Chapter 10 Classification of Microorganisms My Nursing Test Banks

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)

Chapter 10   Classification of Microorganisms

10.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of the following statements about archaea is FALSE?

A) They are prokaryotes.

B) They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

C) Some are thermoacidophiles; others are extreme halophiles.

D) They evolved before bacteria.

E) Some produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.3

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  7

2) Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria?

A) prokaryotic cells; ether linkages in phospholipids

B) eukaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

C) prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

D) complex cellular structures

E) multicellular

Answer:  C

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  7

3) If two organisms have similar rRNA sequences, you can conclude that they

A) live in the same place.

B) evolved from a common ancestor.

C) will have different G-C ratios.

D) will both ferment lactose.

E) mated with each other.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.3

Global Outcome:  7

4) What is the outstanding characteristic of the Kingdom Fungi?

A) All members are photosynthetic.

B) Members absorb dissolved organic matter.

C) Members absorb dissolved inorganic matter.

D) All members are microscopic.

E) All members are macroscopic.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.4

Learning Outcome:  10.9

5) Which of the following statements about members of the Kingdom Plantae is FALSE?

A) They are multicellular.

B) They are composed of eukaryotic cells.

C) They undergo photosynthesis.

D) They use organic carbon sources.

E) They synthesize organic molecules.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.9

6) Which of the following statements about the members of the Kingdom Animalia is FALSE?

A) They are multicellular.

B) They are composed of eukaryotic cells.

C) They undergo photosynthesis.

D) They ingest nutrients through a mouth.

E) They are heterotrophs.

Answer:  C

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.9

7) A genus can best be defined as

A) a taxon composed of families.

B) a taxon composed of one or more species and a classification level lying below family.

C) a taxon belonging to a species.

D) a taxon comprised of classes.

E) the most specific taxon.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.6

8) A bacterial species differs from a species of eukaryotic organisms in that a bacterial species

A) does not breed with other species.

B) has a limited geographical distribution.

C) can be distinguished from other bacterial species.

D) is a population of cells with similar characteristics.

E) breeds with its own species.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  1.4

Learning Outcome:  10.11

9) Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system?

A) Nucleotide sequences in ribosomal RNA vary between all three domains.

B) There are three distinctly different sets of metabolic reactions.

C) There are three distinctly different Gram reactions.

D) Some bacteria live in extreme environments.

E) There are three distinctly different types of nuclei.

Answer:  A

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.4

Global Outcome:  7

10) A biochemical test, in the microbiology world, is used to determine

A) staining characteristics.

B) amino acid sequences of enzymes.

C) nucleic acid-base composition of DNA sequences.

D) capability of a microbe to perform a specific enzymatic activity.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.14

11) Which of the following is NOT based on nucleic-acid hybridization?

A) DNA chip

B) FISH

C) PCR

D) Southern blotting

E) Western blotting

Answer:  E

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.15

12) The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on

A) cell morphology.

B) Gram reaction.

C) rRNA sequences.

D) habitat.

E) diseases.

Answer:  C

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  7

13) Which of the following statements is a reason for NOT classifying viruses in one of the three

domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya) rather than in a fourth separate domain?

A) Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a hosts genome.

B) Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells.

C) Viruses are obligate parasites.

D) Viruses are not composed of cells.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.5

Learning Outcome:  10.11

Global Outcome:  7

14) Which of the following provides taxonomic information that includes the information obtained in the others listed?

A) nucleic acid hybridization

B) nucleic acid-base composition

C) amino acid sequencing

D) biochemical tests

E) cladogram

Answer:  E

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.19

15) Fossil evidence indicates that prokaryotic cells first existed on the Earth

A) 350 years ago.

B) 3500 years ago.

C) 35000 years ago.

D) 3.5 billion years ago.

E) 3.5 1012 years ago.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.1

Figure 10.1

16) In Figure 10.1, species c. is most closely related to which of the following?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  D

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.4

17) In Figure 10.1, the closest ancestor for both species a. and species b. would be which of the following?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

Answer:  E

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.4

18) Protists are a diverse group of organisms that are similar in

A) rRNA sequences.

B) metabolic type.

C) motility.

D) ecology.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.10

19) In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter is the

A) specific epithet.

B) genus.

C) family.

D) order.

E) kingdom.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.6

20) The arrangement of organisms into taxa

A) shows degrees of relatedness between organisms.

B) shows relationships to common ancestors.

C) was designed by Charles Darwin.

D) is arbitrary.

E) is based on evolution.

Answer:  A

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.7

21) Bacteria and Archaea are similar in which of the following?

A) peptidoglycan cell walls

B) methionine as the start signal for protein synthesis

C) sensitivity to antibiotics

D) considered prokaryotic cells

E) plasma membrane ester linkage

Answer:  D

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  2.3

Learning Outcome:  10.5

22) Which of the following best defines a strain in microbiological terms?

A) a pure culture that is not totally identical to other cultures of the same species

B) a group of organisms with a limited geographical distribution

C) a mixed population of cells,genetically distinct, but with highly similar phenotypic characteristics

D) groups of cells all derived from and identical to a single parent species

E) same as a species

Answer:  A

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.8

23) Serological testing is based on the fact that

A) all bacteria have the same antigens.

B) antibodies react specifically with an antigen.

C) the human body makes antibodies against bacteria.

D) antibodies cause the formation of antigens.

E) bacteria clump together when mixed with any antibodies.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.16

24) Phage typing is based on the fact that

A) bacteria are destroyed by viruses.

B) viruses cause disease.

C) bacterial viruses attack only members of a specific species.

D) Staphylococcus causes infections.

E) phages and bacteria are related.

Answer:  C

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.16

25) Organism A has 70 moles % G+C, and organism B has 40 moles % G+C. Which of the following can be concluded from these data?

A) The two organisms are related.

B) The two organisms are unrelated.

C) The organisms make entirely different enzymes.

D) Their nucleic acids will completely hybridize.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.17

Global Outcome:  2

26) Nucleic acid hybridization is based on the fact that

A) the strands of DNA can be separated.

B) a chromosome is composed of complementary strands.

C) pairing between complementary bases occurs.

D) DNA is composed of genes.

E) all cells have DNA.

Answer:  C

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.18

27) One of the most popular taxonomic tools is DNA fingerprinting to develop profiles of organisms. These profiles provide direct information about

A) enzymatic activities.

B) protein composition.

C) the presence of specific genes.

D) antigenic composition.

E) the similarities between nucleotide sequences.

Answer:  E

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.17

28) All of the following statements are reasons why fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a valuable tool for environmental microbiologists EXCEPT

A) it allows for detection of uncultured microbes.

B) it demonstrates the diversity of microbes in an environment.

C) it allows observation of microbes in their natural environment in association with other microbes.

D) it allows one to obtain pure cultures of microbes.

E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.18

29) Which of the following criteria is most useful in determining whether two organisms are related?

A) Both ferment lactose.

B) Both are gram-positive.

C) Both are motile.

D) Both are aerobic.

E) Each answer is equally important.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.14

Global Outcome:  2

30) A clone is

A) genetically identical cells derived from a single cell.

B) a genetically engineered cell.

C) a taxon composed of species.

D) a mound of cells on an agar medium.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.8

31) Figure 10.2

A nucleic acid hybridization experiment produced the following results.

In Figure 10.2, which figure shows the most closely related organisms?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

Answer:  B

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  10.18

Global Outcome:  2

Table 10.1

1.

9+2 flagella

2.

Nucleus

3.

Plasma membrane

4.

Peptidoglycan

5.

Mitochondrion

6.

Fimbriae

32) In Table 10.1, which features are found in nearly all eukarya?

A) 2, 3, 5

B) 1, 4, 6

C) 3, 5

D) 2, 3

E) 1, 2, 5

Answer:  A

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.4

Learning Outcome:  10.5

33) In Table 10.1, which feature(s) is (are) found only in prokaryotes?

A) 1, 2, 3

B) 4, 6

C) 2

D) 1

E) 2, 4, 5

Answer:  B

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.4

Learning Outcome:  10.5

34) Into which group would you place a multicellular heterotroph with chitin cell walls?

A) Animalia

B) Archaea

C) Bacteria

D) Fungi

E) Plantae

Answer:  D

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.9

Global Outcome:  2

35) Figure 10.3

This figure shows the results of a gel electrophoresis separation of restriction fragments of the DNA of different organisms.

In Figure 10.3, which two are most closely related?

A) 1 and 3

B) 2 and 4

C) 3 and 5

D) 2 and 5

E) 4 and 5

Answer:  A

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.17

Global Outcome:  3

36) Into which group would you place a photosynthetic cell that lacks a nucleus?

A) Animalia

B) Bacteria

C) Fungi

D) Plantae

E) Protista

Answer:  B

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  2

37) You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. You suspect the organism is in the group

A) Animalia.

B) Archaea.

C) Bacteria.

D) Fungi.

E) Plantae.

Answer:  B

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  2

38) Into which group would you place a unicellular organism that has 70S ribosomes and a peptidoglycan cell wall?

A) Animalia

B) Bacteria

C) Fungi

D) Plantae

E) Protist

Answer:  B

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  2

Table 10.2

39) Use the dichotomous key in Table 10.2 to identify a gram-negative cell that ferments lactose and uses citric acid as its sole carbon source.

A) Citrobacter

B) Escherichia

C) Lactobacillus

D) Pseudomonas

E) Staphylococcus

Answer:  A

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.19

Global Outcome:  3

40) Use the dichotomous key in Table 10.2 to identify a gram-negative coccus.

A) Neisseria

B) Pseudomonas

C) Staphylococcus

D) Streptococcus

E) Micrococcus

Answer:  A

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.19

41) Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?

A) Animalia

B) Fungi

C) Plantae

D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)

E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

Answer:  A

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  10.9

Global Outcome:  2

42) Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by an outer membrane?

A) Animalia

B) Fungi

C) Plantae

D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)

E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

Answer:  E

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  10.5

Global Outcome:  2

43) Figure 10.4

In the cladogram shown in Figure 10.4, which two organisms are most closely related?

A) Streptomyces and Micrococcus

B) Micrococcus and Mycobacterium

C) Mycobacterium and Lactobacillus

D) Streptomyces and Lactobacillus

E) Streptomyces and Mycobacterium

Answer:  B

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.19

Global Outcome:  3

44) Which of the following characteristics indicates that two organisms are closely related?

A) Both are cocci.

B) Both ferment lactose.

C) Their DNA can hybridize together.

D) Both normally live in clams.

E) Both are motile.

Answer:  C

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.18

Global Outcome:  2

45) Data collected to date indicate that

A) humans and marine mammals cannot be infected by the same pathogens.

B) marine mammals do not get infectious diseases.

C) new species of bacteria will not be discovered in wild animals.

D) marine mammals dont have an immune system.

E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  10.7

10.2   True/False Questions

1) The cell membranes of all three domains are composed of straight carbon chains attached to

glycerol by ester linkage.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.5

2) Chloroplasts possess circular DNA and reproduce by binary fission.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  10.9

3) As molecular techniques improve, scientists are finding it necessary to reclassify some genera.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.12

4) The highest level in the current taxonomic hierarchy is Kingdom.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.4

5) Pure cultures of the same species are not always identical in all ways.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  10.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.4

Learning Outcome:  10.8

Global Outcome:  2

6) At this point in time, scientists believe the vast majority of the domain Bacteria have been discovered.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.4

Learning Outcome:  10.5

7) Once a culture is purified, the next logical step in the process of identifying bacteria is biochemical testing.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  10.14

8) Serological testing is used for screening bacterial isolates for similarities.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.16

9) Western blotting is an immunological test used to identify the antibodies in the serum of an individual suspected of having Lyme disease.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.15

10) When building a cladogram, the length of the horizontal branch is based on the calculated percent similarity between organisms.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  1.5

Learning Outcome:  10.19

Global Outcome:  2

10.3   Essay Questions

1) Figure 10.5

Choose one of the phylogenetic schemes in Figure 10.5 and explain why you feel it is preferable to the others.

Section:  10.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  10.1

Global Outcome:  8

2) Table 10.3

Use the information given in Table 10.3 to answer the following questions. Which organisms are most closely related? On what did you base your answer? DNA from which organisms will probably hybridize?

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  10.14

Global Outcome:  3

3) One of the advantages of some newly developed rapid identification tools is that pure cultures are not needed. Why is a pure culture necessary for biochemical tests such as the Enterotube, but not for DNA probes?

Section:  10.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  8.3

Learning Outcome:  10.18

Global Outcome:  8

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