Chapter 05: Violence Against Women My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 05: Violence Against Women

Lowdermilk: Maternity & Womens Health Care, 11th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Historically, what was the justification for the victimization of women?

a.

Women were regarded as possessions.

b.

Women were the weaker sex.

c.

Control of women was necessary to protect them.

d.

Women were created subordinate to men.

ANS: A

Misogyny, patriarchy, devaluation of women, power imbalance, a view of women as property, gender-role stereotyping, and acceptance of aggressive male behaviors as appropriate contributed and continue to contribute to the subordinate status of women in many of the worlds societies. Viewing women as the weaker sex is a cultural and modern stereotype that contributes to the victimization of women. Control of women to protect them is another cultural and modern stereotype that contributes to the victimization of women. Yet another cultural stereotype that contributes to the victimization of women is the idea that women were created as subordinate to men.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: pp. 98-99

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. What is the primary theme of the feminist perspective regarding violence against women?

a.

Role of testosterone as the underlying cause of mens violent behavior

b.

Basic human instinctual drive toward aggression

c.

Male dominance and coercive control over women

d.

Cultural norm of violence in Western society

ANS: C

The contemporary social view of violence is derived from the feminist theory. With the primary theme of male dominance and coercive control, this view enhances an understanding of all forms of violence against women, including wife battering, stranger and acquaintance rape, incest, and sexual harassment in the workplace. The role of testosterone as an underlying cause of mens violent behavior, the basic human instinctual drive toward aggression, and the cultural norm of violence in Western society are not associated with the feminist perspective regarding violence against women.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: p. 100

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. Which trait is least likely to be displayed by a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV)?

a.

Socially isolated

b.

Assertive personality

c.

Struggling with depression

d.

Dependent partner in a relationship

ANS: B

Every segment of society is represented among women who are suffering abuse. However, traits of assertiveness, independence, and willingness to take a stand have been documented as more characteristic of women who are in nonviolent relationships. Women who are financially more dependent have fewer resources and support systems, exhibit symptoms of depression, and are more often seen as victims.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: pp. 101-102

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. A woman who is 6 months pregnant has sought medical attention, saying she fell down the stairs. What scenario would cause an emergency department nurse to suspect that the woman has been a victim of IPV?

a.

The woman and her partner are having an argument that is loud and hostile.

b.

The woman has injuries on various parts of her body that are in different stages of healing.

c.

Examination reveals a fractured arm and fresh bruises.

d.

She avoids making eye contact and is hesitant to answer questions.

ANS: B

The client may have multiple injuries in various stages of healing that indicates a pattern of violence. An argument is not always an indication of battering. A fractured arm and fresh bruises could be caused by the reported fall and do not necessarily indicate IPV. It may be normal for the woman to be reticent and have a dull affect.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 107

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

5. Which statement is most accurate regarding the reporting of IPV in the United States?

a.

Asian women report more IPV than do other minority groups.

b.

Caucasian women report less IPV than do non-Caucasians.

c.

Native-American women report IPV at a rate similar to other groups.

d.

African-American women are less likely to report IPV than Caucasian women.

ANS: B

Caucasian women report less IPV than other ethnic groups. Asian women report significantly less IPV than do other racial groups. Native-American and Alaska Native women report significantly more IPV than do women of any other racial background. African-American women tend to report violence at a slightly higher rate than Caucasian women.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 103

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

6. Intervention for the sexual abuse survivor is often not attempted by maternity and womens health nurses because of the concern about increasing the distress of the woman and the lack of expertise in counseling. What initial intervention is appropriate and most important in facilitating the womans care?

a.

Initiating a referral to an expert counselor

b.

Setting limits on what the client discloses

c.

Listening and encouraging therapeutic communication skills

d.

Acknowledging the nurses discomfort to the client as an expression of empathy

ANS: C

The survivor needs support on many different levels, and a womens health nurse may be the first person to whom she relates her story. Therapeutic communication skills and listening are initial interventions. Referring this client to a counselor is an appropriate measure but not the most important initial intervention. A client should be allowed to disclose any information she feels the need to discuss. A nurse should provide a safe environment in which she can do so. Either verbal or nonverbal shock and horror reactions from the nurse are particularly devastating. Professional demeanor and professional empathy are essential.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 107

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

7. A young woman arrives at the emergency department and states that she thinks she has been raped. She is sobbing and expresses disbelief that this could happen because the perpetrator was a very close friend. Which statement is most appropriate at this time?

a.

Rape is not limited to strangers and frequently occurs by someone who is known to the victim.

b.

I would be very upset if my best friend did that to me; that is very unusual.

c.

You must feel very betrayed. In what way do you think you might have led him on?

d.

This does not sound like rape. Didnt you just change your mind about having sex after the fact?

ANS: A

Acquaintance rape involves individuals who know one another. Sexual assault occurs when the trust of a relationship is violated. Victims may be less prone to recognize what is happening to them because the dynamics are different from those of stranger rape. It is not at all unusual for the victim to know and trust the perpetrator. Stating that the woman might have led the man to attack her indicates that the sexual assault was somehow the victims fault. This type of mentality is not constructive. Nurses must first reflect on their own feelings and learn to be unbiased when dealing with victims. A statement of this type can be very psychologically damaging to the victim. Nurses must display compassion by first believing what the victim states. The nurse is not responsible for deciphering the facts involving the victims claim.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 107

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. Nurses are often the first health care professional with whom a woman comes into contact after being sexually assaulted. Which statement best describes the initial care of a rape victim?

a.

All legal evidence is preserved during the physical examination.

b.

The victim appreciates the legal information; however, decides not to pursue legal proceedings.

c.

The victim states that she is going to advocate against sexual violence.

d.

The victim leaves the health care facility without feeling re-victimized.

ANS: D

Nurses can assist clients through an examination that is as nontraumatic as possible with kindness, skill, and empathy. The initial care of the victim affects her recovery and decision to receive follow-up care. Preservation of all legal evidence is very important; however, this may not be the best measure in terms of evaluating the care of a rape victim. Offering legal information is not the best measure of evaluating the care that this victim received. The victim may well decide not to pursue legal proceedings. Advocating against sexual violence may be extremely therapeutic for the client after her initial recovery but not a measure of evaluating her care.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: pp. 112-113 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

9. When the nurse is alone with a battered client, the client seems extremely anxious and says, It was all my fault. The house was so messy when he got home, and I know he hates that. What is the most suitable response by the nurse?

a.

No one deserves to be hurt. Its not your fault. How can I help you?

b.

What else do you do that makes him angry enough to hurt you?

c.

He will never find out what we talk about. Dont worry. Were here to help you.

d.

You have to remember that he is frustrated and angry so he takes it out on you.

ANS: A

The nurse should stress that the client is not at fault. Asking what the client did to make her husband angry is placing the blame on the woman and would be an inappropriate statement. The nurse should not provide false reassurance. To assist the woman, the nurse should be honest. Often the batterer will find out about the conversation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 107

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

10. Nurses who provide care to victims of IPV should be keenly aware of what?

a.

Relationship violence usually consists of a single episode that the couple can put behind them.

b.

Violence often declines or ends with pregnancy.

c.

Financial coercion is considered part of IPV.

d.

Battered women are generally poorly educated and come from a deprived social background.

ANS: C

Economic coercion may accompany physical assault and psychologic attacks. IPV almost always follows an escalating pattern. It rarely ends with a single episode of violence. IPV often begins with and escalates during pregnancy. It may include both psychologic attacks and economic coercion. Race, religion, social background, age, and education level are not significant factors in differentiating women at risk.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 98

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

11. In 1979, Lenore Walker pioneered the cause of women as victims of violence when she published her book The Battered Woman. While Walker conducted her research, she found a similar pattern of abuse among many of the women. This concept is now referred to as the cycle of violence. Which phase does not belong in this three-cycle pattern of violence?

a.

Tension-building state

b.

Frustration, followed by violence

c.

Acute battering incident

d.

Kindness and contrite, loving behavior

ANS: B

Frustration, followed by violence, is not part of the cycle of violence. The tension-building state is also known as phase I of the cycle. The batterer expresses dissatisfaction and hostility with violent outbursts. The woman senses anger and anxiously tries to placate him. An acute battering incident is phase II of the cycle. It results in the mans uncontrollable discharge of tension toward the woman. Outbursts can last from several hours to several days and may involve kicking, punching, slapping, choking, burns, broken bones, and the use of weapons. Phase III of the cycle is sometimes referred to as the honeymoon, kindness and contrite, and loving behavior phase, during which the batterer feels remorseful and profusely apologizes. He tries to help the woman and often showers her with gifts.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 99 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. Nurses must remember that pregnancy is a time of risk for all women. Which condition is likely the biggest risk for the pregnant client?

a.

Preeclampsia

b.

IPV

c.

Diabetes

d.

Abnormal Pap test

ANS: B

The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy is estimated at 6% of all pregnant women. The risk for IPV and even IPV-related homicide is more common than all of the other pregnancy-related conditions. Although preeclampsia poses a risk to the health of the pregnant client, it is less common than IPV. Gestational diabetes continues to be a complication of pregnancy; however, it is less common than IPV during pregnancy. Some women are at risk for an abnormal Pap screening during pregnancy, but this finding is not as common as IPV.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 105 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. In the 1970s, the rape-trauma syndrome (RTS) was identified as a cluster of symptoms and related behaviors observed in the weeks and months after an episode of rape. Researchers identified three phases related to this condition. Which phase is not displayed in a client with RTS?

a.

Acute Phase: Disorganization

b.

Outward Adjustment Phase

c.

Shock/Disbelief: Disorientation Phase

d.

Long-Term Process: Reorganization Phase

ANS: C

Shock, disbelief, or disorientation is a component of the Acute Phase. The rape survivor feels embarrassed, degraded, fearful, and angry. She may feel unclean and want to bathe and douche repeatedly, even though doing so may destroy evidence. The victim relives the scene over and over in her mind, thinking of things she should have done. During the Outward Adjustment Phase, the victim may appear to have resolved her crisis and return to activities of daily living and work. Other women may move, leave their job, and buy a weapon to protect themselves. Disorientation is a reaction during which the victim may feel disoriented, have difficulty concentrating, or have poor recall. The Long-Term Process is the reorganization phase. This recovery phase may take years and may be difficult and painful.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: pp. 111-112

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. Documentation of abuse can be useful to women later in court, should they elect to press charges. It is of key importance for the nurse to document accurately at the time that the client is seen. Which entry into the medical record would be the least helpful to the court?

a.

Photographs of injuries

b.

Clear and legible written documentation

c.

Summary of information (e.g., The client is a battered woman.)

d.

Accurate description of the clients demeanor

ANS: C

A statement such as, The client is a battered woman lacks the supporting factual information and will render the report inadmissible. More appropriate documentation would include exact statements from the woman in quotations (e.g., My husband kicked me in the stomach). The time and date of the examination should also be included.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 107

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

15. Which statement regarding human trafficking is correct?

a.

Human trafficking is a multibillion-dollar business that primarily exists in the United States.

b.

Victims often experience the Stockholm syndrome.

c.

Vast majority of the victims are young boys and girls.

d.

Human trafficking primarily refers to commercial sex work.

ANS: B

Although victims of sex trafficking can be young boys and girls, the vast majority are women and girls. They are often lured by false promises, such as a job or marriage, sold by their parents, or kidnapped by traffickers. These individuals are forced into sex work, hard labor, and organ donation. This $32 billion business exists in the United States and internationally. The Stockholm syndrome occurs when the slaves become attached to their enslavers. Health care professionals may interact with victims who are in captivity should they require emergent health care. The nurse is challenged to find an opportunity to speak with the client alone and assess for victimization.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 115

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. Which statement is the most comprehensive description of sexual violence?

a.

Sexual violence is limited to rape.

b.

Sexual violence is an act of force during which an unwanted and uncomfortable sexual act occurs.

c.

Sexual violence encompasses a number of sexual acts.

d.

Sexual violence includes degrading sexual comments and behaviors.

ANS: C

Sexual violence is a broad term that includes a range of sexual victimization including sexual assault, sexual harassment, and rape. It may include but is not limited to rape. Sexual assault includes unwanted or uncomfortable touches, kisses, hugs, petting, intercourse, or other sexual acts. It is a component of sexual violence. Unwelcome or degrading e-mail messages, comments, contact, or behavior, such as exhibitionism, that makes any environment feel unsafe is known as sexual harassment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 110

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. Women with severe and persistent mental illness are likely to be more vulnerable to being involved in controlling and/or violent relationships; however, many women develop mental health problems as a result of long-term abuse. Which condition is unlikely to be a psychologic consequence of continued abuse?

a.

Substance abuse

b.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

c.

Eating disorders

d.

Bipolar disorder

ANS: D

Bipolar disorder is a specific illness (also known as manic depressive disorder) not related to abuse. Substance abuse is a common method of coping with long-term abuse. The abuser is also more likely to use alcohol and other chemical substances. PTSD is the most prevalent mental health sequela of long-term abuse. The traumatic event is persistently re-experienced through distress recollection and dreams. Eating disorders, depression, psychologic-physiologic illness, and anxiety reactions are all mental health problems associated with repeated abuse.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: pp. 99-100 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The nurse who is evaluating the client for potential abuse should be aware that IPV includes a number of different forms of abuse, including which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Physical

b.

Sexual

c.

Emotional

d.

Psychologic

e.

Financial

ANS: A, B, D, E

Physical, sexual, financial, and psychologic abuse can all be components in a relationship with IPV. Emotional abuse is a form of psychologic abuse.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 98

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial and Physiologic Integrity

2. What are some common characteristics of a potential male batterer? (Select all that apply.)

a.

High level of self-esteem

b.

High frustration tolerance

c.

Substance abuse problems

d.

Excellent verbal skills

e.

Personality disorders

ANS: C, E

Substance abuse and personality disorders are often observed in batterers. Typically, the batterer has low self-esteem. Batterers usually have a low frustration level (i.e., they easily lose their temper). Batterers characteristically have poor verbal skills and can especially have difficulty expressing their feelings.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: p. 100 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. Which nursing diagnoses would be most applicable for battered women? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Loss of trust

b.

Ineffective family coping

c.

Situational low self-esteem

d.

Risk for self-directed violence

e.

Enhanced communication

ANS: A, B, C, D

Loss of trust, ineffective family coping, situational low self-esteem, and risk for self-directed violence are potential nursing diagnoses associated with battered women. A more appropriate nursing diagnosis for a battered woman would be impaired communication.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 108 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. A thorough abuse assessment screen should be completed on all female clients. This screen should include which components? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Asking the client if she has ever been slapped, kicked, punched, or physically hurt by her partner

b.

Asking the client if she is afraid of her partner

c.

Asking the client if she has been forced to perform sexual acts

d.

Diagramming the clients current injuries on a body map

e.

Asking the client what she did wrong to elicit the abuse

ANS: A, B, C, D

Asking the client if she has been slapped, kicked, punched, or physically hurt by her partner, if she is afraid of her partner, or if she has been forced to perform sexual acts are questions that should be posed to all clients. If any physical injuries are present, then they should be marked on a form that indicates their locations on the body. Implying that a client did something wrong can be very emotionally damaging. Many victims of violence are not aware that they are in an abusive relationship. They may not respond to questions about abuse. Using general descriptive words such as slap, kick, or punch to elicit information is best.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: p. 106

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

5. What are the responsibilities of the nurse who suspects or confirms any type of violence against a woman? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Report the incident to legal authorities.

b.

Provide resources for domestic violence shelters.

c.

Call a client advocate who can assist in the clients decision about what actions to take.

d.

Accurately and concisely document the incident (or findings) in the clients record.

e.

Reassure and support the client.

ANS: B, C, D, E

Domestic violence is considered a crime in all states; however, mandatory reporting remains controversial. Nurses must become knowledgeable on the laws that apply in the state in which they practice. Caring for a client who may be a victim of domestic abuse is an ideal opportunity to provide the woman with information for safe houses or support groups for herself and her children. The nurse may assist in reaching out to a client advocate, which often occurs when potential legal action is taken or if the woman is seeking shelter. Documentation must be accurate and timely to be useful to the client later in court if she chooses to press charges. The primary functions for the nurse are to reassure the client and to provide her with emotional support.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: p. 107

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

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