behavior are not found to be somewhat more liberal.

D

Correct. Compared to children or adults, adolescents gender attitudes and behavior are found to be more traditional.

PTS:1REF:p. 368 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

39.Erikson has theorized that young people are better able to commit themselves intimately to another person then they have:

a.

higher level thinking skills

c.

achieved a sense of identity

b.

completed college

d.

conquered their fear of closeness

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Erikson has not theorized that young people are better able to commit themselves intimately to another person then they have higher level thinking skills.

B

Incorrect. Erikson has not theorized that young people are better able to commit themselves intimately to another person then they have completed college.

C

Correct. Erikson has theorized that young people are better able to commit themselves intimately to another person then they have achieved a sense of identity.

D

Incorrect. Erikson has not theorized that young people are better able to commit themselves intimately to another person then they have conquered their fear of closeness.

PTS:1REF:p. 369 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

40.The nurse is forking with an adolescent who complains of being lonely and having a lack of fulfillment in her life. This adolescent shies away from intimate relationships at times, yet at other times she appears promiscuous. The nurse will likely work with this adolescent most in which of the following areas, as it is at the center of the other problems?

a.

loneliness

c.

isolation

b.

identity

d.

lack of fulfillment

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The adolescent avoiding intimate relationships at times, yet at other times behaves promiscuously, is needing to fork on identity, not loneliness.

B

Correct. According to Erikson, the youth not sure of his identity avoids interpersonal intimacy or throws himself into acts of intimacy which are promiscuous.

C

Incorrect. The adolescent avoiding intimate relationships at times, yet at other times behaves promiscuously, needs to fork on identity, not isolation.

D

Incorrect. The adolescent avoiding intimate relationships at times, yet at other times behaves promiscuously, is needing to work on identity, not lack of fulfillment.

PTS:1REF:p. 369 Psychosocial Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

41.Which of the following statements best describes the term caregiver responsiveness?

a.

the degree to which caregivers respond to their childrens needs in an accepting, supportive manner

b.

the speed with which caregivers provide for a childs physiological and psychological needs

c.

the caregivers interest in providing for a childs needs, as perceived by the child

d.

the effect demonstrated by a caregiver in response to a childs demands

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Caregiver responsiveness is best described as the degree to which caregivers respond to their childrens needs in an accepting, supportive manner.

B

Incorrect. Caregiver responsiveness is not best described as the speed with which caregivers provide for a childs physiological and psychological needs.

C

Incorrect. Caregiver responsiveness is not best described as the caregivers interest in providing for a childs needs, as perceived by the child.

D

Incorrect. Caregiver responsiveness is not best described as the effect demonstrated by a caregiver in response to a childs demands.

PTS:1REF:p. 374 Moral Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

42.The nurse assessing a typical family with an adolescent child would more often than not find the arguments between caregivers and child to be about:

a.

adolescent sexuality

c.

drugs and drug abuse

b.

religion or politics

d.

ordinary family matters

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse assessing a typical family with an adolescent child would not find the arguments between caregivers and child to be about adolescent sexuality.

B

Incorrect. The nurse assessing a typical family with an adolescent child would not find the arguments between caregivers and child to be about religion or politics.

C

Incorrect. The nurse assessing a typical family with an adolescent child would not find the arguments between caregivers and child to be about drugs and drug abuse.

D

Correct. The nurse assessing a typical family with an adolescent child would more often than not find the arguments between caregivers and child to be about ordinary family matters.

PTS:1REF:p. 374 Moral Development

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

43.The nurse assessing a 12-1/2-year-old child asks the child about siblings. This preteen tells the nurse that there has been recent conflict and less support from a sibling close in age. The nurse realizes that at this age this perceived decrease in support and increased conflict:

a.

is reaching a peak and is not unusual

b.

is possibly due to watching too much violence on television

c.

has to do with caregivers treating the children differently

d.

is a sign of impending lifelong relationship problems

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. Progression through adolescence is associated with a reduction in perceived sibling support and a corresponding increase in perceived sibling conflict.

B

Incorrect. The nurse realizes that at this age this perceived decrease in support and increased conflict is to be expected, and not likely due to watching too much violence on television.

C

Incorrect. The nurse realizes that at this age this perceived decrease in support and increased conflict is to be expected, and is not linked with caregivers treating the children differently.

D

Incorrect. The nurse realizes that at this age this perceived decrease in support and increased conflict is to be expected, and is not a sign of impending lifelong relationship problems.

PTS:1REF:p. 377 Adolescents in Context

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

44.The 20% of adolescents in the United States who are only children have been found by research to experience which of the following because of being only children?

a.

loneliness and a tendency to isolate themselves

b.

fairly high self-esteem and achievement motivation

c.

serious jealousy of children from large families

d.

high-risk behaviors in at least three areas of their lives

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The 20% of adolescents in the United States who are only children have not been found by research to experience loneliness and a tendency to isolate themselves.

B

Correct. The 20% of adolescents in the United States who are only children have been found by research to experience fairly high self-esteem and achievement motivation.

C

Incorrect. The 20% of adolescents in the United States who are only children have not been found by research to experience serious jealousy of children from large families.

D

Incorrect. The 20% of adolescents in the United States who are only children have not been found by research to experience high-risk behaviors in at least three areas of their lives.

PTS:1REF:p. 377 Adolescents in Context

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

45.When the caregivers of an adolescent divorce and then remarry, the adolescents adjustment to the new family structure compared to that of younger children will be:

a.

much easier

c.

about the same

b.

slightly easier

d.

more difficult

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. When the caregivers of an adolescent divorce and then remarry, the adolescents adjustment to the new family structure compared to that of younger children will not be much easier.

B

Incorrect. When the caregivers of an adolescent divorce and then remarry, the adolescents adjustment to the new family structure compared to that of younger children will not be slightly easier.

C

Incorrect. When the caregivers of an adolescent divorce and then remarry, the adolescents adjustment to the new family structure compared to that of younger children will not be about the same.

D

Correct. When the caregivers of an adolescent divorce and then remarry, the adolescents adjustment to the new family structure compared to that of younger children will be more difficult.

PTS:1REF:p. 377 Adolescents in Context

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

46.The most fundamental peer relationship and the one most likely to be based on similar interests and emotional support is the:

a.

clique

c.

friendship dyad

b.

crowd

d.

gang

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The most fundamental peer relationship and the one most likely to be based on similar interests and emotional support is not the clique.

B

Incorrect. The most fundamental peer relationship and the one most likely to be based on similar interests and emotional support is not the crowd.

C

Correct. The most fundamental peer relationship and the one most likely to be based on similar interests and emotional support is the friendship dyad.

D

Incorrect. The most fundamental peer relationship and the one most likely to be based on similar interests and emotional support is not the gang.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 378 Adolescents in Context OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

47.Which of the following statements best describes the term crowd then used to describe peer relationships?

a.

an association of two to four cliques with relations less intimate than in the cliques

b.

a large number of peers who gather periodically to socialize

c.

the number of people that then exceeded makes socialization uncomfortable

d.

five or more people who are engaged in observational and encouraging behaviors

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Correct. The term crowd is defined as an association of two to four cliques with relations less intimate than in the cliques.

B

Incorrect. The term crowd is not defined as a large number of peers who gather periodically to socialize.

C

Incorrect. The term crowd is not defined as the number of people that then exceeded makes socialization uncomfortable.

D

Incorrect. The term crowd is not defined as five or more people who are engaged in observational and encouraging behaviors.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 378 Adolescents in Context OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

48.During early adolescence, the adolescents interactions with the opposite sex are usually:

a.

carried out cautiously in one-on-one interactions

b.

considered dangerous and approached in the security of ones clique

c.

conducted mainly in the company of another couple or several couples

d.

limited to interactions forced on the adolescent by caregivers or other adults

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. During early adolescence, the adolescents interactions with the opposite sex are not usually carried out cautiously in one-on-one interactions.

B

Correct. During early adolescence, the adolescents interactions with the opposite sex are usually considered dangerous and approached in the security of ones clique.

C

Incorrect. During early adolescence, the adolescents interactions with the opposite sex are not usually conducted mainly in the company of another couple or several couples.

D

Incorrect. During early adolescence, the adolescents interactions with the opposite sex are not usually limited to interactions forced on the adolescent by caregivers or other adults.

PTS:1REF:p. 378 Adolescents in Context

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

49.The typical age that girls begin dating in the United States is which of the following?

a.

10 to 11

c.

14 to 15

b.

12 to 13

d.

16 to 17

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Girls do not begin dating in the United States typically between the ages of 11 and 11.

B

Correct. Girls begin dating in the United States typically between the ages of 12 and 13.

C

Incorrect. Girls begin dating in the United States typically earlier than 14 to 15.

D

Incorrect. Girls begin dating in the United States typically earlier than 16 to 17.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 378 Adolescents in Context OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

50.Which of the following factors has been found to most influence whether school has a positive effect on an adolescent?

a.

both caregivers forking outside the home and earning a good wage

b.

close friends before, during, and after the transition to high school

c.

living in the same house for the last 5 years

d.

a good school principal

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Having both caregivers forking outside the home and earning a good wage does not have the most influence whether school has a positive effect on an adolescent.

B

Correct. Having close friends before, during, and after the transition to high school has the most influence whether school has a positive effect on an adolescent.

C

Incorrect. Living in the same house for the last 5 years does not have the most influence whether school has a positive effect on an adolescent.

D

Incorrect. Having a good school principal does not have the most influence whether school has a positive effect on an adolescent.

PTS:1REF:p. 384 Adolescents in Context

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

51.How might a nurses approach to health screening differ in forking with early adolescents (ages 12 to 14) and late adolescents (ages 18 to 21)?

a.

dietary assessment for the early adolescent, but no dietary assessment for the late adolescent

b.

sexual activity screening for the late adolescent and not for the early adolescent

c.

screening for sufficient hours of sleep for early adolescents and not for late adolescents

d.

caregivers interviewed with early adolescents and not interviewed with late adolescents

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Dietary assessments are in order for the early adolescent and the late adolescent.

B

Incorrect. Sexual activity screening is in order for the early adolescent and the late adolescent.

C

Incorrect. Screening for sufficient hours of sleep is in order for early adolescents and for late adolescents.

D

Correct. Nursing care should be provided in settings, sometimes away from the caregivers, there the self-conscious adolescent feels welcome and comfortable, free to share openly.

PTS:1REF:p. 388 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

52.After a talk by the nurse on the importance of zinc in the diet and a discussion of foods high in zinc, adolescents are to select a diet high in zinc. The nurse will evaluate how well adolescents understood the information then they select which of the following diets?

a.

lettuce salad, pasta with tomato sauce, iced tea, flavored gelatin

b.

fish, deviled egg, green beans, milk

c.

peanut butter and jelly sandwich, celery and carrot sticks, juice

d.

baked potato with butter, tomato soup, broccoli, hot tea

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. After a discussion of the importance of zinc in the adolescent diet, they will not choose lettuce salad, pasta with tomato sauce, iced tea, flavored gelatin.

B

Correct. After a discussion of the importance of zinc in the adolescent diet, they will choose fish, deviled egg, green beans, milk.

C

Incorrect. After a discussion of the importance of zinc in the adolescent diet, they will not choose peanut butter and jelly sandwich, celery and carrot sticks, juice.

D

Incorrect. After a discussion of the importance of zinc in the adolescent diet, they will not choose baked potato with butter, tomato soup, broccoli, hot tea.

PTS:1REF:p. 388 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

53.The nurse is forking with adolescents to get them to improve their diet. Which approach would be most helpful in achieving this goal?

a.

Send dietary information to the caregivers of the adolescents.

b.

Have the adolescents get involved in meal planning after receiving information on dietary needs.

c.

Show a film on dietary needs and what happens to the body if those needs are not met.

d.

Have a series of lectures by a variety of health specialists on dietary needs of the adolescent.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Sending dietary information to the caregivers of the adolescents will not be the most helpful means to improve their diet.

B

Correct. Nurses can help caregivers and adolescents improve their nutrition by explaining the importance of a good diet and encouraging adolescents to be involved in meal planning.

C

Incorrect. Showing a film on dietary needs and what happens to the body if those needs are not met will not be the most helpful means to improve their diet.

D

Incorrect. Having a series of lectures by a variety of health specialists on dietary needs of the adolescent will not be the most helpful means to improve their diet.

PTS:1REF:p. 388 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

54.What effect can obesity in adolescence have on the developmental tasks of separation and individuation?

a.

no effect

c.

speeds them up a little

b.

interference and delay

d.

speeds them up significantly

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Obesity in adolescence has negative effects on the developmental tasks of separation and individuation. No effect is incorrect.

B

Correct. Interference and delay to the developmental tasks of separation and individuation is one effect of obesity in adolescence.

C

Incorrect. Obesity in adolescence does not speed up a little the developmental tasks of separation and individuation.

D

Incorrect. Obesity in adolescence does not speed up significantly the developmental tasks of separation and individuation.

PTS:1REF:p. 389 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

55.Psychosocial effects of obesity in adolescents include:

a.

sense of humor or jolliness

b.

discrimination by others and feelings of rejection

c.

high self-esteem

d.

a positive body image and security about self

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Psychosocial effects of obesity in adolescents do not include a sense of humor or jolliness.

B

Correct. Psychosocial effects of obesity in adolescents include discrimination by others and feelings of rejection.

C

Incorrect. Psychosocial effects of obesity in adolescents do not include high self-esteem.

D

Incorrect. Psychosocial effects of obesity in adolescents do not include a positive body image and security about self.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 389 Health Promotion OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge

56.Which of the following actions by a community will most help in reducing the incidence of adolescent obesity?

a.

Provide access to computer programs and information on obesity.

b.

Provide guest speakers on obesity to classrooms of adolescents.

c.

Sponsor sports activities for adolescents after school and in the summer.

d.

Restrict the number of new building permits for fast-food restaurants in the community.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Incorrect. Providing access to computer programs and information on obesity means more sitting and will not most help in reducing the incidence of adolescent obesity.

B

Incorrect. Providing guest speakers on obesity to classrooms of adolescents means more sitting and definitely will not most help in reducing the incidence of adolescent obesity.

C

Correct. Sponsoring sports activities for adolescents after school and in the summer will most help in reducing the incidence of adolescent obesity.

D

Incorrect. Restricting the number of new building permits for fast-food restaurants in the community may help, but it will not be the most help in reducing the incidence of adolescent obesity.

PTS:1REF:p. 389 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

57.The school nurse talks with caregivers of grade-school children about serving healthy foods and modeling eating healthy foods. How will this activity by the nurse help these children avoid obesity in the future?

a.

Slim children will become slim adults, as they have less fat cells to fill up and the excess fat is excreted.

b.

The body metabolism is altered to be much slower on a long-term basis then children eat healthy foods at an early age.

c.

Eating healthy foods early allows the consumption of less healthy foods later without much harm.

d.

Early exposure to healthy foods will set up a preference for these foods, as adolescents tend to choose foods they are familiar with.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Incorrect. The nurse will not teach the caregivers about serving healthy foods and modeling healthy eating, that slim children will become slim adults, as they have less fat cells to fill up and the excess fat is excreted.

B

Incorrect. The nurse will not teach the caregivers about serving healthy foods and modeling healthy eating, that the body metabolism is altered to be much slower on a long-term basis then children eat healthy foods at an early age.

C

Incorrect. The nurse will not teach the caregivers about serving healthy foods and modeling healthy eating, that eating healthy foods early allows the consumption of less healthy foods later without much harm.

D

Correct. The nurse will teach the caregivers about serving healthy foods and modeling healthy eating, that early exposure to healthy foods will set up a preference for these foods, as adolescents tend to choose foods they are familiar with.

PTS:1REF:p. 390 Health Promotion

OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application

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