Chapter 10: Cancer Epidemiology My Nursing Test Banks

Huether and McCance: Understanding Pathophysiology, 5th Edition

Chapter 10: Cancer Epidemiology

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement indicates the patient has a good understanding of cancer risk factors? The most important environmental risk factor for cancer is exposure to:

a.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation

b.

Radon

c.

Estrogen

d.

Cigarette smoke

ANS: D

Cigarette smoking is carcinogenic and remains the most important cause of cancer.

UV radiation is an important risk factor, but cigarette smoking remains the most important cause of cancer.

Radon plays a role as a risk factor for cancer, but cigarette smoking remains the most important cause of cancer.

Estrogen plays a role in the risk factors of cancer, but cigarette smoking remains the most important cause of cancer.

REF: p. 261

2. When an oncologist is discussing the degree to which an organisms development is contingent on its environment, which of the following is the oncologist explaining?

a.

Transgenerational inheritance

b.

Epigenetics

c.

Histone modification

d.

Developmental plasticity

ANS: D

Developmental plasticity is the degree to which an organisms development is contingent on its environment.

Transgenerational inheritance is the heritable transmission to future generations of environmentally caused phenotypes.

Epigenetics is the role of genes in development and disease.

Histone modifications are changes in genetic acetylation.

REF: p. 260

3. When a patient asks what types of cancers are associated with tobacco use, how should the nurse respond?

a.

Squamous and small cell adenocarcinomas

b.

Sarcoma and adenoma

c.

Melanoma and lymphoma

d.

Basal cell and lipoma

ANS: A

Tobacco use is associated with squamous and small cell adenocarcinomas.

Tobacco use is associated with squamous and small cell adenocarcinomas, not sarcoma and adenoma.

Tobacco use is associated with squamous and small cell adenocarcinomas, not melanoma and lymphoma.

Tobacco use is associated with squamous and small cell adenocarcinomas, not basal cell and lipoma.

REF: p. 261

4. Chromosome aberrations and mutations in cells that were not directly irradiated are referred to as:

a.

Bystander effects

b.

Lethal mutation

c.

Delayed reproductive death

d.

Genetic instability

ANS: A

The directly irradiated cells also can lead to genetic effects in so-called bystander cells or innocent cells. This is termed bystander effects.

Lethal mutations occur when cells cannot reproduce, and this is not related to bystander effects.

Lethal mutation and delayed reproductive death are similar phenomenon and are not related to bystander effects.

Genetic instability is related to chromosomal instability.

REF: p. 274

5. A 50-year-old female develops skin cancer on her head and neck following years of sunbathing. Which of the following cancers is the most likely?

a.

Lymphoma

b.

Adenoma

c.

Basal cell carcinoma

d.

Leukemia

ANS: C

Basal cell is related to UV radiation primarily from the sun.

Lymphoma is not related to sunbathing.

Adenoma is not related to sunbathing.

Leukemia is not related to sunbathing.

REF: p. 274

6. A 25-year-old male nursing student recently learned how diet can alter the chances of developing cancer. He tries to minimize his risks of developing the disease by ordering his steak:

a.

Rare

b.

Medium

c.

Medium-well

d.

Well done

ANS: A

The nursing student should order the steak rare, as the most relevant carcinogens produced by cooking are found in well-done charbroiled beef.

The nursing student should order the steak rare, not medium, as the most relevant carcinogens produced by cooking are found in well-done charbroiled beef.

The nursing student should order the steak rare, not medium-well, as the most relevant carcinogens produced by cooking are found in well-done charbroiled beef.

The nursing student should order the steak rare, not well-done, as the most relevant carcinogens produced by cooking are found in well-done charbroiled beef.

REF: p. 262

7. Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?

a.

Alcohol

b.

Steroids

c.

Antihistamines

d.

Hypnotics

ANS: A

Tobacco use and alcohol use are known etiologic factors in head and neck cancers.

It is alcohol, not steroids, and tobacco that have been identified as etiologic factors in cancer.

It is alcohol, not antihistamines, and tobacco that have been identified as etiologic factors in cancer.

It is alcohol, not hypnotics, and tobacco that have been identified as etiologic factors in cancer.

REF: p. 261

8. A 25-year-old female was diagnosed with cervical cancer. History reveals she had many sexual partners, which she indicates is too many to count. Which of the following is most likely to have caused her cancer?

a.

HPV-16

b.

HPV-18

c.

HPV-31

d.

HPV-45

ANS: A

HPV-16, in most countries, accounts for 50% to 60% of cervical cancer cases.

HPV-18 accounts for 10% to12% of cervical cancer cases.

HPV-31 accounts for 4% to 5% of cervical cancer cases.

HPV-45 accounts for 4% to 5% of cervical cancer cases.

REF: p. 282

9. A nurse recalls physical activity was shown to reduce the risk of which of the following types of cancer?

a.

Prostate

b.

Lung

c.

Bone

d.

Colon

ANS: D

Physical activity reduces the risk for breast and colon cancers.

Physical activity reduces the risk for breast and colon cancers, but not prostate.

Physical activity reduces the risk for breast and colon cancers, but not lung.

Physical activity reduces the risk for breast and colon cancers, but not bone.

REF: p. 278

10. A 65-year-old male was recently diagnosed with cancer. He is retired from construction work. Which of the following cancers is he likely to develop secondary to occupational hazards?

a.

Mesothelioma

b.

Bladder cancer

c.

Prostate cancer

d.

Bone cancer

ANS: A

One notable occupational factor is asbestos, which increases the risk of mesothelioma, lung cancer, and possibly others.

The cancer secondary to occupational hazards is mesothelioma, not bladder cancer.

The cancer secondary to occupational hazards is mesothelioma, not prostate cancer.

The cancer secondary to occupational hazards is mesothelioma, not bone cancer.

REF: p. 278

11. A patient asks why indoor pollution is worse than outdoor pollution. How should the nurse respond? Indoor pollution is considered worse than outdoor pollution because of cigarette smoke and:

a.

Fireplace wood smoke

b.

Radon

c.

Benzene

d.

Chlorine

ANS: B

Indoor pollution is related to cigarette smoke and radon.

Indoor pollution is related to cigarette smoke and radon, not fireplace smoke.

Indoor pollution is related to cigarette smoke and radon, not benzene.

Indoor pollution is related to cigarette smoke and radon, not chlorine.

REF: p. 268

12. A water test recently revealed arsenic levels above 200 g/L. Which of the following cancers would be most likely to develop in those who consistently drank the water?

a.

Liver

b.

Skin

c.

Colon

d.

Kidney

ANS: B

Evidence indicates an increased risk of bladder, skin, and lung cancers following consumption of water with high levels of arsenic.

Evidence indicates an increased risk of bladder, skin, and lung cancers, not liver, following consumption of water with high levels of arsenic.

Evidence indicates an increased risk of bladder, skin, and lung cancers, not colon, following consumption of water with high levels of arsenic.

Evidence indicates an increased risk of bladder, skin, and lung cancers, not kidneys, following consumption of water with high levels of arsenic.

REF: p. 278

13. When an oncologist is teaching about how radiation induces genomic instability, which of the following should the oncologist discuss?

a.

Increasing hypersensitivity

b.

Facilitating new mutations

c.

Promoting cell death

d.

Enhancing mitosis

ANS: B

Radiation induces genomic instability because it facilitates new mutations.

Radiation does not promote hypersensitivity.

Radiation may promote cell death, but this is not its role in inducing genomic instability.

Radiation does not enhance mitosis but halts it.

REF: p. 274

14. Which of the following patients would be at greatest risk for basal cell carcinoma?

a.

Dark complexion, light eyes, underweight

b.

Light complexion, dark eyes, overweight

c.

Medium complexion, light eyes, smoker

d.

Light complexion, light eyes, fair hair

ANS: D

Individuals at risk for basal cell carcinoma are light complected and have light eyes and fair hair.

Individuals at risk for basal cell carcinoma are light complected and have light eyes and fair hair.

Individuals at risk for basal cell carcinoma are light complected and have light eyes and fair hair.

Individuals at risk for basal cell carcinoma are light complected and have light eyes and fair hair.

REF: p. 274

15. The role of physical activity in the prevention of colon cancer is identified by which of the following?

a.

It increases fluid loss leading to thirst and increased fluid intake, hydrating the colon.

b.

It increases blood supply thereby increasing oxygen to the colon.

c.

It increases gut motility thereby decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to mutagens.

d.

It increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid thereby killing mutants.

ANS: C

Physical activity increases gut motility thereby decreasing exposure to mutagens.

Physical activity increases fluid loss, but this does not prevent mutagens.

Physical activity increases blood supply to the colon, but this does not prevent mutagens.

Physical activity does not increase hydrochloric acid.

REF: p. 278

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A 50-year-old female confirms chronic alcohol intake. This practice places the patient at risk for cancer in which organs? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Larynx

b.

Esophagus

c.

Liver

d.

Lung

e.

Brain

f.

Breast

ANS: A, B, C, F

Chronic alcohol consumption is a strong risk factor for colorectal cancer and cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, and breast. It is not associated with lung or brain cancer.

REF: p. 263

Mosby items and derived items 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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