Chapter 06: Understanding and Critically Appraising the Literature Review My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 06: Understanding and Critically Appraising the Literature Review

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. One reason for conducting a review of the literature other than for purposes of developing a research study is to:

a.

determine the expertise of researchers in the field of study.

b.

identify current theoretical frameworks.

c.

implement evidence-based practice guidelines.

d.

work in a Magnet-certified hospital setting.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Evaluation of the expertise of researchers and identification of theoretical frameworks are part of literature reviews but are not the reason for conducting them.

B

Evaluation of the expertise of researchers and identification of theoretical frameworks are part of literature reviews but are not the reason for conducting them.

C

Although a literature reviews are commonly associated with development of research studies, they are also conducted when developing projects to establish evidence-based-practice (EBP).

D

Nurses in Magnet hospitals often participate in EBP projects and will conduct literature reviews for these, but not solely to be able to work in these institutions.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 163

2. What is the purpose of a limited research review?

a.

To allow the reader to become familiar with the research problem

b.

To develop an initial pilot study prior to a more in-depth study

c.

To direct the planning and execution of a study

d.

To identify studies published after a study is performed

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A full literature review allows the reader to become familiar with the research problem and is performed prior to a pilot or a full study.

B

The full literature review directs the planning and execution of the study.

C

The full literature review directs the planning and execution of the study.

D

A limited research review is often conducted after an initial literature review in order to describe any studies performed after the study has been performed. The results of both the original literature review and the limited literature review are included in the report.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 163

3. A reviewer reading a proposal for a qualitative research study notes that the author has not included a literature review. The reviewer understands that a literature review may have been omitted in this case because:

a.

it is not necessary to conduct a literature review for qualitative research.

b.

qualitative research is conducted to study areas where there is no previous knowledge.

c.

some researchers feel that previous studies may bias data collection in qualitative studies.

d.

the researcher was not adequately prepared to conduct this research study.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A literature review can be helpful in qualitative research and should be performed if possible.

B

This is true of some but not all qualitative methods (for example grounded theory); however, it is not true of all qualitative designs.

C

Many times literature reviews are omitted from qualitative research to avoid causing expectations that might bias findings, data collection, and data analysis.

D

At times, there is little or no previous research on the topic, but not always.

Omission of a literature review in qualitative research does not indicate that the researcher is ill-prepared.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 164

4. Which type of study is least likely to include a review of the literature prior to initiating the study?

a.

Grounded theory

b.

Phenomenological

c.

Qualitative

d.

Quantitative

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Grounded theory researchers may have a limited review of relevant studies in order to make the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted and that a research problem exists.

B

Phenomenological researchers are most likely to delay literature review until after a study is completed in order to avoid bias.

C

Qualitative and quantitative research will involve literature reviews, although these may be less substantial in qualitative studies.

D

Qualitative and quantitative research will involve literature reviews, although these may be less substantial in qualitative studies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 164

5. What is the main purpose of a literature review in grounded theory research?

a.

To explain, extend, and support the framework used for the study

b.

To identify gaps in current knowledge about the research topic

c.

To place research findings in context of what is already known.

d.

To support the need to study the selected research topic

ANS: A

Feedback

A

In grounded theory research, the researcher uses the literature review primarily to explain, support, and extend the framework used in the study, and not to direct data collection or study methods. It is usually completed at the end of the analysis rather than before the proposal development

B

The literature review in quantitative studies is designed to identify gaps in knowledge.

C

Phenomenological literature reviews are conducted to place research findings in the context of what is already known.

D

Because the literature review for grounded theory research is generally conducted at the end of the analysis, it is not used to support the need for studying the topic, but to summarize what is known.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 164

6. Why might Wikipedia be a questionable reference for a study citation?

a.

It does not contain factual information.

b.

It does not provide ideas for other resources.

c.

It is an online resource..

d.

It is an open, editable format.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Wikipedia may contain factual information, but this is not reliable.

B

Wikipedia may provide ideas for other resources.

C

Wikipedia is an online resource, but that fact does not exclude it from being used.

D

Wikipedia is an open, editable format; the information may not always be accurate because it is not peer reviewed and scientifically based.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 166

7. Which source of information is rarely cited in academic publications?

a.

Conference proceedings

b.

Dissertation or thesis

c.

Encyclopedia

d.

Textbooks

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Conference proceedings, dissertations or theses, and textbooks may all be cited.

B

Conference proceedings, dissertations or theses, and textbooks may all be cited.

C

Encyclopedias tend to provide background information and some information leading to other resources, but generally not scholarly or primary source information.

D

Conference proceedings, dissertations or theses, and textbooks may all be cited.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 166

8. When determining the reliability of a website resource in a literature review, it is important to determine:

a.

accessibility of the website information.

b.

costs of retrieving website information.

c.

sponsorship of website information.

d.

whether website information is also published conventionally.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Accessibility, cost, and conventional publication of website information are not determinants of reliability of website information.

B

Accessibility, cost, and conventional publication of website information are not determinants of reliability of website information.

C

Not all websites are valid and appropriate for citation in a literature review. Those that are sponsored by companies that sell certain products under study may not be appropriate resources because their information may be biased.

D

Accessibility, cost, and conventional publication of website information are not determinants of reliability of website information.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 166

9. A review of empirical literature will yield information obtained from:

a.

concept analyses.

b.

descriptions of models and frameworks.

c.

research studies.

d.

theories.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Theoretical literature includes concept analyses, models, theories, and conceptual frameworks.

B

Theoretical literature includes concept analyses, models, theories, and conceptual frameworks.

C

Empirical literature refers to knowledge derived from research and is based on data from research.

D

Theoretical literature includes concept analyses, models, theories, and conceptual frameworks.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 166

10. What is an important limitation of secondary sources in literature reviews?

a.

The authors do not have high levels of expertise.

b.

They are usually not peer-reviewed sources.

c.

They do not contain unique or original information.

d.

They may contain misinterpreted information.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Authors of secondary sources have similar levels of expertise as those of primary sources.

B

Secondary sources may contain original information as authors synthesize and analyze findings from primary sources.

C

Secondary sources are usually peer reviewed.

D

A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Because authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists and interpret what the primary author wrote, this information may be misinterpreted.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 166

11. When reviewing articles in a peer-reviewed publication, the reader is assured that the articles are:

a.

landmark studies.

b.

primary sources.

c.

seminal studies.

d.

trustworthy sources.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Landmark studies, primary sources, and seminal studies are included in peer-reviewed literature, but may also appear in literature that is not peer reviewed.

B

Landmark studies, primary sources, and seminal studies are included in peer-reviewed literature, but may also appear in literature that is not peer reviewed.

C

Landmark studies, primary sources, and seminal studies are included in peer-reviewed literature, but may also appear in literature that is not peer reviewed.

D

Research reports detailing study events, including results and analysis of findings included in refereed professional journals, are considered one of the most credible types of evidence and are typically considered one of the most useful sources for researchers as they conduct a literature review for a current study. Articles found in refereed journals have been evaluated in an anonymous process by unbiased reviewers and received favorable review, not only for the integrity of the research itself, but because the topic of interest has been deemed significant to the profession.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 166

12. For a study to be considered current, it should be published within the last:

a.

year.

b.

2 years.

c.

5 years.

d.

10 years.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

This is not a correct statement.

B

This is not a correct statement.

C

Current sources are those published within 5 years before publication of the manuscript.

D

This is not a correct statement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 166

13. Some studies cited in a literature review may be decades old. The researcher may decide to use studies from this far back because these studies:

a.

are groundbreaking or landmark studies.

b.

are particularly well-written studies.

c.

are peer-reviewed, relevant studies.

d.

are still considered current studies.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Studies that are groundbreaking or landmark studies are those that were significant to the development of knowledge on the topic being reviewed. In this case, it is appropriate to cite these studies, even if they are very old.

B

Well-written, peer reviewed studies that are not current are generally not used in a literature review.

C

Well-written, peer reviewed studies that are not current are generally not used in a literature review.

D

Studies that are decades old, however well-written and relevant, are not current studies, but are used for historical or seminal context.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 166

14. A researcher conducts a study using dependent and independent variables used in a previous study but uses a different population of subjects. What type of study is this?

a.

Landmark

b.

Pilot

c.

Replication

d.

Seminal

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A landmark study is one that generates knowledge that influences a discipline and sometimes society as a whole. Landmark studies are often replicated.

B

A pilot study is a study using a small sample size to develop the study methods and tools and is later replicated on a larger scale.

C

A replication study is a reproduction or repetition of a study that a researcher conducts to determine whether the findings of the original study can be consistently found in different settings with different subjects.

D

A seminal study is the first study on a particular topic that signals a new way of thinking about the topic. These studies are often replicated.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 166

15. A nurse appraising a research article should perform which action in order to critically evaluate the literature review?

a.

Locate and review sources and abstracts listed in the research article

b.

Note the number of data-based and theoretical sources cited in the reference list

c.

Perform a meta-analysis or meta-synthesis on the cited references

d.

Search the literature to determine whether other relevant sources exist

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Locating and reviewing all abstracts would be too time consuming and may not be possible.

B

Because it would be very time consuming to search the literature and determine whether the listed sources are relevant, the reviewer should review the reference list and determine the focus of the sources, the number of data-based and theoretical sources cited, and where and when the sources were published.

C

Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis are not done when critically appraising a literature review. These techniques are used to perform an in-depth analysis of studies already cited in the literature.

D

It is not necessary at this point to search the literature to determine other relevant sources.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 168-169

16. When appraising a literature review, one aspect of determining the breadth of the review is:

a.

whether the review provides direction for the proposed study.

b.

the number and percentages of sources from the past 5 to 10 years.

c.

whether landmark or seminal studies have been used.

d.

the disciplines of the study authors and journals cited in the review.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

An assessment of whether the literature review provides direction for the study does not specifically evaluate the breadth of the literature review.

B

The currency of the literature review is evaluated by noting the number of sources more than 5 to 10 years old as well as whether landmark or seminal studies are cited.

C

The currency of the literature review is evaluated by noting the number of sources more than 5 to 10 years old as well as whether landmark or seminal studies are cited.

D

When assessing the breadth of a literature review, the reviewer should identify the disciplines of the authors cited and the journals in which they published their studies.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 168-169

17. An initial step when preparing to conduct a literature review is to:

a.

choose the types of sources to use.

b.

clarify the purpose of the review.

c.

determine how many articles to review.

d.

select electronic data bases and keywords.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The types of sources and the number of articles to review depend on the purpose of the review.

B

Because the approach will vary according to the purpose of the review, the first step in conducting a literature review is to identify the purpose of the review.

C

Once the purpose of the review is established and the author has an idea about the type and number of sources, the electronic databases and keywords are selected.

D

Once the purpose of the review is established and the author has an idea about the type and number of sources, the electronic databases and keywords are selected.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 176

18. When conducting a literature review for a thesis or dissertation and deciding how far back in the available literature to search, what will the student do?

a.

Ask the instructor to specify necessary publication years for articles cited.

b.

Base the decision on the number of articles necessary for the assigned task.

c.

Locate any seminal or landmark studies on the topic of research.

d.

Look for sources no older than 10 years prior.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The breadth and currency of the literature review should be based on the topic and the purpose of the research and not on an assigned number or a particular number of years.

B

The breadth and currency of the literature review should be based on the topic and the purpose of the research and not on an assigned number or a particular number of years.

C

When beginning a thesis or dissertation, the graduate student should look for seminal or landmark studies as a place to begin a literature review.

D

The breadth and currency of the literature review should be based on the topic and the purpose of the research and not on an assigned number or a particular number of years.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 176

19. When developing evidence-based-practice guidelines, if a researcher wishes to identify studies that evaluate a specific intervention in quantitative research, the literature review should include:

a.

grounded theory research.

b.

only current research from the last 5 years.

c.

replication studies and meta-analyses.

d.

seminal and landmark studies about the topic.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Grounded theory research is performed to test theory.

B

While current research is desired, researchers may review older studies, particularly if they are seminal or landmark studies, although these are not necessary for this type of literature review.

C

To synthesize evidence related to a practice problem and to evaluate a specific intervention in quantitative research, replication studies, meta-analyses, and meta-syntheses are used.

D

While current research is desired, researchers may review older studies, particularly if they are seminal or landmark studies, although these are not necessary for this type of literature review.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 176

20. In the following APA-formatted reference, what is indicated by the italicized words?

Maxwell, S. E., & Delaney, H. D. (2004). Designing experiments and analyzing data: A model comparison perspective (2nd ed.). Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

a.

Abstract information

b.

Article title

c.

Book title

d.

Publishing company

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The abstract information is not included in a reference citation.

B

An article title is italicized if the citation is from a journal.

C

When citing a book, the title is italicized.

D

The publishing company information is listed last.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 184

21. A step just prior to beginning a literature search using an electronic database is to:

a.

decide how many articles are needed.

b.

determine the type of study.

c.

identify keywords for the search.

d.

perform a Google search.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The number of articles needed for a literature review depends on the content of the articles and will not be known ahead of time.

B

The study type is not typically determined just prior to an electronic search.

C

To narrow the number of articles in a search and refine the search to more relevant articles, identifying keywords is necessary.

D

A Google search may or may not be helpful for leading a researcher to other articles, but it is not a scientific database.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 176

22. When conducting a literature search, which electronic product would a nurse researcher use to track and store reference information?

a.

Cumulative Index of Nursing and Health Literature (CINAHL)

b.

EndNotes or Ref Works

c.

Google Scholar

d.

Science Direct

ANS: B

Feedback

A

CINAHL is an electronic database used to search literature.

B

EndNotes is reference management software that helps to track and store information on all search fields and allows the researcher to file this information with comments about each reference.

C

Google Scholar is an electronic search engine.

D

Science Direct is an electronic search engine.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 178

23. After a literature search has yielded a list of articles, an efficient way to identify relevant studies during a literature search is to review:

a.

an electronic database search history.

b.

only experimental studies.

c.

reference lists in other studies.

d.

study abstracts.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The electronic database search history lists only articles searched for but does not yield information about whether or not they are relevant.

B

Experimental studies are not always relevant to a particular study, and other types of studies may be relevant.

C

Reference lists in other studies may give information about other articles to review, but do not give information about the content of these articles.

D

The abstract provides pertinent information about the article in a condensed, easy to peruse format so that the researcher can determine whether the article is pertinent to the topic.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 179

24. Once relevant studies have been identified, the researchers next step is to:

a.

determine the expertise of each studys authors.

b.

obtain full-text copies of each of these articles.

c.

review the study design and methodology of each article.

d.

write the literature review based on abstract information.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

During the literature review, the researcher will examine the authors expertise and will review the study design and methodology.

B

Although the abstract information helps to determine a studys relevance, it is essential to read the full-text article to conduct a literature review. Once relevant studies are found, the researcher must obtain either electronic or print full-text articles.

C

During the literature review, the researcher will examine the authors expertise and will review the study design and methodology.

D

The literature review cannot be written based on abstract information only.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 179-180

25. When initially reading the relevant literature for comprehension, the researcher will:

a.

critically appraise the studies.

b.

highlight the main points of the studies.

c.

make decisions about paraphrasing quotes.

d.

review the abstract only.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Critical appraisal involves making value judgments about the validity or credibility of the study content.

B

Comprehending a source begins by reading and focusing on understanding the main points of the article and can be achieved by highlighting the main points of the article.

C

Deciding what to paraphrase occurs later, just before writing the review.

D

Reviewing the abstract helps the researcher determine which articles are relevant but does not help with comprehension.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 180-181

26. A researcher performs a critical appraisal of a group of studies measuring the effects of a home care education program on confidence levels of caregivers of elderly family members. The critical appraisal will include:

a.

determining the theoretical frameworks used for defining confidence.

b.

identifying sampling and inclusion criteria used in the studies.

c.

making value judgments about the credibility and validity of concepts.

d.

recording quotations relevant to the concept of confidence.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

While identifying theoretical frameworks, identifying sampling techniques and inclusion criteria, and recording pertinent quotations are important, they are not part of the critical appraisal of studies.

B

While identifying theoretical frameworks, identifying sampling techniques and inclusion criteria, and recording pertinent quotations are important, they are not part of the critical appraisal of studies.

C

To critically appraise an article, relevant content is identified and value judgments are made about the validity and credibility of key concepts.

D

While identifying theoretical frameworks, identifying sampling techniques and inclusion criteria, and recording pertinent quotations are important, they are not part of the critical appraisal of studies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 180-181

27. To analyze a body of literature in a literature review the reviewer will:

a.

describe the findings of each study in the literature review.

b.

list the studies and itemize the findings of each one.

c.

make value judgments about the credibility of each study.

d.

synthesize and summarize findings from various studies.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

It is not enough to merely describe the findings or to list the information in each one.

B

It is not enough to merely describe the findings or to list the information in each one.

C

Making value judgments is part of the appraisal process.

D

Analysis requires synthesis and summarization of findings of the studies listed and an ability to manipulate the information by the reviewer.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 180-181

28. Which is most important in a critical appraisal of a body of literature?

a.

Counting the available resources to determine whether more information is necessary.

b.

Examining the quality and content of the resources to determine the credibility and validity of each.

c.

Reviewing the reference lists in each study to find other relevant studies and landmark studies.

d.

Searching the literature thoroughly using appropriate keywords to ensure that all relevant literature is included.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The literature search is important and must be thorough, but the critical appraisal depends on an evaluation of the quality and not the quantity of the available resources.

B

Critiquing the literature review of a published study involves examining the quality of the content and sources presented. This is more important than achieving an accurate count of available resources.

C

Reviewing the reference lists may be useful for determining whether other relevant studies exist, but it is not the most important aspect of a critical appraisal, which is an evaluation of the quality of studies available.

D

Searching the literature thoroughly using appropriate keywords to ensure that all relevant literature is included. may be useful for determining whether other relevant studies exist, but it is not the most important aspect of a critical appraisal, which is an evaluation of the quality of studies available

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 180-181

29. In a literature review, the author identifies themes present in articles under review and describes connections among these themes. This is an example of:

a.

analysis.

b.

appraisal.

c.

synthesis.

d.

theorizing.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Analysis requires manipulation of what is found, literally making it the authors own.

B

Appraisal involves identifying relevant content and determining the credibility or validity of the information.

C

Synthesis of sources involves thinking deeply about what has been found and identifying the main themes of the information.

D

Theorizing is part of developing the research question.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 180-182

30. A researcher reviews several articles about coping skills among parents of children with chronic illness and notes that half of the studies involved single-parent families. The researcher decides to examine whether coping skills differ in single-parent versus dual-parent households. The researcher is engaging in:

a.

analyzing.

b.

appraising.

c.

evaluating.

d.

synthesizing.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Analysis requires manipulation of what is found, literally making it the authors own.

B

Appraisal involves identifying relevant content and determining the credibility or validity of the information.

C

Evaluation involves reviewing the literature content and determining its relevance to the topic.

D

Synthesis of sources involves thinking deeply about what has been found and identifying the main themes of the information. In this case, the reviewer has discovered a variable that may affect the outcome of the studies.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: pp. 182-183

31. When developing the outline for a literature review, the researchers first step is to:

a.

describe the focus or purpose of the review in the discussion section.

b.

include a statement about what is known in the literature.

c.

make notes about which sources to site in each section.

d.

use a standardized format to outline subsections in the discussion section.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The introduction section includes the focus or purpose of the literature review.

B

The conclusion contains the statement about what is known in the literature.

C

An initial outline is the first step in writing the literature review and begins with determining the major sections for the paper and identifying the sources that will be used in each one.

D

The discussion section format will vary based on the topic.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 183-184

32. The concluding sentence of each paragraph in a literature review:

a.

describes relevant studies that support the theme of the paragraph.

b.

identifies the main themes of the paragraph.

c.

provides evidence to support the topic of the paragraph.

d.

transitions to the ideas expressed in the following paragraph.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The opening sentence identifies the main themes of the paragraph.

B

The sentences between the opening sentence and the concluding sentence describe relevant studies and provide evidence to support the paragraph topic.

C

The sentences between the opening sentence and the concluding sentence describe relevant studies and provide evidence to support the paragraph topic.

D

The concluding sentence in a paragraph in the literature review should transition to the ideas expressed in the following paragraph.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 183-184

33. When citing sources in a literature review, it is best if the author:

a.

paraphrases other authors ideas.

b.

points out any defects in other authors work.

c.

synthesizes the work of a group of authors.

d.

uses direct quotations as much as possible.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

When citing the work of other authors, the author of a literature review should paraphrase their words whenever possibleclearly, and in the reviewers own words.

B

It is important, in an analysis of the literature, to identify defects in other authors works, but this should be done with respect and without being highly critical.

C

Synthesis of others work is an important part of the literature review as well and involves paraphrasing and analysis.

D

Direct quotations should be avoided unless the author states something in a unique way.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 183-184

34. An author uses an electronic source in portable document format (PDF). Which is true about citing this source in a literature review?

a.

It is necessary to provide the URL used to retrieve the article electronically.

b.

It is not treated differently than a print version of the article.

c.

The original print article must be located.

d.

The page numbers will not be available for citation.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Providing the URL for such an article is not helpful in this case.

B

When retrieving a PDF document, the source is cited as if a copy of the print version of the article had been used.

C

It is not necessary to locate the original print article when a PDF article is used.

D

A PDF article is the same as a print article and will have page numbers for citation.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 184

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