Chapter 09: Energy, Weight, and Fitness My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 09: Energy, Weight, and Fitness

Grodner and Escott-Stump: Nutritional Foundations and Clinical Application: A Nursing Approach, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A good example of living in an obesogenic environment is

a.

working for an employer who gives employees free membership at a health club.

b.

being a former high school athlete who now works in a sedentary job.

c.

living in an apartment complex where it is unsafe for children to play outside unsupervised.

d.

a physicians recommendation not to exercise during recovery from surgery.

ANS: C

Obesogenic environments limit peoples ability to stay active while surrounding them with inexpensive high-energy foods. Living in an apartment complex in an unsafe area would be considered obesogenic because it limits the ability to be active. Being given a free health club membership is antiobesogenic because it encourages physical activity. A high school athlete who becomes sedentary is not necessarily prohibited from engaging in active leisure-time activities. Needing to remain inactive during recovery from surgery is only temporary and so has less effect on long-term weight.

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2. The total amount of energy in a bowl of soup that contains 5 g of protein, 2 g of fat, and 20 g of carbohydrate is _____ kcal.

a.

27

b.

108

c.

118

d.

133

ANS: C

Protein provides 4 kcal/g; fat provides 9 kcal/g; carbohydrate provides 4 kcal/g. Therefore, the soup contains 118 kcal ([5 4] + [2 9] + [20 4] = 20 + 18 + 80).

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3. The fuel for all body processes that traps energy released from food is

a.

electrons.

b.

acetyl coenzyme A.

c.

glucose-6-phosphate.

d.

adenosine triphosphate.

ANS: D

The body catabolizes nutrients, and their energy is trapped in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel for all processes that require energy in the body. Electrons do not store energy. Acetyl coenzyme A is a substance that is produced in the sequence of reactions as nutrients are metabolized in the mitochondria. Glucose-6-phosphate is a substance that is produced in the sequence of reactions in the metabolism of carbohydrate.

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4. If a person hears a friend calling for help and goes running to find out what the friend needs, the person would be getting his or her energy from

a.

fatty acids via adrenaline release.

b.

glucose and amino acids via aerobic pathways.

c.

glycogen via anaerobic glycolysis.

d.

fatty acids and glycerol via oxidative phosphorylation.

ANS: C

Anaerobic pathways metabolize mostly glycogen for short-term, high-intensity activities. Adrenaline release may or may not stimulate this metabolism. Aerobic pathways are used for longer-term, moderate-intensity activities. Oxidation of fatty acids occurs mostly in long-term, moderate-intensity activities.

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5. If someone goes on a long hike, after 4 hours most of his or her energy will be obtained from

a.

glucose.

b.

glycogen.

c.

fatty acids.

d.

amino acids.

ANS: C

In long-term, moderate-intensity exercise, the muscles use more fatty acids and less glucose and glycogen. Amino acids may used to provide glucose for the brain when glucose and glycogen stores are depleted, but they would not be the major source of energy for working muscles.

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6. Athletes who exercise regularly are able to exercise for longer, partly because their body is able to use more energy from

a.

Fat.

b.

Protein.

c.

Amino acids.

d.

Carbohydrates.

ANS: A

Regular exercise increases the bodys ability to use energy from fat. This spares glycogen stores, and exercise can continue for longer. Protein and amino acids are used only when glycogen and glucose (carbohydrate) stores are exhausted; this would take longer in athletes who exercise regularly.

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7. Of the following, the person who would be expected to have the highest energy expenditure is a

a.

man who cycles to work every day and plays on sports teams on the weekend.

b.

man who works 60 hours a week at a high-stress job.

c.

woman who works as a personal trainer at a health club.

d.

woman who works as a nurse in a clinic.

ANS: A

An active man would have the highest energy expenditure. In general, men have higher energy expenditures than do women, and active people have higher energy expenditures than do sedentary people.

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8. The most effective way to increase energy expenditure is to

a.

eat foods that require more energy for digestion, absorption, metabolism, and storage.

b.

use thyroid hormones to increase basal metabolic rate.

c.

increase the duration and intensity of daily activities.

d.

lift weights to increase lean body mass and thereby increase basal metabolism.

ANS: C

The most effective way to increase energy expenditure is to exercise more. Lifting weights will provide a smaller increase in energy expenditure. Eating foods that stimulate the thermic effect of food will produce a relatively insignificant increase in energy expenditure. Use of thyroid hormones can have adverse effects unless levels are below normal and need to be restored.

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9. The behavior change that would do most to help preserve lean body mass is

a.

avoiding weight loss.

b.

exercising regularly.

c.

decreasing dietary fat intake.

d.

ensuring adequate protein intake.

ANS: B

Exercise helps maintain lean body mass (muscle). Weight loss causes some loss of lean body mass, and adequate protein intake will help maintain lean body mass, but these effects are less significant than that of exercise. Decreasing dietary fat intake does not affect lean body mass.

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10. The duration of physical activity needed to maintain physical fitness depends on the

a.

time of day.

b.

ambient temperature.

c.

intensity of the activity.

d.

flexibility of the individual.

ANS: C

The amount of physical activity needed to maintain physical fitness depends on the intensity of the activity. The more intense the activity, the shorter the amount of time needed to maintain fitness. Time of day, ambient temperature, and flexibility of the individual do not affect the amount of physical activity needed to maintain physical fitness.

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11. The most accurate way to measure body fat levels is to use

a.

body mass index (BMI).

b.

triceps skinfold thickness.

c.

underwater weighing (densitometry).

d.

bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA).

ANS: C

Underwater weighing is considered the gold standard for measuring body fat levels. However, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and bioelectric impedance analysis are often used to estimate body fat levels because those measurements are easier to perform.

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12. For a man, a total body fat level of 18% is considered

a.

too low.

b.

healthy.

c.

too high.

d.

obese.

ANS: B

The recommended range for total body fat in men is 15% to 20%. Therefore, 18% is considered a healthy amount of total body fat.

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13. If a health practitioner wants to assess whether an underweight womans body fat is too low, he or she may ask her whether

a.

she has lost weight recently.

b.

other family members are underweight.

c.

she has a normal appetite.

d.

she menstruates regularly.

ANS: D

Failure to menstruate indicates that body fat levels are too low. Recent weight loss, appetite, and family weight status may help understand why the woman is thin, but they would not indicate whether her weight is below a healthy range.

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14. If a womans waist measurement is 34 inches and her hip measurement is 40 inches, her waist-to-hip ratio would be considered to be _____ risk for chronic disease.

a.

associated with a high

b.

unrelated to

c.

associated with a low

d.

associated with a high

ANS: A

This womans waist-to-hip ratio is 0.85 (34 40). A healthy waist-to-hip ratio for women is less than 0.8. Therefore, this womans waist-to-hip ratio is considered to be associated with a high risk for chronic disease.

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15. Frank and Gina are trying to lose weight. They walk 2 miles every evening after dinner, are eating smaller portions, and have stopped eating snacks between meals. Frank has lost twice as much weight as Gina. What is the most likely explanation?

a.

Gina is not following the food plan as carefully as Frank is.

b.

Gina has a gynoid shape, and Frank has an android shape.

c.

Frank is exercising more than Gina at other times during the day.

d.

Frank had a higher level of fitness than Gina before they started to make changes.

ANS: B

Most women have a gynoid shape, so that they store more subcutaneous fat, which is harder to lose than the visceral fat stored by men, most of whom have an android body shape. This is a more likely explanation than Ginas failure to follow the plan or Franks additional exercise. Baseline fitness level would have little effect on weight loss.

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16. It would be especially beneficial for someone to avoid becoming obese if they have a family history of

a.

osteoporosis and sarcopenia (muscle wasting).

b.

alcoholism and liver cancer.

c.

sleep apnea and osteoarthritis.

d.

multiple sclerosis and celiac disease.

ANS: C

Obesity increases risk for sleep apnea and osteoarthritis. Risk of osteoporosis is actually inversely related to obesity. Alcoholism, liver cancer, and sarcopenia are not related to obesity. Multiple sclerosis and celiac disease are autoimmune diseases and are not related to obesity.

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17. To lose a pound of body fat in a week, daily energy expenditure would have to increase by approximately _____ kcal.

a.

350

b.

500

c.

700

d.

3500

ANS: B

One pound of fat represents 3500 kcal. To lose 1 lb of fat in a week, daily energy expenditure would need to increase by 500 kcal (3500 7).

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18. If someone goes to a seafood buffet and eats large portions of shrimp, crab, and baked fish, being careful to avoid fried seafood and high-fat sauces, the extra protein consumed will be stored as

a.

amino acids in the liver.

b.

protein in muscles.

c.

glycogen in muscles.

d.

triglycerides in adipocytes.

ANS: D

Excess energy intake from any source (carbohydrate, fat, or protein) is stored as triglycerides in special cells called adipocytes. The liver cannot store extra amino acids, muscles cannot store extra protein, and storage of glycogen is very limited.

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19. According to set point theory, if weight or fatness falls below the level perceived to be appropriate by the body, the individual will

a.

experience a greater desire for high-fat foods.

b.

develop a new, lower set point for body weight.

c.

experience an overall increase in hunger drive.

d.

decrease his or her physical activity level until weight is regained.

ANS: C

Set point theory suggests that the human body defends a set level of body fatness. Therefore, if weight or fatness falls below this level, an individual is likely to experience increased hunger until he or she regains the weight. Unfortunately, it is not easy to develop a new, lower set point for body weight. Appetite for high-fat foods does not necessarily increase. Physical activity level is not affected by body weight in relation to set point.

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20. The most important factor in setting behavioral goals is

a.

the clients willingness to exercise.

b.

individual habits and preferences.

c.

the amount of weight loss desired.

d.

the skill of the health care practitioner.

ANS: B

Behavioral goals must be tailored to each clients habits and preferences. Their willingness to exercise is only one of many factors to consider. The amount of weight loss desired is not the focus of behavioral change. The skill of the health care practitioner may help or hinder the process of determining behavioral goals, but it is not the focus of the process.

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21. If a client wants to relearn to pay attention to hunger and satiety cues, he or she may find it helpful to

a.

keep a journal of perceived emotions.

b.

establish a regular pattern of meals.

c.

eat all food at home.

d.

avoid eating until he or she is very hungry.

ANS: A

A journal of perceived emotions (especially if it also includes foods eaten) may help a client to relearn how to pay attention to hunger and satiety cues. Establishing a regular pattern of meals may help a client develop healthful eating habits but would not help identify hunger and satiety. Eating all food at home is probably not realistic for most clients and is not related to hunger cues. Avoiding eating until very hungry is likely to result in erratic food intake and overeating.

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22. An athletes kilocalorie intake is most likely to be appropriate if he or she

a.

maintains a low percentage of body fat.

b.

consumes at least 1800 kcal per day.

c.

maintains a competitive and healthy weight.

d.

does not experience hunger between workouts.

ANS: C

The best index of appropriate energy intake is maintenance of a competitive and healthy weight. Different percentages of body fat may be appropriate for different types of athletes and different individuals. Specific kilocalorie needs of individuals vary greatly. Hunger is subjective and does not necessarily indicate whether energy intake is appropriate.

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23. If an athlete weighed 150 lbs at the beginning of an athletic event and weighed 146 lb at the end of the event because of water lost in sweat, their athletic performance toward the end of the event would be

a.

improved.

b.

unaffected.

c.

impaired.

d.

unpredictable.

ANS: C

Loss of 4 lb by a 150-lb athlete represents loss of 2.7% of body weight. Loss of 2% to 3% of body weight impairs performance, causing an increase in body temperature, confusion, and loss of coordination.

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24. The best way for someone to measure fluid loss during a workout is

a.

the amount needed to satisfy thirst.

b.

volume of urine production.

c.

change in body temperature.

d.

loss of body weight.

ANS: D

Loss of body weight is the best indicator of fluid loss during a workout. Thirst is unreliable. Urine volume may help indicate hydration status but is not definitive. Body temperature is generally unaffected unless fluid loss is extreme.

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25. Sports drinks may be more beneficial than water for an athlete who

a.

is exercising in cold weather.

b.

runs for at least 2 hours, 4 days a week.

c.

experiences hunger during workouts.

d.

takes a 1-hour aerobics class 5 days a week.

ANS: B

For athletes who exercise for longer than 90 minutes, sports drinks may be beneficial because they provide some carbohydrates and electrolytes. Otherwise, fluid replacement is the main priority, and water is just as beneficial as sports drinks. With shorter bouts of exercise, normal food intake replaces nutrient losses. Exercising in cold weather would reduce sweat losses and so would make a sports drink less beneficial.

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26. An example of a good food for replacing glycogen stores is

a.

raw carrots.

b.

string cheese.

c.

breakfast cereal.

d.

scrambled eggs.

ANS: C

Foods with high levels of carbohydrate, such as breakfast cereal, help replace glycogen stores. Raw carrots provide low amounts of energy; string cheese and scrambled eggs provide mostly protein and fat.

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27. The person who is mostly likely to need to be concerned about the adequacy of his or her protein intake is a

a.

male bodybuilder.

b.

woman who walks 30 minutes per day.

c.

man who plays basketball twice a week.

d.

female vegetarian runner with a low kilocalorie intake.

ANS: D

Female athletes often do not consume sufficient kilocalories, and so some protein may be used for energy, which increases requirements. Also, vegetarians may need more protein to provide sufficient essential amino acids. Most bodybuilders and moderately active men and women are likely to consume enough protein in their regular diet.

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28. The factor that is most effective in increasing muscle mass is

a.

exercise.

b.

low fat intake.

c.

high protein intake.

d.

amino acid supplements.

ANS: A

Exercise is essential for increasing muscle mass. Adequate intake of protein helps provide the building materials for muscles to grow in response to exercise, but most diets provide sufficient protein without needing a high protein intake or amino acid supplements. Fat intake per se is not related to increasing muscle mass.

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29. An example of an athlete who is most likely to benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement that provides 100% of the Daily Recommended Intake (DRI) is a

a.

gymnast.

b.

swimmer.

c.

bodybuilder.

d.

football player.

ANS: A

Athletes with thin builds, such as gymnasts, may limit their food intake to control their energy intake and may therefore benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement. Most athletes consume plenty of food and therefore plenty of vitamins and minerals. For these athletes, adding supplements could result in intake of toxic levels of some nutrients.

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30. An example of a beverage that may have a demonstrated ergogenic effect is

a.

milk.

b.

beer.

c.

coffee.

d.

ginseng tea.

ANS: C

Coffee contains caffeine, which helps increase fatty acid oxidation and spares glycogen. Milk contains protein, but amino acids have not been proven to have ergogenic benefits. Beer contains alcohol, which is not an ergogenic acid. Ginseng has not been shown to have any ergogenic value.

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