Chapter 12: Conceptual and Philosophical Bases of Nursing My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 12: Conceptual and Philosophical Bases of Nursing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Who is credited with developing the theory on systems?

a.

Rogers

b.

Maslow

c.

Rosenstock

d.

von Bertalanffy

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Carl Rogers developed a theory of personhood.

B

Abraham Maslow developed a human needs theory.

C

I. M. Rosenstock developed a health belief model.

D

Ludwig von Bertalanffy developed the theory of systems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 240

2. Which of the following is true of open systems?

a.

They have very little interaction with the environment.

b.

Parts are independent of each other.

c.

Exchange of information is sporadic and intermittent.

d.

The whole is greater than the sum of all of its parts.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Open systems interact with the environment.

B

Parts of a system are interrelated.

C

The exchange of information is continuous and dynamic.

D

In systems the whole is greater than the sum of all of its parts.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 241-242

3. Dynamic balance between systems and their parts is called

a.

synergy.

b.

homeostasis.

c.

inertia.

d.

suprasystems.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Synergy occurs when all parts of the system are working collaboratively.

B

The dynamic balance within and between open systems and their suprasystems is homeostasis.

C

Inertia is a term in physics that describes the tendency of matter to continue in its current state, whether moving or resting.

D

Suprasystems are the system and all of its subsystems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 242

4. A homeless man sleeps on a park bench and eats one meal a day at a shelter. Which is the lowest level of Maslows basic needs he does not meet?

a.

Basic physiologic needs

b.

Safety needs

c.

Love and belonging needs

d.

Esteem needs

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Although he is getting food, oxygen, and rest, he does not have shelter. This is Maslows lowest level of needs.

B

Maslow identified the second level of needs as safety needs, which include physical and psychological safety. Basic physiologic needs must be met before the person can meet higher order needs.

C

Maslow identified the third level of needs as love and belonging. Basic physiologic needs must be met before the person can meet higher order needs.

D

Maslow identified the fourth level of needs as the need for self-esteem. Basic physiologic needs must be met before the person can meet higher order needs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 243

5. An 18-month-old child has been in three foster homes within the past 9 months. When the child is seen for a well-child visit, the nurse notices the child vigilantly watches everyone. This child may not have which of Maslows basic needs met?

a.

Basic physiologic needs

b.

Safety needs

c.

Love and belonging needs

d.

Self-actualization

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Maslow identified the first level of needs as those necessary for physiologic survival. The child appears to have these needs met.

B

Maslow identified the second level of needs as safety needs, which include physical and psychological safety, as well as security. The child does not appear to have these needs met.

C

Maslow identified the third level of needs as love and belonging. The safety needs must be met before a person attempts to meet higher level needs.

D

Maslow identified the fifth level of needs as self-actualization. The safety needs must be met before a person attempts to meet higher level needs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 243

6. Which of the following describes one of the five levels of human needs identified by Maslow?

a.

Equilibration

b.

Love and belonging

c.

Growth and development

d.

Adaptation

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Equilibration is a stage of Carl Rogerss theory of personhood.

B

Love and belonging is the third level of Maslows basic needs theory.

C

Growth and development is not a level of human needs according to Maslow.

D

Adaptation is from Carl Rogerss theory of personhood.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 244

7. A school-aged child with spina bifida uses a wheelchair, attends school, and is actively involved in Scouting and science club. This child is meeting which of Maslows basic needs?

a.

Safety needs

b.

Love and belonging needs

c.

Esteem needs

d.

Self-actualization

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Maslow identified the second level of needs as safety needs, which include physical and psychological safety, as well as security.

B

Maslow identified the third level of needs as love and belonging. This child has demonstrated the social relationships and group affiliations.

C

Maslow identified the fourth level of needs as the need for self-esteem. Lower order needs need to be fulfilled before meeting higher order needs.

D

Maslow identified the fifth level of needs as self-actualization. Lower order needs need to be fulfilled before meeting higher order needs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 244

8. An adult has difficulty initiating a conversation, and in working with others always agrees with them because My opinion is not important. Which of Maslows basic needs is not being met by this person?

a.

Basic physiologic needs

b.

Love and belonging needs

c.

Esteem needs

d.

Self-actualization

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Maslow identified the first level of needs as those necessary for physiologic survival. There is no information that this person is not meeting these needs.

B

Maslow identified the third level of needs as love and belonging. There is no information that this person is not meeting these needs.

C

Maslow identified the fourth level of needs as the need for self-esteem. This individual does not demonstrate a sense of self-worth and self-respect.

D

Maslow identified the fifth level of needs as self-actualization. The lower order need of self-worth and self-respect must be met before attempting to meet the needs at this level.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 244

9. Which of the following is true of Maslows basic need of self-actualization?

a.

Once self-actualization is achieved, it is never lost.

b.

Elderly people outgrow the need for self-expression and self-development.

c.

Most people achieve self-actualization after all other needs are met.

d.

People use their abilities to the fullest extent possible and are true to their nature.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

People do not stay in a state of self-actualization but may have peak experiences that last for some period of time.

B

Maslow felt that people never outgrew the innate need for self-expression and self-development, regardless of age.

C

Maslow believed that many people strive for self-actualization, but few consistently reach the level even if they have achieved the other levels.

D

Self-actualized people have realized their maximum potential.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 244

10. A patients spouse and son were recently killed in an automobile accident, and the patients position in a large company has been eliminated due to corporate reorganization. The patient states, I do not think I can handle this. The nurse could safely make the assumption that

a.

the patient will soon develop clinical depression.

b.

the patient needs hospitalization to foster adaptation.

c.

environmental factors may have a negative impact on this persons health.

d.

self-care will assure the patients ability to readjust.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Multiple changes in a persons environment do not always result in depression.

B

Adaptation can be fostered without hospitalization.

C

Multiple changes in a persons environment may affect health.

D

Self-care is important, but the patient may need further assistance.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 245

11. The nurse is interviewing the mother of a school-aged child. The mother states that their family consists of herself, her son, a female friend, and two foster children. One grandparent lives in another city, and one lives within two blocks of them. As the nurse works with this family, what implication is important to include?

a.

As a single parent, the mother has multiple roles to fill and will become stressed.

b.

As an extended family, all the children will receive attention from several adults.

c.

This child will lack male attention because he lives in a single-parent family.

d.

The quality of family life will be influenced because they are not a traditional family.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Although the mother does have multiple roles to fill, she seems to have a support system to help her manage her multiple roles successfully.

B

The children live in a household with two adults and have a grandparent within two blocks.

C

There is nothing to indicate that the children will not have a male presence, especially if the grandparents are men.

D

Quality of family life can be achieved in a variety of family structures.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 245

12. Family structures have experienced change in the second half of the twentieth century. What is the most dramatic difference seen in families today?

a.

Increased incidence of single-parent families

b.

Reemergence of large, extended families

c.

Increased incidence of nuclear families

d.

Nuclear families moving closer to extended families

ANS: A

Feedback

A

There are more single-parent families in the United States than ever before, and most are headed by women.

B

With increased mobility, large extended families are decreasing.

C

The number of nuclear families is also decreasing.

D

Nuclear families are moving away from extended families.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 246

13. A nurse is caring for a new mother from Southeast Asia. The nurse is concerned that except for breastfeeding, the mother allows her mother-in-law to provide all other care for the baby. The plan of care and patient teaching for this mother should include

a.

assessing the postpartum practices in her country of origin.

b.

assuming that the mother-in-law will care for the baby well since she is experienced.

c.

completing the teaching outlined for new mothers.

d.

asking the mother-in-law not to care for the baby so that the mother learns the care.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The information gained will assist the nurse to plan an individualized plan of care, including cultural beliefs.

B

The nurse does not know how long the mother-in-law will care for the baby and what this means for the future.

C

Completing the routine teaching may not be appropriate for this mother.

D

Asking the mother-in-law not to care for the baby may be in opposition to their cultural beliefs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 246

14. A nurse is assessing a patients level of social support. How can the nurse best determine the adequacy of the patients social support system?

a.

Noticing the number of visitors the patient has

b.

Asking for the patients perception of support

c.

Counting the number of community groups with which the patient is involved

d.

Assessing the patients family structure and roles

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The adequacy of support can be determined only by the person himself or herself. Numbers alone do not indicate support or lack of support.

B

The adequacy of support can be determined only by the person himself or herself.

C

The number of community groups with which the patient is associated is not the best way to determine the patients support.

D

Assessing family structure and roles will provide helpful information but is not the best way to assess the adequacy of the patients support system.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 247

15. How can nurses contribute to a healthier environment?

a.

Supporting the purchase of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products

b.

Teaching the benefits of using disposable diapers to new parents

c.

Recommending the purchase of nondisposable products when possible

d.

Leaving the computer on to reduce the electrical use of rebooting

ANS: C

Feedback

A

PVC products damage the environment.

B

The use of disposable diapers adds to solid waste, and they are not easily biodegradable.

C

The use of products that can be used again decreases the waste produced.

D

More energy is conserved by turning off computers.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 249-250

16. Which of the following is the World Health Organizations definition of health?

a.

People in harmony with environment

b.

A state of optimum functioning for an individual in the performance of roles and tasks

c.

Physical, mental, and social well-being, not just the absence of disease or infirmity

d.

Functioning at maximum potential with the environment

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Jan Christian Smuts introduced the theory of health as man in harmony with his environment.

B

The state of optimum capacity of an individual for the effective performance of his roles and tasks is Parsons definition of health.

C

The World Health Organizations definition of health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

D

Functioning at maximum potential with the environment is Dunns theory of health.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 250

17. What is an advantage of the holistic view of health valued by nurses?

a.

Altering an individuals health beliefs to promote health

b.

Identifying a state of optimal role functioning

c.

Focusing on the interrelationship of all parts of a whole person

d.

Emphasizing the environment

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Holism has nothing to do with altering health beliefs.

B

Holism is more than just optimal role functioning.

C

When viewing health holistically, individual health practices are taken into account along with other aspects of the individual.

D

Holism sees the environment as part of the person and contributing to his or her health.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 250

18. Which of the following is the primary focus of Healthy People 2020?

a.

Improving the health of individuals

b.

Improving the health of children

c.

Improving the health of families

d.

Improving the health of communities

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Improving the health of individuals is only a part of the primary focus of Healthy People 2020.

B

Improving the health of children is only a part of the primary focus of Healthy People 2020.

C

Improving the health of families is only a part of the primary focus of Healthy People 2020.

D

Healthy People 2020 shifted the focus from individuals to the health of communities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: pp. 251-252

19. An adult wears a helmet when riding a bicycle because he believes that his cycling skills might not prevent an accident, which could result in a head injury with serious consequences. Which component of the health beliefs model is this person demonstrating?

a.

Knowledge that cycling is good exercise and improves health

b.

Perception of vulnerability to head injury from a bicycle accident

c.

Concern about his cycling skills

d.

Belief that individuals should prevent injuries

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Knowledge of practices to improve health is not part of the health beliefs model.

B

The health beliefs model has as one component the evaluation of ones vulnerability to a condition and the seriousness of that condition.

C

Concern about skills is not part of the health beliefs model.

D

The belief that individuals should prevent injuries is not part of the health beliefs model.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 253

20. Banduras theory of self-efficacy described peoples response to health-related behaviors. Which of the following was a major premise of this theory?

a.

Patients will take responsibility for their health if they understand the risks and benefits.

b.

A cue to action is a powerful motivator for changing health behavior.

c.

Belief in self as having the ability to improve health is important in changing health behaviors.

d.

Health is genetically predetermined and cannot be influenced by an individuals actions or beliefs.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Understanding the risk does not always motivate patients to change their behavior.

B

A cue to action was described by Rosenstock as a motivating factor in changing behavior.

C

Banduras theory of self-efficacy states that belief in ones self-efficacy leads to efforts to change.

D

Bandura believed that individuals could change their health practices if they believed they could.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 253

21. Which statement by an obese individual could be assessed as perceiving self-efficacy?

a.

Ive never been able to lose weight on any diet.

b.

Its better to maintain ones weight than lose weight and gain it all back.

c.

Ill be all right as long as my spouse will stay on the diet with me.

d.

I believe I can stay on this diet as long as necessary.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The person saying Ive never been able to lose weight on any diet does not reflect the belief that one is able to change his or her own behaviors.

B

The person saying Its better to maintain ones weight than lose weight and gain it all back does not reflect the belief that one is able to change his or her own behaviors.

C

The person saying Ill be all right as long as my spouse will stay on the diet with me does not reflect the belief that one is able to change his or her own behaviors.

D

Self-efficacy is a persons belief that he or she has the ability to modify his or her own behavior to improve health.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 253

22. Which of the following is believed about the concept of locus of control?

a.

Internally controlled people see themselves as responsible for their health and amenable to change.

b.

Externally controlled people believe health is controlled by what they do.

c.

Internally controlled people believe health is controlled by environmental factors.

d.

Externally controlled people are not likely to change their health behaviors.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

People with internal locus of control believe that they control their health and have the ability to change their behaviors.

B

Externally controlled people believe they are controlled by external forces.

C

Internally controlled people believe that they control health.

D

Externally controlled people can change health behaviors, but the stimulus to do so will come from outside of themselves.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 253-254

23. Which one of the following guiding principles helps explain nursings holistic approach?

a.

Nursing care can be provided in a variety of settings.

b.

Nursing care persists even in the absence of scientific research.

c.

Nursing care considers mind, body, and spirit.

d.

Nursing provides care regardless of a patients belief systems or culture.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Holistic care can be provided in any setting.

B

Nursing care persists even in the absence of scientific research does not address the meaning of holism.

C

Holistic nursing considers the whole person: body, mind, and spirit.

D

Nursing care always strives to consider a persons culture and belief system.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 255

24. The nursing process is an example of which of the following branches of philosophy?

a.

Aesthetics

b.

Ethics

c.

Epistemology

d.

Logic

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Aesthetics is the study of what is beautiful.

B

Ethics deals with standards of conduct.

C

Epistemology deals with the nature of knowledge itself.

D

The nursing process is an example of ordered thinking and reasoning known as logic and reasoning.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 261

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which of the following are considered systems? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Automobile engine

b.

Person

c.

Rock

d.

Hospital

e.

Family

ANS: A, B, D, E

Feedback

Correct

An automobile engine, a person, a hospital and a family exhibit the components of a system: input, output, throughput, evaluation, and feedback.

Incorrect

A rock does not have the characteristics of a system, such as input and output.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 241

2. Nurses recognize which of the following about health? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Individuals desiring to change their behaviors are already motivated to change.

b.

The burden of change is borne by the individual.

c.

Health is relative and ever changing.

d.

Multiple interventions are necessary to change health behaviors.

e.

Unhealthy behaviors may persist in spite of increased knowledge.

ANS: C, D, E

Feedback

Correct

Nurses recognize that health is relative and ever changing, multiple interventions are necessary to change health behaviors, and that unhealthy behaviors may persist in spite of increased knowledge.

Incorrect

Individuals may desire change but not have the knowledge, motivation, self-efficacy, or support to change. The burden of change is shared by the patient, health care providers, and population-focused entities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 254

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