Chapter 11: The Science of Nursing and Evidence-Based Practice My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 11: The Science of Nursing and Evidence-Based Practice

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The discovery of oxygen would be called pure science because this information

a.

was obtained for the sake of obtaining new knowledge of the world.

b.

had an immediate use for humans.

c.

would be useful in curing, managing, or preventing disease.

d.

could direct further research at the bedside.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Pure science or pure research summarizes and explains the world without regard to whether this information is immediately useful.

B

Pure science does not address the immediate use of the information or its relationship to diseases or bedside research.

C

Pure science does not address the immediate use of the information or its relationship to diseases or bedside research.

D

Pure science does not address the immediate use of the information or its relationship to diseases or bedside research.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 223

2. What is meant by the term evidence-based practice?

a.

Using nursing research findings to develop nursing theory

b.

Integrating the research process into nursing administration

c.

Studying research from the social sciences and applying it to practice

d.

Applying research findings; patient care data, preferences, and values; and nursing expertise to nursing practice

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Evidence-based practice is for the purpose of clinical practice, not theory development.

B

The goal of evidence-based practice is to integrate research into clinical practice, not necessarily into nursing administration.

C

Research from nursing applied to practice is evidence-based practice.

D

Evidence based practice is defined as practice that integrates the best evidence from [research] studies and patient care data with clinician expertise and patient preferences and values.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 227

3. To build the body of knowledge of nursing, a problem amenable to study should be

a.

able to ensure participants that the intervention is a good idea.

b.

based on published research findings and fit logically with what is already known.

c.

an original area of study never researched previously.

d.

able to produce results that are applicable to a variety of situations.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

An intervention being a good idea does not mean it will build the body of knowledge unless it relates to what we already know.

B

To build a body of knowledge, one needs to extend what one already knows.

C

Although original research is excellent, to build the body of knowledge, the foundational work must be expanded.

D

Not all problems occur in a variety of settings.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 225

4. Which of the following is not a necessary step in the research process?

a.

Review of the literature

b.

Review of best practice guidelines

c.

Design of the study

d.

Dissemination of results

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Review of the literature is a primary step in the research process.

B

Review of best practice guidelines is not a step in the research process.

C

Design of the study is an essential step in the research process.

D

Dissemination is a step of the research process and a responsibility of the researcher.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 228-229

5. Which of the following are the three most common sources of research questions?

a.

Study of clinical problems, anecdotal stories, requests by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)

b.

Requests by drug companies, doctoral students, review of the literature

c.

Clinical problems, replication of prior research, testing nursing theory

d.

Review of existing research, NIH grants, request by state board of nursing

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Clinical problems are a source of research, but anecdotal stories and NIH requests are not.

B

Drug companies conduct their own studies.

C

The three most common sources of research questions are clinical situations, the literature, and theory.

D

Most research questions do not come from the state board of nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 229

6. Which of the following is an example of a research question based on a clinical problem?

a.

Published observations of a nurse who practiced many years in elder care

b.

Nursing intuition about what measures are most useful with anxious patients before surgery

c.

Stories of a flight nurses experiences with posttraumatic stress disorder

d.

Relationship between hours of bright light and irritability of preterm infants

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Published observations about elder care do not meet the criteria of a research question.

B

Nursing intuition does not meet the criteria of a research question.

C

Stories of flight nurses experiences do not meet the criteria of a research question.

D

The relationship between hours of bright light and irritability in preterm infants is a research question based on a clinical problem that can be studied.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 229

7. A nursing manager wants the unit staff to become more involved in research. The staff nurses say they are not qualified to conduct research. Which response by the manager is best?

a.

You need a basic understanding of the research process because you should be good consumers of research.

b.

At the staff nurse level, you can assist with clinical studies by doing data collection.

c.

A baccalaureate-prepared nurse should be able to design simple studies.

d.

If we all work on this together, we can design and implement good research studies.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Nurses at all levels of basic preparation become consumers of research when they enter practice, so they need a good understanding of the process.

B

Staff nurses might be asked to assist in data collection, but this option does not fully explain why they should be involved in research.

C

The masters-prepared nurse should be able to design replication studies.

D

Without the educational background that prepares a nurse to conduct research, even a team effort will probably not yield high quality studies.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 237

8. An intensive care unit (ICU) nurse notices that patients seem to have more normal vital signs when they are being visited by their family members, especially when the visitors seem to be more caring. However, the hospital has strict visiting hours of 10 minutes every other hour. What would be the most appropriate research question to ask at this time?

a.

What is patient and family satisfaction with visitation time?

b.

What is the relationship between length of visitation and vital signs?

c.

What are the vital signs of ICU patients when visited by caring visitors in comparison with when they are alone?

d.

Do ICU patients have vital signs in the normal range more frequently when they are being visited by family members?

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Satisfaction is the issue the nurse is interested in.

B

At this point the length of visitation is similar and is not the issue.

C

Although this is an interesting question, the nurse needs to first discover whether the vital signs are in the normal range more often during family visitation.

D

The nurse has only subjective data and needs to determine whether the vital signs are truly more often in the normal range with visitation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 230

9. Which research design has the goal of determining a cause-and-effect relationship?

a.

Experimental design

b.

Nonexperimental design

c.

Pure research

d.

Applied research

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A true experimental design should prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

B

Nonexperimental studies do not necessarily include cause-and-effect controls.

C

Pure research is research conducted without regard for whether the information is immediately useful.

D

Applied research seeks to develop a practical use for research findings.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: pp. 230-231

10. Which research design would be used to determine the relationship between self-concept, physical fitness, and health habits in school-aged children?

a.

Experimental design

b.

Nonexperimental design

c.

Applied research design

d.

Pretest and posttest design

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Experimental designs look for differences between groups on certain variables.

B

Nonexperimental designs will allow the researcher to look for relationships among the variables and are described as descriptive or exploratory.

C

Designs used in applied research take various forms, including experimental and nonexperimental.

D

An experimental design addresses differences, not relationships.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 230-231

11. Which research design should be used to determine whether there is a difference in the effectiveness of two preoperative preparation methods on length of stay?

a.

Survey design

b.

Experimental design

c.

Nonexperimental design

d.

Descriptive comparison design

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A survey design will describe but not address differences.

B

Experimental designs will allow the researcher to look for differences between the outcomes of the two different preparation methods.

C

Nonexperimental designs will not allow the researcher to answer questions about differences between groups.

D

As a nonexperimental design, it addresses relationships among variables in groups.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: pp. 230-231

12. For data collection to be valid, what must occur?

a.

The tool must be thorough.

b.

The tool must be unbiased.

c.

The tool must measure what it is supposed to measure.

d.

The tool must be accurate all of the time.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Thoroughness of the tool does not make it valid.

B

A tool should be unbiased, but it will not make it valid.

C

For a tool to be valid, it must measure what it is supposed to measure.

D

The accuracy of the tool is referred to as reliability.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 231

13. A data collection protocol calls for a questionnaire to be administered to patients having knee replacement surgery after the third physical therapy appointment. Errors can be introduced into the study by

a.

giving the questionnaire to all participants.

b.

reading the questionnaire to the participants with poor reading skills.

c.

giving the questionnaire to all participants when they arrive for their appointment.

d.

giving the questionnaire to the participants after the appointment to be completed while they have a snack.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Giving a questionnaire to all participants follows the timing of the protocol.

B

Reading the questionnaire to participants with poor reading skills follows the timing of the protocol.

C

Giving the questionnaire to all participants when they arrive for their appointment does not follow the protocol; the participant could fill out the questionnaire before experiencing the therapy session.

D

Giving the questionnaire to the participants after the appointment to be completed while they have a snack follows the timing of the protocol.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 231

14. Which of the following must be included in the informed consent in research?

a.

Participants relinquish the right to privacy.

b.

Once participants agree to participate, they must complete the study.

c.

Participants need to know the funding source for the research.

d.

Participants must be informed of risks associated with participation.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Participants must be guaranteed privacy.

B

Participants may withdraw their consent at any time.

C

Participants do not need to know the funding source for the study.

D

Participants must be informed of any risk involved while participating.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 234

15. What body has been established to protect participants of research?

a.

Institutional review board

b.

State board of nursing

c.

Nursing research board

d.

Peer review panel

ANS: A

Feedback

A

An institutional review board has the purpose of protection of human subjects.

B

The state board of nursing has no jurisdiction over research.

C

The nursing research board is not a recognized entity.

D

The peer review process is not used to protect participants of research studies.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 234

16. What is the current name of the agency that serves as an important source of funding for nursing research?

a.

NIH

b.

National Institute of Nursing Research

c.

National Center for Nursing Research

d.

National Nursing Research Agenda

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The National Institute of Nursing Research is the part of the NIH charged with nursing research.

B

The name of the agency that primarily funds nursing research is the National Institute of Nursing Research.

C

The National Center for Nursing Research was the original name for the National Institute of Nursing Research before 1992.

D

The National Nursing Research Agenda determines priorities for funding of nursing research but does not directly fund nursing research.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 225

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Translational research/science will do which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Result in biomedical research becoming less flexible in response to the needs of society

b.

Limit interdisciplinary research because this does not enhance patient care

c.

Take laboratory findings for development for use with patients at the bedside

d.

Use clinical research findings to ask new questions for research in the laboratory

e.

Discover practical applications for scientific theories and laws.

ANS: C, D

Feedback

Correct

Translational research serves as the conduit between the bench and the bedside.

Incorrect

Translational research will result in more flexibility in taking biomedical research findings to practical applications. Interdisciplinary research is expected to increase as multiple disciplines involved in clinical concerns can use the findings of the bench scientists. Discovering practical applications for scientific knowledge is applied science.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 223

2. Quantitative research methods may be somewhat less useful in nursing because of which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Qualitative methods are the preferred method to study nursing phenomena.

b.

Nursing ethics require more stringent controls than are required by quantitative methods.

c.

Many phenomena of interest to nurses are not amenable to study in tightly controlled circumstances.

d.

The complexity of human beings makes it difficult to break problems into statements that can be tested.

e.

Patient perceptions of experiences may have significant effects on their health behaviors.

ANS: C, D, E

Feedback

Correct

Nursing problems of interest cannot be studied in laboratory settings. The view of human beings as holistic makes it difficult to dissect them into problem statements to be tested. The meaning of the experience to the patient may be as significant to his or her response as the objective events that occurred.

Incorrect

Quantitative methods have had stature as the method of inquiry. However, both qualitative and quantitative methods have much to offer to the study of nursing phenomena. Quantitative methods are the most stringent but are not required to study all phenomena of interest to nursing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 224

3. Evidence-based nursing practice involves which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

The use of the best evidence available supporting the interventions

b.

The use of randomized controlled trials only versus qualitative studies

c.

The expertise of the professional nurse

d.

Resources to identify practices that have traditionally been used in nursing practice

e.

The preferences of the individual patients and their families

ANS: A, C, E

Feedback

Correct

Focusing on the evidence of the effectiveness of the intervention prevents the nurse from basing care on tradition or routine. Expertise of the nurse allows the nurse to question the best way to do something and to seek information to answer the question. Patient preference is still important if the intervention is to be successful.

Incorrect

Randomized controlled trials may be the gold standard for providing evidence of effectiveness, but they are not the only method to study patient problems. Resources should be used to find the best evidence to support nursing practice, not what nurses have done traditionally.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 227

4. A nurse wants to examine the accuracy of child and parent perceptions of asthma symptoms and their decision making based on their understanding of the symptoms. What specific factors would identify participants? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Children 5 to 18 years of age

b.

Mothers of the children

c.

Children with a history of pneumonia

d.

Families living in rural areas

e.

Ethnicity

ANS: A, B

Feedback

Correct

Children 5 to 18 years of age and their mothers address the participants identified in the problem.

Incorrect

There is no mention that the children needed to have had pneumonia. Although a researcher could limit participants based on geographic location and ethnicity, these are not mentioned in the description of the participants needed for this study.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 234

5. Dissemination of findings may involve which of the following activities? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Manuscript reviewed by peers

b.

Oral presentation of findings at annual conference of the Society of Pediatric Nurses

c.

Poster presentation at regional conference of Sigma Theta Tau International

d.

Publication of findings in Western Journal of Nursing Research

e.

PowerPoint slides developed showing charts and graphs of the statistical results

ANS: A, B, C, D

Feedback

Correct

The dissemination of findings involves the publication and/or presentation of the results so that they are available to others.

Incorrect

A PowerPoint presentation may be part of preparation for publication or presentation, but it does not disseminate the findings in itself unless shown or discussed with other professionals.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 235

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