Chapter 08: Clarifying Quantitative Research Designs My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 08: Clarifying Quantitative Research Designs

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which type of research design focuses on implementation of a treatment by the researcher?

a.

Correlational

b.

Descriptive

c.

Experimental

d.

Longitudinal

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Correlational and descriptive designs are nonexperimental studies that focus on examining variables as they naturally occur and not on the implementation of a treatment by the researcher.

B

Correlational and descriptive designs are nonexperimental studies that focus on examining variables as they naturally occur and not on the implementation of a treatment by the researcher.

C

Quasi-experimental and experimental studies are designed to examine causality between a researcher-implemented treatment and a study outcome.

D

Longitudinal design refers to data collection from the same subjects at different points in time and may or may not be used with experimental or nonexperimental studies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 212

2. A researcher administers a written test to evaluate knowledge of insulin administration and glucose monitoring to a group of subjects at annual intervals over the next decade. This is an example of which type of study design?

a.

Correlational

b.

Cross-sectional

c.

Descriptive

d.

Longitudinal

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Correlational studies seek to examine relationships among variables without manipulation of a treatment by the researcher.

B

Cross-sectional designs examine a group of subjects simultaneously in various stages of development, illness severity, or recovery to identify changes in a phenomenon across stages.

C

A descriptive study is used to examine variables as they occur naturally without manipulation of variables.

D

Longitudinal design refers to data collection from the same subjects at different points in time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 212

3. A nurse researcher wishes to identify rates of pertussis infection in children less than one year of age and then again at 6 years of age to examine the relationship of immunization status on infection rates in this population. This is an example of which type of study design?

a.

Correlational, longitudinal

b.

Correlational, cross-sectional

c.

Descriptive, longitudinal

d.

Descriptive, cross-sectional

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A correlational study design looks at predictive relationships between variables. A longitudinal study design refers to data collection from the same subjects at different points in time.

B

Cross-sectional designs examine a group of subjects simultaneously in various stages of development, illness severity, or recovery to identify changes in a phenomenon across stages.

C

A descriptive study is used to examine variables as they occur naturally without manipulation.

D

Cross-sectional designs examine a group of subjects simultaneously in various stages of development, illness severity, or recovery to identify changes in a phenomenon across stages. A descriptive study is used to examine variables as they occur naturally without manipulation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: p. 212

4. Which statement is true about a descriptive study design?

a.

It is not possible to operationally define variables in this type of study.

b.

Sample selection and size cannot be controlled in descriptive studies.

c.

This type of design is used to identify problems occurring in practice.

d.

Variables may be manipulated to avoid bias in this type of study.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Descriptive designs may involve operational definitions of variables, but variables are not manipulated in descriptive studies.

B

Protection against bias in a descriptive design is achieved through conceptual and operational definition of variables, sample selection and size, valid and reliable instruments, and data collection procedures that partially control the environment.

C

Descriptive designs may be used to develop theories and identify problems with current practice.

D

Protection against bias in a descriptive design is achieved through conceptual and operational definition of variables, sample selection and size, valid and reliable instruments, and data collection procedures that partially control the environment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding REF: pp. 212-213

5. A nurse conducts a study to see whether there are differences in the number of books Latino parents and the number of books African-American parents read to their toddlers each week. Which type of study will this researcher utilize?

a.

Comparative descriptive

b.

Correlational

c.

Cross-sectional

d.

Longitudinal

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A comparative descriptive design is used to describe variables and to examine differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in a setting that may have been formed using gender, age, or socioeconomic status.

B

A correlational study design looks at predictive relationships between variables.

C

Cross-sectional designs examine a group of subjects simultaneously in various stages of development, illness severity, or recovery to identify changes in a phenomenon across stages.

D

Longitudinal design refers to data collection from the same subjects at different points in time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: p. 216

6. A researcher wishes to conduct a correlational study to determine whether there is a relationship between stress levels and relapse rates among patients who have chronic conditions. In order to determine the existence of a relationship between these two variables, the researcher will attempt to:

a.

manipulate the level of stress in study subjects.

b.

obtain a large range of possible scores.

c.

provide lengthy descriptions of subjects behaviors.

d.

randomly assign subjects to study groups.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Correlational studies do not involve manipulation of a variable.

B

In correlational designs, a large range in the variable scores is necessary to determine the existence of a relationship.

C

Providing lengthy descriptions of subjects behaviors is a necessary part of the discussion of the results, but it does not determine the existence of a relationship.

D

Subjects in correlational studies are not randomly assigned to study groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: p. 217

7. If a researcher wishes to describe variables and to examine many relationships in a study, which type of study design will the researcher employ?

a.

Correlational

b.

Descriptive

c.

Descriptive correlational

d.

Descriptive cross-sectional

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Correlational studies seek to examine relationships among variables without manipulation of a treatment by the researcher.

B

A descriptive study is used to examine variables as they occur naturally without manipulation of variables.

C

A descriptive correlational design is used to describe variables and examine relationships among these variables. Using this design facilitates the identification of many interrelationships in a situation.

D

Cross-sectional designs examine a group of subjects simultaneously in various stages of development, illness severity, or recovery to identify changes in a phenomenon across stages.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: pp. 218-220

8. A nurse researcher conducts a study to determine whether women who breastfeed their infants experience better sleep in the first two postpartum months. This study will employ which type of research design?

a.

Correlational

b.

Descriptive

c.

Descriptive correlational

d.

Predictive correlational

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Correlational studies seek to examine relationships among variables without manipulation of a treatment by the researcher.

B

A descriptive study is used to examine variables as they occur naturally without manipulation of variables.

C

A descriptive correlational design is used to describe variables and examine relationships among these variables.

D

A predictive correlational design is used to predict the value of one variable based on the values obtained for another variable or variables.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 220

9. A researcher theorizes a set of relationships among concepts used to describe why patients with chronic illness are often depressed. To test the accuracy of these hypothesized relationships, which type of study will be used?

a.

Descriptive correlational

b.

Grounded theory

c.

Model testing

d.

Predictive correlational

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A descriptive correlational design is used to describe variables and examine relationships among these variables.

B

Grounded theory research is designed to generate theory and to develop new concepts.

C

The model testing design requires all concepts relevant to the model be measured and the relationships among these concepts examined.

D

A predictive correlational design is used to predict the value of one variable based on the values obtained for another variable or variables.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: p. 221

10. A researcher conducts a study to examine possible contributors to glycemic control in a group of subjects who have type 2 diabetes mellitus in a local community. A convenience sample of patients includes patients from 28 to 65 years old who range in weight from normal to obese, with time since diagnosis ranging from several months to several years. To determine causality in this study, the researcher will:

a.

discuss outcomes in terms of the probability that education will improve glycemic control.

b.

increase the manipulation of the independent variable to allow greater control by the researcher.

c.

identify multicausal variables that may influence the outcome of glycemic control measures.

d.

limit the study to younger persons only to minimize the effects of extraneous variables.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Probability addresses relative and not absolute causality and may be used when given effects are not produced consistently.

B

In this case, increasing the manipulation of the independent variable does not alter the influence of multiple causes.

C

Multicausality is the presence of multiple causes for an effect. In this study, patient age, weight, and length of time of diagnosis may all influence the outcome and should be addressed as factors that may alter the results.

D

Limiting the study to patients of a certain age only controls for one extraneous variable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 223

11. A study in which subjects are assigned by the researcher into experimental and control groups increases:

a.

bias.

b.

control.

c.

manipulation

d.

validity.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Bias occurs when the attitudes or motivations of the researcher cause a deviation from a true measurement of the study variables. This may occur when researchers control assignment to study groups.

B

Control is used to manage manipulation of variables and to reduce extraneous factors in the environment that might alter outcomes.

C

Manipulation of independent variables is used to evaluate changes in dependent variables.

D

Researcher control over assignment into groups does not increase a studys validity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding REF: p. 223

12. In a quasi-experimental study examining the effects of nonpharmacologic treatments on postoperative pain management, the researcher trains nursing staff so that all experimental group subjects receive the same types of treatments. This is an example of:

a.

bias.

b.

manipulation.

c.

reliability.

d.

validity.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Bias refers to interference by the researcher that influences the outcome of a study.

B

Manipulation is a form of control used in quasi-experimental and experimental studies and may involve control of the intervention so that it is applied consistently.

C

Reliability and validity are related to consistency and trustworthiness of measurement tools.

D

Reliability and validity are related to consistency and trustworthiness of measurement tools.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: p. 224

13. A researcher conducts a quasi-experimental study to determine whether there is appropriate weight gain among premature infants who are fed according to cue-based protocols. The researcher trained neonatal intensive care nurses to apply cue-based feeding to orally fed infants and notes a statistical difference in weight gain between infants fed according to cue-based protocols and those fed according to standard protocols. The reviewer critiquing the study notes that not all nurses completed the cue-based feeding module. This would affect which type of validity?

a.

Construct validity

b.

External validity

c.

Internal validity

d.

Statistical conclusion validity

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Construct validity is concerned with the fit between conceptual and operational variables and requires adequate conceptual and operational definitions.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world. This can be threatened by anything interfering with consistent implementation of a variable, including inadequate training of individuals who implement the intervention.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: pp. 224-225

14. A researcher conducts a quasi-experimental study to determine whether there is improved weight gain among premature infants who are fed according to cue-based protocols. The researcher trained neonatal intensive care nurses to apply cue-based feeding to orally fed infants and notes a statistical difference in weight gain between infants fed according to cue-based protocols and those fed according to standard protocols. The reviewer notes that components of cue-based feedings are not clearly identified. This is a threat to:

a.

construct validity.

b.

external validity.

c.

internal validity.

d.

statistical conclusion validity.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Construct validity is concerned with the fit between conceptual and operational variables and requires adequate conceptual and operational definitions.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

15. A researcher conducts a quasi-experimental study to determine whether there is improved weight gain among premature infants who are fed according to cue-based protocols. The researcher trained neonatal intensive care nurses to apply cue-based feeding to orally fed infants and notes a statistical difference in weight gain between infants fed according to cue-based protocols and those fed according to standard protocols. Which might be a threat to internal validity in this study?

a.

The concept of cue-based feeding is not well defined.

b.

The study sample is homogeneous.

c.

Some infants developed gastroenteritis.

d.

Not all nurses received cue-based protocol education.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Inadequate definitions of constructs are threats to construct validity.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample. A study with a more homogenous sample is less likely to have findings that can be generalized to other populations.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world. If not all nurses received cue-based education, the intervention implementation will be unreliable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

16. A researcher conducts a quasi-experimental study to determine whether there is improved weight gain among premature infants who are fed according to cue-based protocols. The researcher trained neonatal intensive care nurses to apply cue-based feeding to orally fed infants and notes a statistical difference in weight gain between infants fed according to cue-based protocols and those fed according to standard protocols. The reviewer notes that parents who gave consent to participate in the study were from a higher socioeconomic class than the population as a whole. This is a threat to:

a.

construct validity.

b.

external validity.

c.

internal validity.

d.

statistical conclusion validity.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Construct validity is concerned with the fit between conceptual and operational variables and requires adequate conceptual and operational definitions.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

17. A researcher develops a 7-point Likert scale to evaluate feelings of well-being in patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. The researcher administers this measure to other, similar patients in other medical centers. This is done in order to:

a.

decrease mono-operation bias.

b.

improve the test-retest reliability.

c.

increase interrater reliability.

d.

strengthen the operational definition of constructs.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Mono-operation bias occurs when only one measure is used to evaluate an outcome.

B

To improve the reliability of the measurement tool, it should be tested in various settings to determine whether it gives consistent measures each time it is used.

C

Interrater reliability refers to consistent results that occur when various people administer study measures.

D

Evaluating the consistency of a measurement tool does not affect the operational definition of constructs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: pp. 225-226

18. In a research study, ambulatory clinic nurses teach children with asthma how to monitor peak expiratory flow volumes and how to use metered-dose inhalers to determine whether asthma control scores improve. The researcher discovers inconsistencies in how these measures were taught and how well the children understood the concepts. This represents a lack of:

a.

control of extraneous variables.

b.

internal validity.

c.

intervention fidelity.

d.

precision of measurement.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

To control for extraneous variables, the researcher would identify characteristics of subjects or settings that might influence outcomes.

B

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

C

Consistent implementation of the treatment is referred to as intervention fidelity. If the method of administering a research intervention varies from one person to another, the chance of identifying a true difference based on the independent variables decreases.

D

Precision of measurement refers to whether or not the tools yield the same readings or findings from one test to another.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 226

19. A researcher wishes to conduct a study of a small number of subjects on a large hospital intensive care unit. To minimize problems associated with extraneous variables in the study setting, the researcher will:

a.

ensure double-blind data collection methods.

b.

randomly assign subjects to treatment and control groups.

c.

test the reliability of study measures.

d.

train a small number of nurses to administer the intervention.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Double-blind data collection, random assignment of subjects, and reliability of test measures are important to improve control and reduce bias.

B

Extraneous variables in complex settings can influence scores on the dependent variable.

C

Double-blind data collection, random assignment of subjects, and reliability of test measures are important to improve control and reduce bias.

D

One way to reduce the effect of extraneous variables is to train a small number of staff to administer the intervention to improve consistency.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

20. A researcher reviews demographic characteristics of potential study subjects, such as age and gender, to determine whether these characteristics may influence the outcome of the study. This is done to help ensure:

a.

construct validity.

b.

external validity.

c.

internal validity.

d.

statistical conclusion validity.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Construct validity is concerned with the fit between conceptual and operational variables and requires adequate conceptual and operational definitions.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 226

21. An important measure to decrease threats to internal validity in an experimental study is to:

a.

apply the intervention consistently.

b.

improve the precision of measurement methods.

c.

increase the sample size.

d.

randomly assign subjects to study groups.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Consistent application of the intervention and improved precision of measurements help minimize threats to statistical conclusion validity.

B

Consistent application of the intervention and improved precision of measurements help minimize threats to statistical conclusion validity.

C

Increasing sample size minimizes threats to external validity.

D

An important threat to internal validity is any concern about subject selection and assignment to groups. Randomly assigning subjects to treatment and control groups helps to minimize this threat.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: pp. 224-225

22. Which action will the researcher take to improve construct validity?

a.

Allow data collectors to know which subjects are assigned to which groups

b.

Ensure that operational definitions reflect theoretical constructs

c.

Make sure that the researcher is involved in data collection

d.

Utilize only one measurement method to measure study variables

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Allowing data collectors to know which subjects are assigned to which groups and involving the researcher in data collection both increase the risk of bias.

B

Construct validity depends on adequate definition and measurement of constructs. The conceptual definition should emerge from the concept analysis and the operational definition should clearly reflect both.

C

Allowing data collectors to know which subjects are assigned to which groups and involving the researcher in data collection both increase the risk of bias.

D

Using only one measurement tool increases the risk of mono-operation bias.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

23. A researcher wishes to study the effects of effective sleep hygiene on sleep quality and behavior among children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. To minimize mono-operation bias, the researcher will:

a.

accurately describe conceptual and operational definitions.

b.

adequately discuss construct validity in the introduction.

c.

evaluate multiple sleep hygiene techniques.

d.

utilize a double-blind data collection methodology.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Construct validity is improved with adequate description of conceptual and operational definitions.

B

Construct validity is improved with adequate description of conceptual and operational definitions.

C

Mono-operation bias occurs when only one method of measurement is used to assess a construct and can be minimized with the use of multiple measures.

D

Use of double-blind data collection methods helps to minimize bias.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225|p. 228

24. Multiple replications of an initial study conducted in different populations produce findings that do not match those in the initial study. The initial study may lack which type of validity?

a.

Construct validity

b.

External validity

c.

Internal validity

d.

Statistical conclusion validity

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Construct validity is concerned with the fit between conceptual and operational variables and requires adequate conceptual and operational definitions.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

25. In order to increase participation among potential subjects of a larger population, the researcher will:

a.

limit the time and effort required to participate in the study.

b.

provide demographic information about those who refuse to participate.

c.

provide instruments that are detailed to increase the amount of data collected.

d.

offer potential subjects a financial incentive to participate in the study.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Limiting the investment demands on subjects helps to improve participation.

B

Providing demographic information about those who do not participate is an important part of the discussion of limitations of a study but does not ensure generalization to a larger population.

C

Detailed instruments may be time consuming and may limit participation to a small sample size.

D

Offering financial incentives does not ensure a sample that is representative of the larger population.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: p. 225

26. In order to attribute causality of a posttest measure in an experimental study, the independent variable will be:

a.

administered to control group subjects only.

b.

administered to subjects selected by the researcher.

c.

administered to treatment group subjects.

d.

defined loosely to avoid bias.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The independent variable is administered to the treatment group and not the control group.

B

Selection of subjects by the researcher increases the likelihood of bias.

C

To improve determinations of causality, the independent variable should be administered consistently to all subjects in the treatment group.

D

The independent variable should be precisely defined.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: pp. 229-230

27. In a study to examine the effects of a newly modified anxiety-reducing nursing action on a group of subjects who have cancer, the control group will receive:

a.

an alternative intervention.

b.

no intervention.

c.

the newly modified intervention.

d.

the standard intervention.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

An alternative intervention would invite comparison, but if it is new, it would also be experimental.

B

Offering no intervention is often unethical.

C

Giving the newly modified intervention would not create a difference between the treatment and the control groups.

D

In many nursing studies, offering no intervention (when one exists) to subjects in the control group is considered unethical. Subjects in this group generally receive the standard intervention as a comparison to those in the treatment group.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: pp. 230-232

28. In a quasi-experimental study design, the group that receives standard care is usually referred to as the:

a.

comparison group.

b.

control group.

c.

experimental group.

d.

treatment group.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

In a quasi-experimental study, the group that does not receive treatment is usually referred to as the comparison group.

B

Subjects not receiving treatment in an experimental group are generally referred to as the control group.

C

Groups that receive the intervention in either type of study are referred to as experimental or treatment groups.

D

Groups that receive the intervention in either type of study are referred to as experimental or treatment groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: pp. 230-232

29. In a quasi-experimental study using a convenience sample of subjects from a local high school, the researcher asks potential subjects to volunteer for placement in either a low sugar diet program or a regular sugar diet program. This technique for assigning participation may compromise:

a.

construct validity.

b.

external validity.

c.

internal validity.

d.

statistical conclusion validity.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Construct validity is concerned with the fit between conceptual and operational variables and requires adequate conceptual and operational definitions.

B

External validity is concerned with the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the study sample.

C

Internal validity looks at the influence of extraneous variables on study outcomes.

D

Statistical conclusion validity is concerned with whether the conclusions based on statistical analyses are an accurate reflection of the real world.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analyzing REF: pp. 232-233

30. Which type of study is considered strongest for testing the effectiveness of an intervention?

a.

Experimental

b.

Pretest/Posttest

c.

Quasi-experimental

d.

Randomized controlled trial

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Experimental designs involve manipulation independent variables, but without random assignment of subjects to groups, which can weaken the study by increasing the potential for bias.

B

Pre-test/Post-test designs are a type of quasi-experimental study design that generally doesnt use random assignment of subjects.

C

Quasi-experimental studies do not have complete control over variables and usually do not use random assignment of subjects.

D

Randomized controlled trials are noted to be the strongest methodology for testing the effectiveness of a treatment due to the elements of the design that limit the potential for bias.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering REF: p. 232|p. 237|p. 238|p. 241

31. When using Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines to critically appraise a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the nurse will make sure that the study:

a.

is designed to definitively test a hypothesis.

b.

is conducted in a laboratory to minimize setting bias.

c.

uses subjects selected by the researcher for participation.

d.

uses a descriptive or correlational design.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

RCTs should be designed to be a definitive test of the hypothesis that the intervention caused the defined dependent variables.

B

RCTs should be conducted in a clinical setting and not a laboratory.

C

Subjects selected by the researcher may be biased.

D

Descriptive or correlational designs are not RCTs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Applying REF: p. 241

Leave a Reply