Chapter 11: Health Problems of the Infant My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 11: Health Problems of the Infant

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Rickets is caused by a deficiency in what?

a.

Vitamin A

b.

Vitamin C

c.

Folic acid and iron

d.

Vitamin D and calcium

ANS: D

Fat-soluble vitamin D and calcium are necessary in adequate amounts to prevent rickets. No correlation exists between rickets and folic acid, iron, or vitamins A and C.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: p. 452

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

2. Which factors will decrease iron absorption and should not be given at the same time as an iron supplement?

a.

Milk

b.

Fruit juice

c.

Multivitamin

d.

Meat, fish, poultry

ANS: A

Many foods interfere with iron absorption and should be avoided when iron is consumed. These foods include phosphates found in milk, phytates found in cereals, and oxalates found in many vegetables. Vitamin Ccontaining juices enhance the absorption of iron. Multivitamins may contain iron; no contraindication exists to taking the two together. Meat, fish, and poultry do not affect absorption.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 454 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

3. The nurse is helping parents achieve a more nutritionally adequate vegetarian diet for their children. Which is most likely lacking in their particular diet?

a.

Fat

b.

Protein

c.

Vitamins C and A

d.

Iron and calcium

ANS: D

Deficiencies can occur when various substances in the diet interact with minerals. For example, iron, zinc, and calcium can form insoluble complexes with phytates or oxalates (substances found in plant proteins), which impair the bioavailability of the mineral. This type of interaction is important in vegetarian diets because plant foods such as soy are high in phytates. Fat and vitamins C and A are readily available from vegetable sources. Plant proteins are available.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 454

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

4. A 1-year-old child is on a pure vegetarian (vegan) diet. This diet requires supplementation with what?

a.

Niacin

b.

Folic acid

c.

Vitamins D and B12

d.

Vitamins C and E

ANS: C

Pure vegetarian (vegan) diets eliminate any food of animal origin, including milk and eggs. These diets require supplementation with many vitamins, especially vitamin B6, vitamin B12, riboflavin, vitamin D, iron, and zinc. Niacin, folic acid, and vitamins C and E are readily obtainable from foods of vegetable origin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 453 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

5. What is marasmus?

a.

Deficiency of protein with an adequate supply of calories

b.

Syndrome that results solely from vitamin deficiencies

c.

Not confined to geographic areas where food supplies are inadequate

d.

Characterized by thin, wasted extremities and a prominent abdomen resulting from edema (ascites)

ANS: C

Marasmus is a syndrome of emotional and physical deprivation. It is not confined to geographic areas were food supplies are inadequate. Marasmus is characterized by gradual wasting and atrophy of body tissues, especially of subcutaneous fat. The child appears old, with flabby and wrinkled skin. Marasmus is a deficiency of both protein and calories.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 456

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

6. At a well-child check-up, the nurse notes that an infant with a previous diagnosis of failure to thrive (FTT) is now steadily gaining weight. The nurse should recommend that fruit juice intake be limited to no more than how much?

a.

4 oz/day

b.

6 oz/day

c.

8 oz/day

d.

12 oz/day

ANS: A

Restrict juice intake in children with FTT until adequate weight gain has been achieved with appropriate milk sources; thereafter, give no more than 4 oz/day of juice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 465 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

7. An infant has been diagnosed with an allergy to milk. In teaching the parent how to meet the infants nutritional needs, the nurse states that

a.

Most children will grow out of the allergy.

b.

All dairy products must be eliminated from the childs diet.

c.

It is important to have the entire family follow the special diet.

d.

Antihistamines can be used so the child can have milk products.

ANS: A

Approximately 80% of children with cows milk allergy develop tolerance by the fifth birthday. The child can have eggs. Any food that has milk as a component or filler is eliminated. These foods include processed meats, salad dressings, soups, and milk chocolate. Having the entire family follow the special diet would provide support for the child, but the nutritional needs of other family members must be addressed. Antihistamines are not used for food allergies.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 460

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

8. Lactose intolerance is diagnosed in an 11-month-old infant. Which should the nurse recommend as a milk substitute?

a.

Yogurt

b.

Ice cream

c.

Fortified cereal

d.

Cows milkbased formula

ANS: A

Yogurt contains the inactive lactase enzyme, which is activated by the temperature and pH of the duodenum. This lactase activity substitutes for the lack of endogenous lactase. Ice cream and cows milkbased formula contain lactose, which will probably not be tolerated by the child. Fortified cereal does not have the nutritional equivalents of milk.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 462

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

9. Which term refers to the relative lactase deficiency observed in preterm infants of less than 34 weeks of gestation?

a.

Congenital lactase deficiency

b.

Primary lactase deficiency

c.

Secondary lactase deficiency

d.

Developmental lactase deficiency

ANS: D

Developmental lactase deficiency refers to the relative lactase deficiency observed in preterm infants of less than 34 weeks of gestation. Congenital lactase deficiency occurs soon after birth after the newborn has consumed lactose-containing milk. Primary lactase deficiency, sometimes referred to as late-onset lactase deficiency, is the most common type of lactose intolerance and is manifested usually after 4 or 5 years of age. Secondary lactase deficiency may occur secondary to damage of the intestinal lumen, which decreases or destroys the enzyme lactase.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 462

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

10. Which statement best describes colic?

a.

Periods of abdominal pain resulting in weight loss

b.

Usually the result of poor or inadequate mothering

c.

Periods of abdominal pain and crying occurring in infants older than age 6 months

d.

A paroxysmal abdominal pain or cramping manifested by episodes of loud crying

ANS: D

Colic is described as paroxysmal abdominal pain or cramping that is manifested by loud crying and drawing up the legs to the abdomen. Weight loss is not part of the clinical picture. There are many theories about the cause of colic. Emotional stress or tension between the parent and child is one component. This is not consistent throughout all cases. Colic is most common in infants younger than 3 months of age.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 470

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

11. The parent of an infant with colic tells the nurse, All this baby does is scream at me; it is a constant worry. What is the nurses best action?

a.

Encourage the parent to verbalize feelings.

b.

Encourage the parent not to worry so much.

c.

Assess the parent for other signs of inadequate parenting.

d.

Reassure the parent that colic rarely lasts past age 9 months.

ANS: A

Colic is multifactorial, and no single treatment is effective for all infants. The parent is verbalizing concern and worry. The nurse should allow the parent to put these feelings into words. An empathetic, gentle, and reassuring attitude, in addition to suggestions about remedies, will help alleviate the parents anxiety. The nurse should reassure the parent that he or she is not doing anything wrong. The infant with colic is experiencing spasmodic pain that is manifested by loud crying, in some cases up to 3 hours each day. Telling the parent that it will eventually go away does not help him or her through the current situation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 479 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. What may a clinical manifestations of failure to thrive (FTT) in a 13-month-old include?

a.

Irregularity in activities of daily living

b.

Preferring solid food to milk or formula

c.

Weight that is at or below the 10th percentile

d.

Appropriate achievement of developmental landmarks

ANS: A

One of the clinical manifestations of children with FTT is irregularity or low rhythmicity in activities of daily living. Children with FTT often refuse to switch from liquids to solid foods. Weight below the fifth percentile is indicative of FTT. Developmental delays, including social, motor, adaptive, and language, exist.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 462

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

13. Which one of the following strategies might be recommended for an infant with failure to thrive (FTT) to increase caloric intake?

a.

Vary the schedule for routine activities on a daily basis.

b.

Be persistent through 10 to 15 minutes of food refusal.

c.

Avoid solids until after the bottle is well accepted.

d.

Use developmental stimulation by a specialist during feedings.

ANS: B

Calm perseverance through 10 to 15 minutes of food refusal will eventually diminish negative behavior. Children with FTT need a structured routine to help establish rhythmicity in their activities of daily living. Many children with FTT are fed exclusively from a bottle. Solids should be fed first. Stimulation is reduced during mealtimes to maintain the focus on eating.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 465

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

14. The nurse is examining an infant, age 10 months, who was brought to the clinic for persistent diaper rash. The nurse finds perianal inflammation with satellite lesions. What is the most likely cause?

a.

Impetigo

b.

Urine and feces

c.

Candida albicans infection

d.

Infrequent diapering

ANS: C

C. albicans infection produces perianal inflammation and a maculopapular rash with satellite lesions that may cross the inguinal folds. Impetigo is a bacterial infection that spreads peripherally in sharply marginated, irregular outlines. Eruptions involving the skin in contact with the diaper but sparing the folds are likely to be caused by chemical irritation, especially urine and feces, and may be related to infrequent diapering.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 466

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

15. A new parent asks the nurse, How can diaper rash be prevented? What should the nurse recommend?

a.

Wash the infant with soap before applying a thin layer of oil.

b.

Clean the infant with soap and water every time diaper is changed.

c.

Wipe stool from the skin using water and a mild cleanser.

d.

When changing the diaper, wipe the buttocks with oil and powder the creases.

ANS: C

Change the diaper as soon as it becomes soiled. Gently wipe stool from the skin with water and mild soap. The skin should be thoroughly dried after washing. Applying oil does not create an effective barrier. Over washing the skin should be avoided, especially with perfumed soaps or commercial wipes, which may be irritating. Baby powder should not be used because of the danger of aspiration.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 467

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

16. What is most descriptive of atopic dermatitis (AD) (eczema) in an infant?

a.

Easily cured

b.

Worse in humid climates

c.

Associated with hereditary allergies

d.

Related to upper respiratory tract infections

ANS: C

AD is a type of pruritic eczema that usually begins during infancy and is associated with allergy with a hereditary tendency. Approximately 50% of children with AD develop asthma. AD can be controlled but not cured. Manifestations of the disease are worse when environmental humidity is lower. AD is not associated with respiratory tract infections.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 468

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

17. Where do eczematous lesions most commonly occur in an infant?

a.

Abdomen, cheeks, and scalp

b.

Buttocks, abdomen, and scalp

c.

Back and flexor surfaces of the arms and legs

d.

Cheeks and extensor surfaces of the arms and legs

ANS: D

The lesions of atopic dermatitis are generalized in infants. They are most common on the cheeks, scalp, trunk, and extensor surfaces of the extremities. The abdomen and buttocks are not common sites of lesions. The back and flexor surfaces are not usually involved.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 468

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

18. The nurse is discussing the management of atopic dermatitis (eczema) with a parent. What should be included?

a.

Dress infant warmly to prevent chilling.

b.

Keep the infants fingernails and toenails cut short and clean.

c.

Give bubble baths instead of washing lesions with soap.

d.

Launder clothes in mild detergent; use fabric softener in the rinse.

ANS: B

The infants nails should be kept short and clean and have no sharp edges. Gloves or cotton socks can be placed over the childs hands and pinned to the shirt sleeves. Heat and humidity increase perspiration, which can exacerbate the eczema. The child should be dressed properly for the climate. Synthetic material (not wool) should be used for the childs clothing during cold months. Baths are given as prescribed with tepid water, and emollients such as Aquaphor, Cetaphil, and Eucerin are applied within 3 minutes. Soap (except as indicated), bubble bath oils, and powders are avoided. Fabric softener should be avoided because of the irritant effects of some of its components.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 469

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

19. The parents of a 3-month-old infant report that their infant sleeps supine (face up) but is often prone (face down) while awake. The nurses response should be based on remembering what?

a.

This is acceptable to encourage head control and turning over.

b.

This is acceptable to encourage fine motor development.

c.

This is unacceptable because of the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

d.

This is unacceptable because it does not encourage achievement of developmental milestones.

ANS: A

These parents are implementing the guidelines to reduce the risk of SIDS. Infants should sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of SIDS and then be placed on their abdomens when awake to enhance achievement of milestones such as head control. These position changes encourage gross motor, not fine motor, development.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 473

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

20. After the introduction of the Back to Sleep campaign in 1992, an increased incidence has been noted of which pediatric issues?

a.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

b.

Plagiocephaly

c.

Failure to thrive

d.

Apnea of infancy

ANS: B

Plagiocephaly is a misshapen head caused by the prolonged pressure on one side of the skull. If that side becomes misshapen, facial asymmetry may result. SIDS has decreased by more than 40% with the introduction of the Back to Sleep campaign. Apnea of infancy and failure to thrive are unrelated to the Back to Sleep campaign.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 478

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

21. The nurse is interviewing the parents of a 4-month-old boy brought to the hospital emergency department. The infant is dead, and no attempt at resuscitation is made. The parents state that the baby was found in his crib with a blanket over his head, lying face down in bloody fluid from his nose and mouth. The nurse might initially suspect his death was caused by what?

a.

Suffocation

b.

Child abuse

c.

Infantile apnea

d.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

ANS: D

The description of how the child was found in the crib is suggestive of SIDS. The nurse is careful to tell the parents that a diagnosis cannot be confirmed until an autopsy is performed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 473

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

22. What is an important nursing responsibility when dealing with a family experiencing the loss of an infant from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

a.

Discourage the parents from making a last visit with the infant.

b.

Make a follow-up home visit to the parents as soon as possible after the childs death.

c.

Explain how SIDS could have been predicted and prevented.

d.

Interview the parents in depth concerning the circumstances surrounding the childs death.

ANS: B

A competent, qualified professional should visit the family at home as soon as possible after the death. Printed information about SIDS should be provided to the family. Parents should be allowed and encouraged to make a last visit with their child. SIDS cannot always be prevented or predicted, but parents can take steps to reduce the risk (e.g., supine sleeping, removing blankets and pillows from the crib, and not smoking). Discussions about the cause only increase parental guilt. The parents should be asked only factual questions to determine the cause of death.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 477

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

23. What is an appropriate action when an infant becomes apneic?

a.

Shake vigorously.

b.

Roll the infants head to the side.

c.

Gently stimulate the trunk by patting or rubbing.

d.

Hold the infant by the feet upside down with the head supported.

ANS: C

If an infant is apneic, the infants trunk should be gently stimulated by patting or rubbing. If the infant is prone, turn onto the back. Vigorous shaking, rolling of the head, and hanging the child upside down can cause injury and should not be done.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 481

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

24. A parent brings a 12-month-old infant into the emergency department and tells the nurse that the infant is allergic to peanuts and was accidentally given a cookie with peanuts in it. The infant is dyspneic, wheezing, and cyanotic. The health care provider has prescribed a dose of epinephrine to be administered. The infant weighs 24 lb. How many milligrams of epinephrine should be administered?

a.

0.11 to 0.33 mg

b.

0.011 to 0.3 mg

c.

1.1 to 3.3 mg

d.

11 to 33 mg

ANS: B

The correct dose of epinephrine to use in the emergency management of an anaphylactic reaction is 0.001 mg/kg up to a maximum of 0.3 mg, giving a range of 0.011 to 0.3 mg using a weight of 11 kg (24 lb).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 459

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

25. The nurse is teaching a parent with a 2-month-old infant who has been diagnosed with colic about ways to relieve colic. Which statement by the parent indicates the need for additional teaching?

a.

I should let my infant cry for at least 30 minutes before I respond.

b.

I will swaddle my infant tightly with a soft blanket.

c.

I should massage my infants abdomen whenever possible.

d.

I will place my infant in an upright seat after feeding.

ANS: A

Because the infant has been diagnosed with colic, the parent should respond to the infant immediately or any type of interventions to relieve colic may not be effective. Also, the infant may develop a mistrust of the world if his or her needs are not met. The parent should swaddle the baby tightly with a soft blanket, massage the babys abdomen, and place the infant in an upright seat after a feeding to help relieve colic.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 471

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

26. A new parent relates to the nurse that the family has many known food allergies. Which is considered a primary strategy for feeding the infant with many family food allergies?

a.

Using soy formula for feeding

b.

Maternal avoidance of cows milk protein

c.

Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months

d.

Delaying the introduction of highly allergenic foods past 6 months

ANS: C

Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months is now considered a primary strategy for avoiding atopy in families with known food allergies; however, there is no evidence that maternal avoidance (during pregnancy or lactation) of cows milk protein or other dietary products known to cause food allergy will prevent food allergy in children. Researchers indicate that delaying the introduction of highly allergenic foods past 4 to 6 months of age may not be as protective for food allergy as previously believed. Likewise, studies have shown that soy formula does not prevent allergic disease in infants.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 460 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

27. A bottle-fed infant has been diagnosed with cows milk allergy. Which formula should the nurse expect to be prescribed for the infant?

a.

Similac

b.

Pregestimil

c.

Enfamil with iron

d.

Gerber Good Start

ANS: B

For infants with cows milk allergy, the formula will be changed to a casein hydrolysate milk formula (Pregestimil, Nutramigen, or Alimentum) in which the protein has been broken down into its amino acids through enzymatic hydrolysis. Similac, Enfamil with iron, and Gerber Good Start are cows milkbased formulas.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 461 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

28. The nurse is collecting a stool sample from an infant with lactose intolerance. Which fecal pH should the nurse expect as the result?

a.

5.5

b.

7.0

c.

7.5

d.

8

ANS: A

An acidic pH (55.5) indicates malabsorption, which occurs with lactose intolerance. The normal pH of the stool is 7.0 to 7.5. A finding of 8 would be alkaline.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 462

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

29. An infant has been diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT) classified according to the pathophysiology of inadequate caloric intake. The nurse understands that the reason for the FTT is most likely related to what?

a.

Cows milk allergy

b.

Congenital heart disease

c.

Metabolic storage disease

d.

Incorrect formula preparation

ANS: D

FTT classified according to the pathophysiology of inadequate caloric intake is related to incorrect formula preparation, neglect, food fads, excessive juice poverty, breastfeeding problems, behavioral problems affecting eating, parental restriction of caloric intake, or central nervous system problems affecting intake consumption. Cows milk allergy would be related to the pathophysiology of inadequate absorption, congenital heart disease would be related to the pathophysiology of increased metabolism, and metabolic storage disease is related to defective utilization.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 463

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

30. An infant has been diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT) classified according to the pathophysiology of defective utilization. The nurse understands that the reason for the FTT is most likely related to what?

a.

Cystic fibrosis

b.

Hyperthyroidism

c.

Congenital infection

d.

Breastfeeding problems

ANS: C

FTT classified according to the pathophysiology of defective utilization is related to a genetic anomaly, congenital infection of metabolic storage disease. Cystic fibrosis would be related to the pathophysiology of inadequate absorption, hyperthyroidism would be related to the pathophysiology of increased metabolism, and breastfeeding problems are related to inadequate caloric intake.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 463

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

31. The nurse is teaching parents guidelines for feeding their 8-month-old infant with failure to thrive (FTT). Which statement by the parents indicates a need for further teaching?

a.

We will continue to use the 24-kcal/oz formula.

b.

We will be sure to follow the formula preparation instructions.

c.

We will be sure to give our infant at least 8 oz of juice every day.

d.

We will be sure to feed our infant according to the written schedule.

ANS: C

Juice intake in infants with FTT should be withheld until adequate weight gain has been achieved with appropriate milk sources; thereafter, no more than 4/oz day of juice should be given. Further teaching is needed if the parents indicate 8 oz of juice is allowed. For infants with FTT, 24-kcal/oz formulas may be provided to increase caloric intake. Because maladaptive feeding practices often contribute to growth failure, parents should follow specific step-by-step directions for formula preparation, as well as a written schedule of feeding times. Statements by the parents indicating they will use a 24-kcal/oz formula, follow directions for formula preparation, and feed their infant on schedule are accurate statements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 463

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

32. The nurse is teaching parents about caring for their infant with seborrheic dermatitis (cradle cap). Which statement by the parents indicates understanding of the teaching?

a.

We will rinse off the shampoo quickly and dry the scalp thoroughly.

b.

We will shampoo the hair every other day with antiseborrheic shampoo.

c.

We will be sure to shampoo the hair without removing any of the crusts.

d.

We will use a fine-tooth comb to help remove the loosened crusts from the strands of hair.

ANS: D

A fine-tooth comb or a soft facial brush helps remove the loosened crusts from the strands of hair after shampooing. This is an accurate statement. Shampoo should applied to the scalp and allowed to remain on the scalp until the crusts soften. Shampoo should not be rinsed off quickly. The crusts should be removed, and shampooing with antiseborrheic shampoo should be done daily, not every other day.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 467

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33. The nurse is administering an oral antihistamine at bedtime to a child with atopic dermatitis (eczema). Which antihistamine should the nurse expect to be prescribed at bedtime?

a.

Cetirizine (Zyrtec)

b.

Loratadine (Claritin)

c.

Fexofenadine (Allegra)

d.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

ANS: D

Oral antihistamine drugs such as hydroxyzine or diphenhydramine usually relieve moderate or severe pruritus. Nonsedating antihistamines such as cetirizine (Zyrtec), loratadine (Claritin), or fexofenadine (Allegra) may be preferred for daytime pruritus relief. Because pruritus increases at night, a mildly sedating antihistamine such as Benadryl is prescribed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 469

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The nurse is planning care for an infant with eczema. Which interventions should the nurse include in the care plan? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Avoid giving the infant a bubble bath.

b.

Avoid the use of a humidifier in the infants room.

c.

Avoid overdressing the infant.

d.

Avoid the use of topical steroids on the infants skin.

e.

Avoid wet compresses on the infants most affected areas.

ANS: A, C

Guidelines for care of an infant with eczema include avoiding a bubble bath and harsh soaps and avoiding overdressing the infant to prevent perspiration, which can cause a flare-up. The care plan should include using a humidifier in the infants room, topical steroids, and wet compresses on the most affected areas.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 469 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

2. The community health nurse is reviewing risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Which children are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Children with fair pigmentation

b.

Children who are overweight or obese

c.

Children who are exclusively bottle fed

d.

Children with diets low in sources of vitamin D

e.

Children of families who use milk products not supplemented with vitamin D

ANS: B, D, E

Populations at risk for vitamin D deficiency include overweight or obese children, children with diets low in sources of vitamin D, and children of families who use milk products not supplemented with vitamin D. Children with dark, not fair, pigmentation and children who are exclusively breast fed, not bottle fed, are also at risk.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 453

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. The nurse has administered a dose of epinephrine to a 12-month-old infant. For which adverse reactions of epinephrine should the nurse monitor? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Nausea

b.

Tremors

c.

Irritability

d.

Bradycardia

e.

Hypotension

ANS: A, B, C

Epinephrine increases activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Adverse effects include nausea, tremors, and irritability. Tachycardia would occur, not bradycardia, and hypertension, not hypotension, would occur.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 459

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

4. A 12-month-old infant has been diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT). Which assessment findings does the nurse expect to be documented with this infant? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Fear of strangers

b.

Minimal smiling

c.

Avoidance of eye contact

d.

Meeting developmental milestones

e.

Wide-eyed gaze and continual scan of the environment

ANS: B, C, E

Signs and symptoms of FTT include minimal smiling, avoidance of eye contact, and a wide-eyed gaze and continual scan of the environment (radar gaze). There is no fear of strangers, and there are developmental delays, including social, motor, adaptive, and language.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing REF: p. 463

TOP: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. The nurse is preparing to feed a 10-month-old child diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT). Which actions should the nurse plan to implement? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Be persistent.

b.

Introduce new foods slowly.

c.

Provide a stimulating atmosphere.

d.

Maintain a calm, even temperament.

e.

Feed the infant only when signs of hunger are exhibited.

ANS: A, B, D

Feeding strategies for children with FTT should include persistence; introducing new foods slowly; and maintaining a calm, even temperament. The environment should be unstimulating, and a structured routine should be developed with regard to feeding, not just when the infant shows signs of hunger.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 463

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. The nurse is teaching parents about foods that are hyperallergenic. Which foods should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Peanuts

b.

Bananas

c.

Potatoes

d.

Egg noodles

e.

Tomato juice

ANS: A, D, E

Hyperallergenic foods include peanuts, egg noodles, and tomato juice. Bananas and potatoes are not hyperallergenic.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 470

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. The nurse is teaching parents about potential causes of colic in infancy. Which should the nurse include in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Overeating

b.

Understimulation

c.

Frequent burping

d.

Parental smoking

e.

Swallowing excessive air

ANS: A, D, E

Potential causes of colic include too rapid feeding, overeating, swallowing excessive air, improper feeding technique (especially in positioning and burping), emotional stress or tension between the parent and child, parental smoking, and overstimulation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 470

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. What are risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Postterm

b.

Female gender

c.

Low Apgar scores

d.

Recent viral illness

e.

Native American infants

ANS: C, D, E

Infant risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome include those with low Apgar scores and recent viral illness and Native American infants. Preterm, not postterm, birth and male, not female, gender are other risk factors.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 475

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. The nurse is teaching parents strategies to manage their childs refusal to go to sleep. Which should the nurse include in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Keep bedtime early.

b.

Enforce consistent limits.

c.

Use a reward system with the child.

d.

Have a consistent before bedtime routine.

ANS: B, C, D

Strategies to manage a childs refusal to go to sleep include enforcement of consistent limits, using a reward system, and having a consistent before bedtime routine. An evaluation of whether the hour of sleep is too early should be considered because an early bedtime could cause the child to resist sleep if not tired.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 472

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

1. A health care provider prescribes vitamin D supplements, 300 IU orally, daily. The medication label states: Vitamin D 1000 IU/10 ml. The nurse prepares to administer one dose. How many milliliters will the nurse prepare to administer one dose? Fill in the blank. Record your answer in a whole number.

________________

ANS:

3

Follow the formula for dosage calculation.

Desired

Volume = ml per dose

Available

300 IU

10 ml = 3 ml

1000 IU

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 453

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

2. A health care provider prescribes iron supplements (Fer-In-Sol), 1 mg/kg/day orally (PO). The infant weighs 5 kg. The medication label states: Fer-In-Sol 25 mg/1 ml. The nurse prepares to administer one dose. How many milliliters will the nurse prepare to administer one dose? Fill in the blank. Record your answer to one decimal place.

________________

ANS:

0.2

Follow the formula for dosage calculation.

Multiply 1 mg 5 kg to get the dose = 5 mg

Desired

Volume = ml per dose

Available

5 mg

1 ml = 0.2 ml

25 mg

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 454

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

3. A health care provider prescribes adrenaline (epinephrine), intramuscularly (IM) 0.15 mg, times one, stat. The medication label states: Epinephrine 1:1000 1 mg/1 ml. The nurse prepares to administer the stat dose. How many milliliters will the nurse prepare to administer one dose? Fill in the blank. Record your answer using two decimal places.

________________

ANS:

0.15

Follow the formula for dosage calculation.

Desired

Volume = ml per dose

Available

0.15 mg

1 ml = 0.15 ml

1 mg

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 459

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

MATCHING

Match the following terms related to food sensitivities to the accurate descriptions.

a.

Food allergy

b.

Food allergen

c.

Food intolerance

d.

Sensitization

e.

Atopy

1. A food elicits a reproducible adverse reaction but does not have an established immunologic mechanism

2. An adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food

3. Specific components of food or ingredients in food that are recognized by allergen-specific immune cells eliciting an immune reaction

4. Allergy with a hereditary tendency

5. Initial exposure to an allergen resulting in an immune response; subsequent exposure induces a much stronger response

1. ANS: C DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 457

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. ANS: A DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 457

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. ANS: B DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 457

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. ANS: E DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 458

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. ANS: D DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 458

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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