Chapter 05: Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 05: Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The most important initial step when developing a research study is to:

a.

develop the problem statement.

b.

explore the background for the research problem.

c.

identify the research problem.

d.

state the research purpose.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.

B

The background for the research problem is written to identify what is known about the research problem.

C

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

D

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 131

2. A nursing researcher determines that there is little information about the use of complementary practices in treating obesity. This represents the research:

a.

design.

b.

problem.

c.

purpose.

d.

significance.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The research design is the type of study that will be conducted to study the research problem.

B

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

C

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

D

The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified. The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 131-132

3. When writing a proposal for a research study, the researcher includes a problem statement that serves to:

a.

define the specific focus of a study.

b.

describe what is known about the research problem.

c.

identify a gap in knowledge needed for practice.

d.

indicate the importance of the problem to nursing.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

B

The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.

C

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

D

The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 131-132

4. In a research proposal, the researcher states that the proposed study will explore childrens feelings about chemotherapy side effects. This statement describes the:

a.

problem background.

b.

problem significance.

c.

research problem.

d.

research purpose.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.

B

The significance of the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.

C

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

D

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 131-132

5. Which is included in a statement of a research study purpose?

a.

A description of gaps in knowledge about the research problem.

b.

A discussion of the significance of the research problem.

c.

A review of what is known about the research problem.

d.

A statement about how the research problem will be studied.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

B

The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.

C

The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.

D

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 131-132

6. The statement in the introduction of a research study reportwhile children who have higher asthma control scores tend to have fewer emergency department visits for asthma exacerbations, it is unclear how nursing interventions can impact these scoresrepresents the:

a.

problem background.

b.

problem significance.

c.

research problem.

d.

research purpose.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.

B

The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline and to health care and the health of individuals and families.

C

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

D

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: pp. 131-132

7. The statements in the introductory paragraphs of a research report that cite results of previous studies about a research problem represent the:

a.

problem background.

b.

problem significance.

c.

problem statement.

d.

research purpose.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.

B

The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline and to health care and the health of individuals and families.

C

The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.

D

The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 132

8. Which statement is a research purpose for a correlational study?

a.

This study will compare the effects of an oral antidiabetic medication to effects of a placebo on glucose control in groups of randomly assigned subjects.

b.

This study will examine whether pre-appointment telephone reminders increase show rate among patients in an ambulatory well-patient clinic.

c.

This study will use direct observation to identify methods parents use to discipline children in public places.

d.

This study will use questionnaires and school transcripts to examine the relationship of dietary habits to grades among school-age children.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

A study looking at the effects of an experimental intervention on randomly assigned subjects to affect a specific outcome is an experimental study.

B

A study to look at the effects of an intervention on an outcome is a quasi-experimental study.

C

A study to observe and describe behaviors without examining relationships among variables and without manipulation of the variables by researchers is a descriptive study.

D

Correlational research is conducted to examine whether there is a positive or negative relationship among variables without attributing cause and effect.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 134

9. The nurse researcher states that a research purpose is to measure the effects of bar code medication administration on medication errors. This is a study purpose for which type of research?

a.

Correlational

b.

Grounded theory

c.

Outcomes

d.

Quasi-experimental

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Correlational research is conducted to determine whether there are relationships among variables.

B

Grounded theory research is designed to determine how theory explains phenomena being studied.

C

Outcomes studies are conducted to examine the end results of care.

D

Quasi-experimental research requires some manipulation of variables and comparison of groups.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 140

10. Which statement in a study about preoperative education and postoperative recovery times represents a research question?

a.

What are the types of preoperative education materials that may be used?

b.

What are the constructs that facilitate adult learning among patients?

c.

What preoperative teaching will shorten postoperative recovery time?

d.

What is already known about preoperative teaching and postoperative recovery?

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The characteristic of a variable is given in the operational definition.

B

The theoretical framework identifies constructs and theories about the research study.

C

A research question focuses on description of variables or concepts, examination of relationships among variables, and determination of differences between two or more groups regarding selected variables.

D

The background about what is already known about the topic for conducting is described in the literature review.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 147

11. What type of hypothesis is the following?

Children with cystic fibrosis who use a cough assist device will experience less anxiety about their disease and have fewer inpatient hospital admissions per year.

a.

Complex, directional

b.

Complex, null

c.

Simple, associative

d.

Simple, nondirectional

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. In this example, the variables are cough assist devices (independent), hospital admissions (dependent), and anxiety (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature of the interaction between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is indicated by the prediction experience less anxiety.

B

A complex hypothesis is correct, but the null hypothesis predicts no difference.

C

This study has more than two variables (not simple) and indicates a direction and not just an association.

D

A simple hypothesis has only two variables (this study has more than two), and there is a direction predicted (experiencing less anxiety and having fewer inpatient hospital admissions).

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: pp. 149-150

12. A statement about the significance of a study describes the:

a.

influence of results on nursing practice.

b.

relationship among study variables.

c.

study design and methods.

d.

validity of the study measurement tools.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The statement about the significance of the study identifies its importance to the body of knowledge and to nursing practice.

B

The research purpose and research question identify proposed relationships among study variables.

C

The study design and methods describe the type of study, sampling techniques, and tools used to evaluate data.

D

The validity of measurement tools is determined by whether the tools measure what they claim to measure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 140-141

13. A reviewer assesses a potential researchers credentials and experience, the availability of funding and resources, and ethical considerations of a potential study. This represents evaluation of a studys:

a.

expertise.

b.

feasibility.

c.

purpose.

d.

significance.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Expertise refers to the researchers qualifications, credentials, and experience.

B

The feasibility of a study is determined by examining the researchers qualifications, the funding and resources available to conduct the study, the availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment, and ethical considerations.

C

The study purpose identifies the focus and goals of the study.

D

The significance identifies the importance of the study to the body of knowledge and to practice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 143-144

14. Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis:

Mothers of infants born with spina bifida who participate in support groups report higher levels of confidence when caring for their infants than do mothers who do not participate in support groups.

a.

Confidence in caring for their infants

b.

Infants with spina bifida

c.

Mothers of infants with spina bifida

d.

Support group participation

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Infants with spina bifida is part of the criteria for inclusion in the study.

B

The level of confidence in caring for their infants is the dependent variable. It is measured as a response to whether or not the mothers received the treatment of using a support group.

C

The mothers of infants with spina bifida are criteria for inclusion as subjects in the study and are not variables.

D

An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, use of support groups is the treatment that is being used to manipulate levels of confidence in caring for their infants.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: pp. 153-154

15. In a research proposal, the author describes what is already known about the research topic. This would be included in the discussion of the studys:

a.

background.

b.

feasibility.

c.

purpose.

d.

significance.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The background section describes research about the problem performed to date.

B

In the section about a studys feasibility, the researchers expertise, funding resources, availability of subjects and settings, and ethical considerations are examined.

C

The research purpose identifies specific goals and the focus of the study.

D

The studys significance discusses the importance of the study to the discipline.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 143-144

16. Which component of a research study is exemplified in the statement, This study identifies various themes associated with parenting children who have chronic disease?

a.

Aim or objective

b.

Hypothesis

c.

Research methodology

d.

Research problem

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A research objective or aim is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the present tense and which focuses on one or two variables, indicating whether they are to be identified or described.

B

The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables.

C

The research methodology identifies sampling and measurement techniques.

D

The research problem identifies gaps in knowledge.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 145-146

17. The statement, Do patients who receive care in a Patient-Centered Medical Home have fewer emergency department visits than those who do not? is an example of a research:

a.

aim.

b.

hypothesis.

c.

method.

d.

question.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The research objective or aim is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the present tense and which focuses on one or two variables, indicating whether they are to be identified or described.

B

The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables.

C

The research methodology identifies sampling and measurement techniques.

D

A research question is a concise interrogative statement that is worded in the present tense, includes one or more variables, and guides the implementation of studies by asking whether or not there is a relationship between the variables.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 147-148

18. All of the following aspects of a research proposal are part of the research hypothesis except:

a.

methodology.

b.

outcomes.

c.

population.

d.

variables.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The methodology is not described in the research hypothesis statement.

B

The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables. It will mention the expected outcomes, the population being studied, and the specific variables.

C

The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables. It will mention the expected outcomes, the population being studied, and the specific variables.

D

The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables. It will mention the expected outcomes, the population being studied, and the specific variables.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 149-150

19. In a study comparing the effects of complementary therapies on pain scores and narcotic analgesic use in homeless women and women who own homes, which of the following is a demographic variable?

a.

Complementary therapies

b.

Homeless women

c.

Narcotic analgesic use

d.

Pain scores

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Complementary therapy is the independent variable.

B

Demographic variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample.

C

Narcotic analgesic use and pain scores are dependent variables.

D

Pain scores are a dependent variable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 157

20. The statement, In this study, elevated blood glucose is a value greater than 110 mg/dL, is an example of a(n):

a.

associative hypothesis.

b.

conceptual definition.

c.

operational definition.

d.

problem statement.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A hypothesis indicates the researchers educated guess at what the outcome of the research will be. An associative hypothesis describes a predicted relationship that the researcher develops between the established variables being studied. This statement is an operational definition, not a hypothesis.

B

A conceptual definition is the theoretical meaning of a variable.

C

An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be measured or manipulated in a concrete situation. In this example, pain is the sensory impression being measured on a numerical scale.

D

The problem statement indicates the gap in knowledge needed for practice and provides a basis for the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 155

21. Which is true about a causal hypothesis?

a.

It describes the effects of independent variables on dependent variables.

b.

It predicts a negative or positive interaction between variables.

c.

It proposes positive or negative relationships among variables.

d.

It states that a relationship exists between variables without indicating direction.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A causal hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect interaction between two or more variables.

B

An associative hypothesis states that a relationship exists among variables.

C

A correlational hypothesis proposes negative or positive interactions between variables.

D

A causal hypothesis indicates direction.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 149-150

22. Which is an example of a directional, correlational hypothesis?

a.

Increasing hours spent in study groups is associated with an increase in GPA among nursing students.

b.

Increased use of study groups will result in an increase in GPA among nursing students.

c.

Nursing students who use study groups are among groups of students who have higher GPAs.

d.

Studying in study groups is related to GPA levels in nursing students.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A directional hypothesis states whether a positive or negative interaction will occur between variables. A correlational hypothesis indicates an association without attributing cause.

B

Stating that increased use of study groups will result in increased GPA makes this statement a cause-and-effect hypothesis.

C

The third and fourth statements are nondirectional because they do not state whether or not there is a positive or negative interaction.

D

The third and fourth statements are nondirectional because they do not state whether or not there is a positive or negative interaction.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 149-151

23. The statistical (null) hypothesis in a research study states that there is:

a.

a causal relationship between variables.

b.

a statistically significant relationship between variables.

c.

an implied relationship between variables.

d.

no relationship between variables.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Any hypothesis stating a statistically significant relationship, an implied relationship, or a causal relationship among variables is a research hypothesis.

B

Any hypothesis stating a statistically significant relationship, an implied relationship, or a causal relationship among variables is a research hypothesis.

C

Any hypothesis stating a statistically significant relationship, an implied relationship, or a causal relationship among variables is a research hypothesis.

D

The null hypothesis is the converse of the research hypothesis and states that there is no relationship among variables.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: pp. 150-151

24. Which is an important feature of a testable hypothesis?

a.

It may differ from the variables and population identified in the research purpose.

b.

Methods of sampling, measurement, and data analysis are included in the hypothesis statement.

c.

Relationships among the study variables must be causative.

d.

Variables in a testable hypothesis are measurable or able to be manipulated.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Variables stated in a research hypothesis are those identified in the research purpose.

B

The testable hypothesis does not identify methodological points to avoid limiting the hypothesis to those methods.

C

Relationships in a testable hypothesis may be associative or correlational.

D

A testable hypothesis is one that clearly predicts the relationships among variables and contains variables that are measurable or able to be manipulated in a study.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 152

25. Which statement differentiates research variables from research concepts?

a.

Concepts are more abstract than variables.

b.

Concepts are usually studied in quantitative research.

c.

Variables are less subject to manipulation and measurement.

d.

Variables cannot be concisely defined or clearly described.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Concepts are more abstract than variables and are usually studied in qualitative research.

B

Concepts are more abstract than variables and are usually studied in qualitative research.

C

Variables are qualities, properties, or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that can be manipulated, and measured.

D

Variables are qualities, properties, or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that change or vary and can be concisely defined, and described.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:pp. 153-154| p. 156

26. A researcher wishes to study the effects of a low-fat diet on self-esteem, weight, and energy levels among obese women over age 40. Which is the independent variable in this study?

a.

Low-fat diet

b.

Obesity

c.

Self-esteem, weight, and energy levels

d.

Women over 40

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The independent variable in a study is the variable that can be manipulated to determine whether a specific outcome or result is achieved.

B

Obesity and women over 40 are demographic variables.

C

Self-esteem, weight, and energy levels are dependent variables, based on the presence or absence of the independent variable.

D

Obesity and women over 40 are demographic variables.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 153

27. Which is true about a dependent variable in a research study? It is:

a.

manipulated by the researcher to test the research hypothesis.

b.

the cause of changes in other variables in a research study.

c.

the experimental variable in a research study.

d.

the outcome the researcher wishes to predict.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Changes in the dependent variable are presumed to be caused by the independent variables.

B

The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and is presumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.

C

The independent variable is also referred to as the experimental variable.

D

The dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher wishes to predict or explain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 153

28. Which type of variable is used in a descriptive study?

a.

Dependent variable

b.

Independent variable

c.

Research variable

d.

Treatment variable

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher wishes to predict or explain.

B

The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and is presumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.

C

Research variables are the qualities, properties, or characteristics identified in a descriptive or correlational study.

D

The independent variable is sometimes called the treatment variable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 153

29. During a study to measure the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, the researchers learned that a portion of the subjects lived in homes with one or more alcoholic parents. In this study, the presence of an alcoholic parent is a(n):

a.

confounding variable.

b.

dependent variable.

c.

independent variable.

d.

unrecognized variable.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A confounding variable is an extraneous variable that is not recognized until the study is in process or is recognized before beginning the study, but cannot be controlled.

B

The dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher wishes to predict or explain.

C

The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and is presumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.

D

An unrecognized variable is a type of extraneous variable that is not noted during the study, but may or may not influence the outcome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 153

30. To reduce or eliminate the influence of environmental variables on study results, the researcher may:

a.

completely describe all environmental settings encountered in the study.

b.

discuss these variables in the study results.

c.

use a research unit in a hospital or laboratory.

d.

use a qualitative study design to conduct the study.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Describing the environmental variables or discussing them in the study results does not eliminate the influence of the environment on the study outcomes.

B

Describing the environmental variables or discussing them in the study results does not eliminate the influence of the environment on the study outcomes.

C

Environmental variables are a type of extraneous variable present in the setting in which the study is conducted. In order to control for environment, the researcher will use a laboratory setting or a research unit in a hospital.

D

Using a qualitative study design noes not eliminate the influence of the environment on study outcomes.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 153

31. Which is an example of a conceptual definition of a dependent variable in a study evaluating the effects of home nursing on coping among patients with chronic illness?

a.

Coping is a set of actions and strategies used by individuals to reduce the stressors associated with chronic disease management.

b.

Coping skills were measured using a five-point Likert scale with higher scores indicating higher coping skills.

c.

Home nursing can include registered nurse and nursing assistant management of treatments provided at home.

d.

Home nursing was measured in the number of hours per week and the number of hours per day of in-home care.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A conceptual definition provides the theoretical meaning of a variable. The dependent variable in this study is coping.

B

Operational definitions describe the actions the researcher will take to identify the characteristics of the variable.

C

Home nursing is the independent variable in this study.

D

Home nursing is the independent variable in this study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 155

32. Which is true about an operational variable in quantitative research?

a.

It is developed so that the degree of its existence can be measured.

b.

It is often derived from a theoretical definition of a related concept.

c.

It is specific to the time and setting of the research study.

d.

It provides the theoretical meaning of a variable.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable.

B

The conceptual definition is derived from the theoretical definition of a related concept.

C

Operational definitions need to be independent of time and setting.

D

The conceptual definition provides theoretical meaning for a variable.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 155

33. In a qualitative study, which is true about the definition of research concepts?

a.

They are measureable variables that help illustrate theoretical concepts.

b.

They are often defined or described as a result of the study.

c.

They are written to provide a concise measure of theoretical concepts.

d.

They must be clearly described to proceed with the study.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Unlike variables in a quantitative study, they usually are not easily measured.

B

In many qualitative studies, the focus of the study is to define or describe the concept.

C

They are developed as the study unfolds and do not have to be clearly described in order to proceed with the study.

D

They are developed as the study unfolds and do not have to be clearly described in order to proceed with the study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 156

34. Which type of variable is used in a summary of sample characteristics?

a.

Demographic variables

b.

Dependent variables

c.

Independent variables

d.

Research variables

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Demographic variables are attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample.

B

Dependent variables are variables that change as a result of manipulation of the independent variable.

C

Independent variables are variables that are manipulated to observe effects on dependent variables.

D

Research variables are variables used in qualitative studies.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 157

35. Which is true about a statement of the research purpose?

a.

It describes the background for the subject of the research study.

b.

It includes a discussion of the significance of the study.

c.

It includes the research problem statement.

d.

It provides a concise description of the studys focus.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The review of the literature provides background for the subject of a research study.

B

The studys significance is a part of the overall purpose of the study.

C

The research problem statement is a separate statement and includes a discussion of the studys significance.

D

The research purpose is a concise, clear statement of the specific goal of focus of the study.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 158

36. An examination of the researchers plan for using measurement tools to examine relationships among variables helps determine the:

a.

research hypothesis.

b.

research objectives.

c.

study feasibility.

d.

study purpose.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The research hypothesis is determined through the research question and is a statement about the relationship among the research variables.

B

The research objectives are identified in the research purpose.

C

The study feasibility is determined by the researchers expertise, the available funding, measurement tools and sample population availability, and ethical considerations.

D

The study purpose is a statement identifying what will be measured in a particular study.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 158

37. Which is true about a research hypothesis?

a.

It defines the various research variables and describes how they will be measured.

b.

It explains the relationship of the research purpose to theory development.

c.

It includes the research problem, purpose, and research questions.

d.

It links the research problem statement to the study design and data analysis.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

The problem statement can link the research purpose to theory development.

B

The introduction contains the research problem, purpose, and research questions.

C

The research purpose links the problem statement to the study design and data analysis.

D

The research hypothesis is the formal statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables in a specified population.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 158

38. In a research proposal, a statement about expected relationships among variables is the:

a.

conceptual definition.

b.

operational definition.

c.

research hypothesis.

d.

research problem.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The conceptual definition is derived from the theoretical definition of a related concept and provides theoretical meaning for a variable.

B

An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable.

C

The research hypothesis is the formal statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables in a specified population.

D

The research problem identifies gaps in knowledge.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 158

39. Which type of variable is manipulated by the researcher?

a.

Demographic

b.

Dependent

c.

Independent

d.

Research

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Demographic variables are attributes of members of a sample population.

B

The dependent variable is the outcome variable and is the variable researchers wish to predict based on manipulation of the independent variable.

C

The independent, or experimental variable, is manipulated by the researcher in order to observe possible effects on the dependent variable.

D

A research variable is used in qualitative studies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 158

40. In a study of adolescent children using a group of high school football players and junior-high school cyclists, researchers compared the length of recovery from concussion between those wearing brand X helmets and those wearing brand Y helmets. In this study high school football players represent which type of variable?

a.

Demographic

b.

Dependent

c.

Independent

d.

Research

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Demographic variables are attributes of members of a sample population.

B

The dependent variable is the outcome variable and is the variable researchers wish to predict based on manipulation of the independent variable.

C

The independent, or experimental variable, is manipulated by the researcher in order to observe possible effects on the dependent variable.

D

A research variable is used in qualitative studies.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 157

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