Chapter 07: Understanding Theory and Research Frameworks My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 07: Understanding Theory and Research Frameworks

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which is true about a study framework?

a.

It guides nurses in clinical practice.

b.

It explains a portion of a theory.

c.

It is one of the major ideas of a theory.

d.

It is the underlying methodology used in research.

ANS: B

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A

The knowledge gained from testing theories is used to guide nursing practice.

B

A study framework is a brief explanation of a theory or those portions of a theory that are to be tested in a study.

C

Concepts are the major ideas contained in a theory.

D

The framework is not the methodology, which consists of sampling techniques, tools, and measures used to gather and analyze data.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 190

2. Which statement is true about theory and qualitative studies?

a.

Qualitative studies rely on conceptual frameworks and not on theory.

b.

Qualitative studies are not based on theory.

c.

Qualitative studies may be used to create theory.

d.

Qualitative studies use theory in the same way as quantitative studies.

ANS: C

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A

Qualitative studies do not rely on conceptual frameworks.

B

Qualitative studies may be based on theory.

C

Qualitative studies may be based on a theory or may be designed to create a theory.

D

Quantitative studies are designed to test the components of a theory, while qualitative studies may merely be based on or seek to create a theory.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 190

3. A researcher is studying how anxiety affects coping with chronic disease and theorizes that measures to reduce anxiety will improve subjects ability to cope with day-to-day demands of self-care. In this example, anxiety and coping are:

a.

assumptions.

b.

concepts.

c.

philosophies.

d.

theories.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.

B

Concepts are terms that abstractly describe and name an object, idea, experience, or phenomenon and are defined in specific ways to present the ideas relevant to a theory.

C

Philosophies are rational intellectual explorations of truths or principles and describe viewpoints on what reality is and which ethical ideas should guide practice.

D

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 190-191

4. When reviewing various theoretical frameworks, the nurse researcher identifies several viewpoints about how nurses should engage with terminally ill patients. These viewpoints represent:

a.

abstract ideas.

b.

assumptions.

c.

concrete ideas.

d.

philosophies.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

An abstract idea focuses on a general view of a phenomenon.

B

Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.

C

A concrete idea focuses on a particular instance.

D

A philosophy is an idea that explores truths or principles and describes which ethical ideas should guide practice.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 190-191

5. A nurse researcher develops a study to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to lose weight by altering eating patterns. The researcher states, Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus desire to control weight to gain better glycemic control. This statement is a(n):

a.

assumption.

b.

concept.

c.

philosophy.

d.

theory.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.

B

Concepts are terms that abstractly describe and name an object, idea, experience, or phenomenon and are defined in specific ways to present the ideas relevant to a theory.

C

Philosophies are rational intellectual explorations of truths or principles and describe viewpoints on what reality is and which ethical ideas should guide practice.

D

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 190-191

6. A nurse researcher will measure the effects of infant and parent bonding on infant weight gain in the first 6 months of life. The nurse will evaluate the number of times each day that the parent holds the infant. This measure is an example of a(n):

a.

abstract idea.

b.

concept.

c.

concrete idea.

d.

phenomenon.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

An abstract idea is a general view of a phenomenon, such as parent/infant bonding.

B

A concept is a term that abstractly describes a phenomenon.

C

Concrete ideas refer to realities or actual instances, focusing on the particular and not the general.

D

A phenomenon is the appearance or aspect of reality as it is experienced.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 191-192

7. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, self-care is a:

a.

concept.

b.

construct.

c.

theory.

d.

variable.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.

B

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

C

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

D

A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 191-192

8. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, health promotion is a:

a.

concept.

b.

construct.

c.

theory.

d.

variable.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.

B

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

C

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

D

A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 191-192

9. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, hours of sleep is a:

a.

concept.

b.

construct.

c.

theory.

d.

variable.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

B

A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.

C

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

D

A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 191-193

10. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activitiessuch as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per nightas components of self-care. In this example, effects of self-care on disease prevention is a:

a.

concept.

b.

construct.

c.

theory.

d.

variable.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.

B

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

C

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon. A conceptual map includes all of the major concepts in a theory or framework.

D

A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 191-192

11. Which is an important characteristic of a variable?

a.

It is broad and encompasses several ideas.

b.

It is constant from one instance to another.

c.

It is less specific than a concept.

d.

It is measurable and changeable.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Variables are narrow in their definition.

B

Variables vary from one instance to another.

C

Variables are more specific than are concepts.

D

A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 191

12. Which is true about a conceptual definition in a research study?

a.

It defines how a concept can be manipulated in a study.

b.

It describes how a concept may be measured in a study.

c.

It is comprehensive and includes associative meanings.

d.

It is more specific than a dictionary definition.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The operational definition describes how the concept may be manipulated in a study.

B

The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured in a study.

C

A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.

D

A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 192

13. In a study about childhood obesity, the researcher discusses the concept of overweight in terms of weight for height measures, body mass index (BMI), body image, self-esteem, and social norms. When discussing body image, self-esteem, and social norms, the researcher is describing the:

a.

conceptual definition.

b.

dependent variable.

c.

independent variable.

d.

operational definition.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.

B

The dependent variable is a measurable variable that is hypothesized to change as a result of manipulation or difference in the independent variable.

C

The independent variable is a measurable variable that is manipulated by the researcher to observe possible changes in the dependent variable.

D

The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured or manipulated in a study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 192

14. In a study about childhood obesity, the researcher discusses the concept of overweight in terms of weight for height measures, body mass index (BMI), body image, self-esteem, and social norms. The researcher states that a BMI > the 95th percentile represents overweight. This statement is a(n):

a.

conceptual definition.

b.

dependent variable.

c.

independent variable.

d.

operational definition.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.

B

The dependent variable is a measurable variable that is hypothesized to change as a result of manipulation or change in the independent variable.

C

The independent variable is a measurable variable that is manipulated by the researcher to observe possible changes in the dependent variable.

D

The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured or manipulated in a study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 192

15. A researcher discusses how endorphins released during aerobic exercise cause a heightened sense of well-being in subjects. This discussion is a:

a.

conceptual definition.

b.

operational definition.

c.

relational statement.

d.

theoretical framework.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.

B

The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured or manipulated in a study.

C

A relational statement clarifies the type of relationship that exists between concepts.

D

A theoretical framework describes abstract concepts and phenomena and is used to guide nurses in clinical practice.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 193

16. When a researcher analyzes data obtained from study variables for possible significant relationships among these variables, the researcher is testing the:

a.

abstract ideas.

b.

conceptual definitions.

c.

relationship statements.

d.

study assumptions.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

An abstract idea focuses on a general view of a phenomenon.

B

A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have. It does not identify relationships.

C

A relational statement clarifies the type of relationship that exists between concepts.

D

Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 193

17. Which statement is true about the hypothesis in a research study?

a.

It clearly identifies concepts.

b.

It is written at a higher level of abstraction than a general proposition.

c.

It is not testable.

d.

It makes a statement about specific relationships among variables.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The hypothesis does not define concepts.

B

The hypothesis is written at a lower level of abstraction than a framework or proposition.

C

Hypotheses are written to be tested in a study and make predictions about the relationships among variables.

D

Hypotheses are written to be tested in a study and make predictions about the relationships among variables.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 193

18. Which nursing theorist developed a grand nursing theory?

a.

Brennaman

b.

Orem

c.

Pender

d.

Swanson

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Brennaman developed mid-level nursing theories.

B

Orems theory is a grand nursing theory.

C

Pender developed mid-level nursing theories.

D

Swanson developed mid-level nursing theories.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 194

19. A nurse researcher discusses a theory about the stigma of chronic illness in children and describes aspects of chronic illness including aesthetic qualities, causes of the condition, and concealability of the disease as dimensions of this stigma. In this case, aesthetic qualities, causes of the condition, and concealability of the disease are:

a.

concepts.

b.

constructs.

c.

theories.

d.

variables.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.

B

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

C

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

D

A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 194

20. The level of theory often derived from evidence-based guidelines is:

a.

grand theory.

b.

grounded theory.

c.

mid-range theory.

d.

practice theory.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A grand theory is an abstract nursing theory.

B

Grounded theory is theory derived from the analysis of data.

C

A mid-range theory is narrower in scope than a grand theory.

D

A specific type of mid-range theory is a prescriptive, or practice theory. These are often derived from evidence-based guidelines and are specific to situations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 195

21. In the introduction to a study, the researcher explains why self-esteem is expected to affect obesity. The explanation of this relationship represents which aspect of the study?

a.

Concept

b.

Construct

c.

Framework

d.

Theory

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.

B

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

C

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning identifying how one variable is expected to affect another.

D

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 198

22. Which will the researcher use to display the concepts and relationships in a theoretical framework?

a.

Construct

b.

Graph

c.

Model

d.

Theory

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.

B

A graph may be used in a model to depict variables.

C

A model is a diagram or map that graphically displays concepts and relationships in a theory.

D

Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 198

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