Chapter 11: Childhood and Neurodevelopmental Disorders My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 11: Childhood and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which factor presents the highest risk for a child to develop a psychiatric disorder?

a.

Having an uncle with schizophrenia

c.

Living with an alcoholic parent

b.

Being the oldest child in a family

d.

Being an only child

ANS: C

Having a parent with a substance abuse problem has been designated an adverse psychosocial condition that increases the risk of a child developing a psychiatric condition. Being in a middle-income family and being the oldest child do not represent psychosocial adversity. Having a family history of schizophrenia presents a risk, but an alcoholic parent in the family offers a greater risk.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 182-183 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. Which nursing diagnosis is universally applicable for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders?

a.

Impaired social interaction related to difficulty relating to others

b.

Chronic low self-esteem related to excessive negative feedback

c.

Deficient fluid volume related to abnormal eating habits

d.

Anxiety related to nightmares and repetitive activities

ANS: A

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders display profoundly disturbed social relatedness. They seem aloof and indifferent to others, often preferring inanimate objects to human interaction. Language is often delayed and deviant, further complicating relationship issues. The other nursing diagnoses might not be appropriate in all cases.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 191-193 (Table 11-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Analysis/Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. Which behavior indicates that the treatment plan for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder was effective? The child:

a.

plays with one toy for 30 minutes.

b.

repeats words spoken by a parent.

c.

holds the parents hand while walking.

d.

spins around and claps hands while walking.

ANS: C

Holding the hand of another person suggests relatedness. Usually, a child with an autism spectrum disorder would resist holding someones hand and stand or walk alone, perhaps flapping arms or moving in a stereotyped pattern. The incorrect options reflect behaviors that are consistent with autism spectrum disorders.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 191-192 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. A kindergartener is disruptive in class. This child is unable to sit for expected lengths of time, inattentive to the teacher, screams while the teacher is talking, and is aggressive toward other children. The nurse plans interventions designed to:

a.

promote integration of self-concept.

b.

provide inpatient treatment for the child.

c.

reduce loneliness and increase self-esteem.

d.

improve language and communication skills.

ANS: C

Because of their disruptive behaviors, children with ADHD often receive negative feedback from parents, teachers, and peers, leading to self-esteem disturbance. These behaviors also cause peers to avoid the child with ADHD, leaving the child with ADHD vulnerable to loneliness. The child does not need inpatient treatment at this time. The incorrect options might or might not be relevant.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 189 | Page 193-194 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

5. A nurse will prepare teaching materials for the parents of a child newly diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which medication will the information focus on?

a.

Paroxetine (Paxil)

c.

Methyphenidate (Ritalin)

b.

Imipramine (Tofranil)

d.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

ANS: C

CNS stimulants are the drugs of choice for treating children with ADHD: Ritalin and dexedrine are commonly used. None of the other drugs are psychostimulants used to treat ADHD.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 193 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

6. What is the nurses priority focused assessment for side effects in a child taking methylphenidate (Ritalin) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

a.

Dystonia, akinesia, and extrapyramidal symptoms

b.

Bradycardia and hypotensive episodes

c.

Sleep disturbances and weight loss

d.

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

ANS: C

The most common side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances, reduced appetite, weight loss, urinary retention, dizziness, fatigue, and insomnia. Weight loss has the potential to interfere with the childs growth and development. The distracters relate to side effects of conventional antipsychotic medications.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 193-194 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

7. A desired outcome for a 12-year-old diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is to improve relationships with other children. Which treatment modality should the nurse suggest for the plan of care?

a.

Reality therapy

c.

Social skills group

b.

Simple restitution

d.

Insight-oriented group therapy

ANS: C

Social skills training teaches the child to recognize the impact of his or her behavior on others. It uses instruction, role-playing, and positive reinforcement to enhance social outcomes. The other therapies would have lesser or no impact on peer relationships.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 189 | Page 194 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. The parent of a 6-year-old says, My child is in constant motion and talks all the time. My child isnt interested in toys but is out of bed every morning before me. The childs behavior is most consistent with diagnostic criteria for:

a.

communication disorder.

b.

stereotypic movement disorder.

c.

intellectual development disorder.

d.

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

ANS: D

Excessive motion, distractibility, and excessive talkativeness are seen in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behaviors presented in the scenario do not suggest intellectual development, stereotypic, or communication disorder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 193-194 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

9. A child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had this nursing diagnosis: impaired social interaction related to excessive neuronal activity as evidenced by aggression and demanding behavior with others. Which finding indicates the plan of care was effective? The child:

a.

has an improved ability to identify anxiety and use self-control strategies.

b.

has increased expressiveness in communication with others.

c.

shows increased responsiveness to authority figures.

d.

engages in cooperative play with other children.

ANS: D

The goal should be directly related to the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis, in this case, improvement in the childs aggressiveness and play. The distracters are more relevant for a child with autism spectrum or anxiety disorder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 193 | Page 195-196 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

10. When a 5-year-old diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) bounces out of a chair and runs over and slaps another child, what is the nurses best action?

a.

Instruct the parents to take the aggressive child home.

b.

Direct the aggressive child to stop immediately.

c.

Call for emergency assistance from other staff.

d.

Take the aggressive child to another room.

ANS: D

The nurse should manage the milieu with structure and limit setting. Removing the aggressive child to another room is an appropriate consequence for the aggressiveness. Directing the child to stop will not be effective. This is not an emergency. Intervention is needed rather than sending the child home.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 194-195 (Box 11-3) TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

11. A child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder will begin medication therapy. The nurse should prepare a plan to teach the family about which classification of medications?

a.

Central nervous system stimulants

c.

Antipsychotics

b.

Tricyclic antidepressants

d.

Anxiolytics

ANS: A

Central nervous system stimulants, such as methylphenidate and pemoline (Cylert), increase blood flow to the brain and have proved helpful in reducing hyperactivity in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The other medication categories listed would not be appropriate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 194-195 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

12. Soon after parents announced they were divorcing, a child stopped participating in sports, sat alone at lunch, and avoided former friends. The child told the school nurse, If my parents loved me, they would work out their problems. Which nursing diagnosis has the highest priority?

a.

Social isolation

c.

Chronic low self-esteem

b.

Decisional conflict

d.

Disturbed personal identity

ANS: A

This child shows difficulty coping with problems associated with the family. Social isolation refers to aloneness that the patient perceives negatively, even when self-imposed. The other options are not supported by data in the scenario.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 183-185 (Box 11-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Analysis/Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. A nurse works with a child who is sad and irritable because the childs parents are divorcing. Why is establishing a therapeutic alliance with this child a priority?

a.

Therapeutic relationships provide an outlet for tension.

b.

Focusing on the strengths increases a persons self-esteem.

c.

Acceptance and trust convey feelings of security to the child.

d.

The child should express feelings rather than internalize them.

ANS: C

Trust is frequently an issue because the child may question their trusting relationship with the parents. In this situation, the trust the child once had in parents has been disrupted, reducing feelings of security. The correct answer is the most global response.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 182 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. A nurse assesses a 3-year-old diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Which finding is most associated with the childs disorder? The child:

a.

has occasional toileting accidents.

b.

is unable to read childrens books.

c.

cries when separated from a parent.

d.

continuously rocks in place for 30 minutes.

ANS: D

Autism spectrum disorder involves distortions in development of social skills and language that include perception, motor movement, attention, and reality testing. Body rocking for extended periods suggests autism spectrum disorder. The distracters are expected findings for a 3-year-old.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 192 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

15. A 4-year-old cries for 5 minutes when the parents leave the child at preschool. The parents ask the nurse, What should we do? Select the nurses best response.

a.

Ask the teacher to let the child call you at play time.

b.

Withdraw the child from preschool until maturity increases.

c.

Remain with your child for the first hour of preschool time.

d.

Give your child a kiss before you leave the preschool program.

ANS: D

The child demonstrates age-appropriate behavior for a 4-year-old. The nurse should reassure the parents. The distracters are over-reactions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 185 (Box 11-1) TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Which assessment finding would cause the nurse to consider a child to be most at risk for the development of mental illness?

a.

The child has been raised by a parent with chronic major depression.

b.

The childs best friend was absent from the childs birthday party.

c.

The child was not promoted to the next grade one year.

d.

The child moved to three new homes over a 2-year period.

ANS: A

Children raised by a depressed parent have an increased risk of developing an emotional disorder. Familial risk factors correlate with child psychiatric disorders, including severe marital discord, low socioeconomic status, large families and overcrowding, parental criminality, maternal psychiatric disorders, and foster-care placement. The chronicity of the parents depression means it has been a consistent stressor. The other factors are not as risk- enhancing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 182-185 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. The child prescribed an antipsychotic medication to manage violent behavior is one most likely diagnosed with:

a.

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

b.

posttraumatic stress disorder.

c.

communication disorder.

d.

an anxiety disorder.

ANS: A

Antipsychotic medication is useful for managing aggressive or violent behavior in some children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. If medication were prescribed for a child with an anxiety disorder, it would be a benzodiazepine. Medications are generally not needed for children with communication disorder. Treatment of PTSD is more often associated with SSRI medications.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 194 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

18. A child reports to the school nurse of being verbally bullied by an aggressive classmate. What is the nurses best first action?

a.

Give notice to the chief administrator at the school regarding the events.

b.

Encourage the victimized child to share feelings about the experience.

c.

Encourage the victimized child to ignore the bullying behavior.

d.

Discuss the events with the aggressive classmate.

ANS: B

The behaviors by the bullying child create emotional pain and present the risk for physical pain. The nurse should first listen to the childs complaints and validate the child for reporting the events. Later, school authorities should be notified. School administrators are the most appropriate personnel to deal with the bullying child. The behavior should not be ignored; it will only get worse.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 184-185 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. Assessment data for a 7-year-old reveals an inability to take turns, blurting out answers to questions before a question is complete, and frequently interrupting others conversations. How should the nurse document these behaviors?

a.

Disobedience

c.

Impulsivity

b.

Hyperactivity

d.

Anxiety

ANS: C

These behaviors are most directly related to impulsivity. Hyperactive behaviors are more physical in nature, such as running, pushing, and the inability to sit. Inattention is demonstrated by failure to listen. Defiance is demonstrated by willfully doing what an authority figure has said not to do.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 193-194 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

20. A child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows hyperactivity, aggression, and impaired play. The health care provider prescribed amphetamine salts (Adderall). The nurse should monitor for which desired behavior?

a.

Increased expressiveness in communication with others

b.

Abilities to identify anxiety and implement self-control strategies

c.

Improved abilities to participate in cooperative play with other children

d.

Tolerates social interactions for short periods without disruption or frustration

ANS: C

The goal is improvement in the childs hyperactivity, aggression, and play. The remaining options are more relevant for a child with intellectual development disorder or an anxiety disorder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 194-195 TOP: Nursing Process: Outcomes Identification

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. When group therapy is prescribed as a treatment modality, the nurse would suggest placement of a 9-year-old in a group that uses:

a.

guided imagery.

b.

talk focused on a specific issue.

c.

play and talk about a play activity.

d.

group discussion about selected topics.

ANS: C

Group therapy for young children takes the form of play. For elementary school children, therapy combines play and talk about the activity. For adolescents, group therapy involves more talking.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 186-187 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. Which child demonstrates behaviors indicative of a neurodevelopmental disorder?

a.

A 4-year-old who stuttered for 3 weeks after the birth of a sibling

b.

A 9-month-old who does not eat vegetables and likes to be rocked

c.

A 3-month-old who cries after feeding until burped and sucks a thumb

d.

A 3-year-old who is mute, passive toward adults, and twirls while walking

ANS: D

Symptoms consistent with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are evident in the correct answer. Autistic spectrum disorder is one type of neurodevelopmental disorder. The behaviors of the other children are within normal ranges.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 189 | Page 191-192 | Page 185 (Box 11-1)

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. The parent of a child diagnosed with Tourettes disorder says to the nurse, I think my child is faking the tics because they come and go. Which response by the nurse is accurate?

a.

Perhaps your child was misdiagnosed.

b.

Your observation indicates the medication is effective.

c.

Tics often change frequency or severity. That doesnt mean they arent real.

d.

This finding is unexpected. How have you been administering your childs medication?

ANS: C

Tics are sudden, rapid, involuntary, repetitive movements or vocalizations characteristic of Tourettes disorder. They often fluctuate in frequency, severity, and are reduced or absent during sleep.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 189-190 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

24. When a 5-year-old is disruptive, the nurse says, You must take a time-out. The expectation is that the child will:

a.

go to a quiet room until called for the next activity.

b.

slowly count to 20 before returning to the group activity.

c.

sit on the edge of the activity until able to regain self-control.

d.

sit quietly on the lap of a staff member until able to apologize for the behavior.

ANS: C

Time-out is designed so that staff can be consistent in their interventions. Time-out may require going to a designated room or sitting on the periphery of an activity until the child gains self-control and reviews the episode with a staff member. Time-out may not require going to a designated room and does not involve special attention such as holding. Counting to 10 or 20 is not sufficient.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 187-188 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

25. A parent diagnosed with schizophrenia and 13-year-old child live in a homeless shelter. The child formed a trusting relationship with a shelter volunteer. The child says, My three friends and I got an A on our school science project. The nurse can assess that the child:

a.

displays resiliency.

b.

has a passive temperament.

c.

is at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder.

d.

uses intellectualization to deal with problems.

ANS: A

Resiliency enables a child to handle the stresses of a difficult childhood. Resilient children can adapt to changes in the environment, take advantage of nurturing relationships with adults other than parents, distance themselves from emotional chaos occurring within the family, learn, and use problem-solving skills.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF: Page 183-184 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse prepares to lead a discussion at a community health center regarding childrens health problems. The nurse wants to use current terminology when discussing these issues. Which terms are appropriate for the nurse to use? Select all that apply.

a.

Autism

b.

Bullying

c.

Mental retardation

d.

Autism spectrum disorder

e.

Intellectual development disorder

ANS: B, D, E

Some dated terminology contributes to the stigma of mental illness and misconceptions about mental illness. Its important for the nurse to use current terminology.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF: Page 190-191 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. A nurse prepares the plan of care for a 15-year-old diagnosed with moderate intellectual developmental disorder. What are the highest outcomes that are realistic for this patient? Within 5 years, the patient will: (select all that apply)

a.

graduate from high school.

b.

live independently in an apartment.

c.

independently perform own personal hygiene.

d.

obtain employment in a local sheltered workshop.

e.

correctly use public buses to travel in the community.

ANS: C, D, E

Individuals with moderate intellectual developmental disorder progress academically to about the second grade. These people can learn to travel in familiar areas and perform unskilled or semiskilled work. With supervision, the person can function in the community, but independent living is not likely.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 191-192 TOP: Nursing Process: Outcomes Identification

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. At the time of a home visit, the nurse notices that each parent and child in a family has his or her own personal online communication device. Each member of the family is in a different area of the home. Which nursing actions are appropriate? Select all that apply.

a.

Report the finding to the official child protection social services agency.

b.

Educate all members of the family about risks associated with cyberbullying.

c.

Talk with the parents about parental controls on the childrens communication devices.

d.

Encourage the family to schedule daily time together without communication devices.

e.

Obtain the familys network password and examine online sites family members have visited.

ANS: B, C, D

Education and awareness-based approaches have a chance of effectively reducing harmful online behavior, including risks associated with cyberbullying. Parental controls on the childrens devices will support safe Internet use. Family time together will promote healthy bonding and a sense of security among members. There is no evidence of danger to the children, so a report to child protective agency is unnecessary. It would be inappropriate to seek the familys network password and an invasion of privacy to inspect sites family members have visited.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF: Page 183-184 | Page 185 (Box 11-1)

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

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