Chapter 04: Carbohydrates My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 04: Carbohydrates

Grodner and Escott-Stump: Nutritional Foundations and Clinical Application: A Nursing Approach, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The primary function of carbohydrates in the body is to provide

a.

sweetness.

b.

satiety.

c.

energy.

d.

dietary fiber.

ANS: C

The most important function of carbohydrates in the body is to provide energy. Unrefined sources of carbohydrate do provide dietary fiber, but refined carbohydrates do not. Similarly, unrefined carbohydrates may add to satiety, but refined carbohydrates contribute less to satiety than do protein and fat. Simple carbohydrates provide sweetness; this is pleasant but not essential to the body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: Page 51 | Page 54 | Pages 58-59 | Pages 64-66

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

2. Fructose, galactose, and glucose are examples of

a.

disaccharides.

b.

polysaccharides.

c.

monosaccharides.

d.

complex carbohydrates.

ANS: C

Fructose, galactose, and glucose each consist of a single unit of carbohydrate and are therefore monosaccharides. Disaccharides consist of two carbohydrate units; polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates consist of several carbohydrate units.

DIF:Cognitive Level: RememberingREFages 53-54 | Page 58

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

3. The sweetness in a banana comes mostly from

a.

fructose and sucrose.

b.

fructose and glucose.

c.

glucose and maltose.

d.

maltose and sucrose.

ANS: A

The most common sugars found naturally in fruits such as a banana are fructose and sucrose. It may also contain some glucose, but this contributes less to the sweetness. Fructose is the sweetest of the sugars, and so it contributes most to the sweetness. Maltose is found only in germinating grains or as a product of partial starch digestion in the gut.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 53-54 | Pages 58-59

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

4. A blood glucose level of 60 mg/dL is considered to be

a.

inconclusive.

b.

representative of hypoglycemia.

c.

representative of normoglycemia.

d.

representative of hyperglycemia.

ANS: B

The normal range for blood glucose level is 70 to 100 mg/dL. Therefore, 60 mg/dL is considered to represent hypoglycemia.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREFage 57

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

5. In comparison with table sugar (sucrose), honey tastes _____ because it contains _____.

a.

sweeter; fructose

b.

sweeter; maltose

c.

less sweet; fructose

d.

less sweet; maltose

ANS: A

Honey is sweeter than table sugar because it contains fructose, the sweetest of all the sugars. Maltose is less sweet than table sugar and is not found in honey; it is found only in germinating grains and as a product of partial starch digestion.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREFages 54-56 | Page 58

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

6. Someone who follows a strict vegetarian (vegan) diet and eats very few refined foods is likely to have _____ intake of _____ carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

a.

low; complex

b.

high; complex

c.

low; simple

d.

high; simple

ANS: B

Strict vegetarian diets contain only plant foods that have high levels of carbohydrates. Refined foods contain more simple sugars and some starch. Unrefined foods contain mostly complex carbohydrates and fiber. Therefore, someone who follows a strict vegetarian diet and eats very few refined foods is likely to have a high intake of complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 52-53 | Page 62 | Pages 64-65 | Page 68

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

7. A person would be most likely to produce excessive ketones if his or her food intake that day consisted only of

a.

green salad with oil and vinegar dressing.

b.

refried pinto beans and rice.

c.

cheeseburgers and French fries.

d.

fried eggs with bacon and hash brown potatoes.

ANS: A

Ketones are produced when insufficient carbohydrate is available and the body has to metabolize fat for energy. A green salad with oil and vinegar dressing provides energy from fat but minimal amounts of carbohydrate. In the other meals, carbohydrate is provided by beans, rice, the bun for the burger, and the potatoes used to make the fries and hash browns.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Page 54 | Page 57 | Page 63

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

8. Since the 1970s, consumption of refined white sugar has decreased, mostly because

a.

health-conscious consumers are using less of it.

b.

use of high-fructose corn syrup has increased.

c.

use of artificial sweeteners has increased.

d.

use of honey and other natural sweeteners has increased.

ANS: B

Use of refined white sugar has decreased because use of high-fructose corn syrup has increased. High-fructose corn syrup is used because it is cheaper to produce and sweeter than white table sugar. Unfortunately, consumers are not using less sugar; in fact, they are consuming more sugar overall. Use of artificial sweeteners, honey, and other natural sweeteners has increased, but this is not the main contributor to decreased refined white sugar consumption.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: Page 59 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

9. The person who is most likely to develop dental caries is one who

a.

eats dessert after each meal.

b.

drinks two or three regular soft drinks every day.

c.

snacks on candy bars between meals.

d.

chews gum throughout the day.

ANS: C

Dental caries is mostly likely to be caused by snacking on sweet, sticky foods (like candy bars) between meals. When desserts are eaten with meals, the teeth are exposed to carbohydrates for less time each day, so bacteria have less time to ferment the carbohydrate and cause caries. Soft drinks do not stick to the teeth like more sticky sweet foods and so are less likely to contribute to caries. Chewing gum may stimulate saliva production, which washes the teeth, and so it does not usually contribute to dental caries.

DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREFages 59-61

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

10. The most significant effect of bacteria in the mouth is fermentation of

a.

dietary fiber, which promotes formation of beneficial short-chain fatty acids.

b.

dietary fiber, which increases intestinal gas production.

c.

simple carbohydrates, which promotes production of sugar alcohols and causes halitosis.

d.

simple carbohydrates, which promotes formation of plaque and tooth decay.

ANS: D

Bacteria cause fermentation of sugars in the mouth and promote formation of plaque, which causes tooth decay. Bacteria are not capable of producing sugar alcohols, although their action on food may contribute to halitosis. Fermentation of dietary fiber occurs in the large intestine, not in the mouth.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: Page 59 | Page 61 | Page 65 | Page 67

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

11. The primary reason for chewing sugar-free gum instead of sugar-sweetened gum is that sugar-free gum

a.

is calorie-free and helps with weight control.

b.

contains sugar alcohols that do not promote dental caries.

c.

contains gums that provide soluble dietary fiber.

d.

is sweeter than sugar-sweetened gum because it contains artificial sweeteners.

ANS: B

Sugar-free gum is usually made with sugar alcohols, which are not fermented by bacteria in the mouth and so do not promote dental caries. Sugar alcohols contain fewer kilocalories than other sugars but nonetheless contain 2 to 3 kcal per gram, and so they are not calorie-free. Chewing gum is not usually swallowed and so would not contribute to dietary fiber; in addition, this is not different with sugar-sweetened versus sugar-free gum. Sugar-free gum is usually sweetened with sugar alcohols, which are actually less sweet than other sugars.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: Pages 60-62 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

12. Aspartame should not be consumed by

a.

infants and school-aged children.

b.

individuals who suffer from arthritis.

c.

individuals who have phenylketonuria (PKU).

d.

anyone who is underweight or trying to gain weight.

ANS: C

Aspartame contains phenylalanine, and so it should not be consumed by individuals who have phenylketonuria. There is no evidence that moderate intake of aspartame is harmful for infants and school-aged children, although there may be no reason for them to consume it. Claims that aspartame causes arthritis have not be verified. Food sweetened with aspartame rather than sugar will provide fewer kilocalories and so will not help individuals gain weight, but this does not mean that underweight people should avoid aspartame.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: Pages 60-62 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance | Client Needs: Physiological integrity

13. John wants to increase his dietary fiber intake. The best breakfast choice to help him achieve this goal would be

a.

pancakes and orange juice.

b.

oatmeal with raisins.

c.

scrambled egg and toast.

d.

blueberry muffin and jam.

ANS: B

The best sources of dietary fiber are whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Therefore, the breakfast with the highest amount of dietary fiber would be oatmeal with raisins. Pancakes, toast, and the muffin could contribute dietary fiber if they are made with whole wheat flour, but this was not specified. Orange juice is basically oranges with the fiber removed. Jam made with whole fruit may be high in fiber, but relatively small amounts are eaten. Animal foods such as eggs do not contain dietary fiber.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 64-66 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

14. Colon cancer runs in Janes family. She may be able to decrease her risk of developing this cancer if she increases her intake of

a.

fish and bran.

b.

apples, strawberries and citrus fruit.

c.

oatmeal, barley and legumes.

d.

whole grains and vegetables.

ANS: D

High intake of insoluble fiber helps decrease risk of colon cancer because it is fermented to produce short-chain fatty acids that decrease risk of tumor formation. The best sources of insoluble fiber are whole grains and vegetables. Oatmeal, barley, legumes, apples, strawberries, and citrus fruit contain more soluble than insoluble fiber. Bran has high amounts of insoluble fiber, but fish does not contain dietary fiber.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 64-66 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

15. Eating a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day may help prevent

a.

heart disease because it contains soluble fiber.

b.

high blood pressure because it contains potassium.

c.

hypoglycemia because it contains complex carbohydrate.

d.

osteoporosis because it contains calcium and vitamin D.

ANS: A

Oatmeal helps prevent heart disease because it contains soluble fiber, which helps decrease blood cholesterol levels. It is not a significant source of potassium and is unlikely to affect blood pressure, except by displacing other foods with high levels of sodium. Hypoglycemia is prevented by consuming foods that contain protein and carbohydrate throughout the day, rather than eating a specific food at one meal. Oatmeal would contain a significant amount of calcium and vitamin D only if it is made or eaten with milk, and so it would not necessarily help prevent osteoporosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 57-58 | Pages 65-67

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

16. Athletes use physical training and dietary manipulation to increase their body stores of energy in the form of

a.

glucose.

b.

glycogen.

c.

amino acids.

d.

short-chain fatty acids.

ANS: B

Athletes use these methods to increase their body stores of energy in the form of glycogen. Glycogen is the form of carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscles. Glucose and amino acids are not stored in the body. Also, the primary function of amino acids is tissue building, not energy production. Short-chain fatty acids are produced when bacteria cause fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. They are used as an energy source only by epithelial cells in the colon.

DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREFages 56-57 | Page 65

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

17. After a high-carbohydrate meal, the dominant process would be

a.

glycogenesis.

b.

glycogenolysis.

c.

gluconeogenesis.

d.

glucagon production.

ANS: A

After a high-carbohydrate meal, the carbohydrate is digested and absorbed as glucose. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen; this process is called glycogenesis. The other three processes occur a long time after a meal, after a fast, or after exercise, when glucose stores are low. In glycogenolysis, glycogen is converted back to glucose. Gluconeogenesis is conversion of fat and protein to glucose. Production of the hormone glucagon increases blood glucose levels by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 56-57 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

18. A dietary fiber intake of 18 g daily is considered

a.

the minimum recommended.

b.

below the optimal range of intake.

c.

within the optimal range of intake.

d.

above the optimal range of intake.

ANS: B

A fiber intake of 18 g is below the optimal range of daily intake for dietary fiber. The recommended range is 25 to 38 g/day.

DIF:Cognitive Level: RememberingREFages 67-69

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance | Client Needs: Physiological integrity

19. A beneficial effect of bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon is

a.

production of intestinal gas.

b.

providing monosaccharides for energy.

c.

production of short-chain fatty acids.

d.

production of long-chain fatty acids.

ANS: C

Bacteria cause fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids, which provide energy for mucosal cells and inhibit tumor formation.

DIF:Cognitive Level: RememberingREFages 64-67

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

20. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables would be most beneficial to someone with

a.

arthritis.

b.

diarrhea.

c.

constipation.

d.

osteoporosis.

ANS: C

Foods with high amounts of dietary fiber, such as fruits and vegetables, can help relieve constipation by increasing fecal bulk. Arthritis is not related to intake of fruits and vegetables. High intake of fruits and vegetables may exacerbate diarrhea. Osteoporosis is related to intake of calcium and vitamin D; fruits and vegetables are not good sources of these nutrients.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 66-67 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance | Client Needs: Physiological integrity

21. Peter has been very ill and has not eaten for 3 days. In order to provide carbohydrate for his brain and other cells, his body will break down

a.

body fat.

b.

liver glycogen.

c.

blood glucose.

d.

muscle protein.

ANS: D

The body needs a minimum of about 100 g carbohydrate daily, so after 3 days Peters body will have used up his bodys glucose and glycogen stores (about 150 g in muscles and about 90 g in liver). Body fat cannot be converted to glucose, and so his body must break down muscle protein to produce glucose by gluconeogenesis.

DIF:Cognitive Level: AnalyzingREFages 56-57

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

22. An example of a food with a low glycemic index is

a.

lentil soup.

b.

a bagel.

c.

a sports drink.

d.

cornflakes cereal.

ANS: A

Lentil soup has a low glycemic index. Foods with a low glycemic index produce a relatively small increase in blood glucose level. Lentils have high amounts of fiber, which tends to decrease glycemic index. Bagels, sports drinks, and cornflakes have relatively low amounts of fiber.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 57-58 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:Client Needs: Physiological integrity

23. If someones stomach is removed, his or her ability to digest carbohydrate would be

a.

limited to only disaccharides and monosaccharides.

b.

limited to only polysaccharides.

c.

largely unaffected.

d.

lost completely.

ANS: C

Most carbohydrate digestion occurs in the small intestine. Salivary amylase begins some carbohydrate digestion in the mouth, but this stops in the acid environment of the stomach. The stomach is the main site of protein digestion. Therefore, removal of the stomach has little effect on carbohydrate digestion.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREFages 55-56

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

24. If someone chewed a piece of bread for a long time, its taste would become

a.

unchanged.

b.

salty.

c.

sweeter.

d.

bitter.

ANS: C

Saliva in the mouth contains salivary amylase, or ptyalin, which begins starch digestion. If a starchy food such as bread stays in the mouth long enough, the amylase will break down the starch to produce monosaccharides and disaccharides, which taste sweet.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREFage 55

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

25. If a healthy persons blood glucose level is 120 mg/dL, his or her body would respond by releasing

a.

glucagon.

b.

somatostatin.

c.

insulin.

d.

epinephrine.

ANS: C

The normal range for blood glucose level is 70 to 100 mg/dL. Therefore, a blood glucose level of 120 mg/dL is high, and the body would release insulin to promote storage of blood glucose to remove the excess from the blood. Glucagon, somatostatin, and epinephrine all increase blood glucose levels, and so they would have the opposite of the desired effect.

DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplyingREFage 57

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

26. The main concern with increasing intake of high-fructose corn syrup is that it

a.

provides mostly fructose, which is poorly metabolized.

b.

provides energy but no nutrients.

c.

promotes storage of body fat.

d.

cultivates an increased desire for sweet foods and beverages.

ANS: B

The main concern with high intake of high-fructose corn syrup in processed foods and beverages is that it provides energy but no nutrients. Fructose is easily metabolized by the body and converted to glucose, which may be used for energy or stored as body fat. It does not promote storage of body fat more than any other excess energy. A taste for sweet foods is largely innate, and even though a desire for sweet foods may be cultivated, it is not necessarily related to intake of this specific sweetener.

DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREFage 59

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

27. The best way to ensure adequate nutrient intake is to eat plenty of

a.

refined grains.

b.

enriched grains.

c.

whole grains.

d.

fiber supplements.

ANS: C

Whole grains supply the most nutrients. When grains are refined, the bran and germ are removed, and many nutrients are fiber are lost. Enrichment replaces some, but not all, of the nutrients that are removed when grains are refined. Fiber supplements contain dietary fiber but do not contain all the other vitamins and minerals found in whole grains.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 68-69 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

28. For someone with diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose levels may be caused by high intakes of

a.

refined carbohydrates.

b.

any type of food.

c.

any type of sugar.

d.

any type of carbohydrate.

ANS: D

Any type of carbohydrate can cause an increase in blood glucose level in people with diabetes. Refined carbohydrates and sugars tend to increase blood glucose level more quickly, but high intake of any carbohydrate causes blood glucose level to rise. Fats and proteins have less effect on blood glucose level than do foods that contain carbohydrate.

DIF:Cognitive Level: UnderstandingREFages 57-58

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

29. A client experiences bloating, gas, and diarrhea after eating ice cream or drinking milk. These symptoms are probably related to

a.

hypoglycemia.

b.

lactose intolerance.

c.

inadequate fiber intake.

d.

diverticulitis.

ANS: B

Some adults develop lactose intolerance because they lose the ability to produce lactase, the enzyme that digests lactose, the disaccharide in milk. Undigested lactose is fermented in the colon, which causes bloating, gas, and diarrhea. Hypoglycemia is a low level of blood glucose and is unrelated to intake of dairy products. Inadequate fiber intake is likely to cause constipation, not diarrhea. Diverticulitis is also often related to low fiber intake and is unrelated to intake of dairy products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: Pages 54-55 TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:Client Needs: Physiological integrity

30. The end product of starch digestion in the body is

a.

sucrose.

b.

maltose.

c.

glycogen.

d.

glucose.

ANS: D

Starch is ultimately broken down to individual monosaccharide glucose units. Starch consists of chains of only glucose and so contains no fructose. Sucrose is a disaccharide that contains glucose and fructose and so cannot be formed from starch. Glycogen may be formed from glucose in the body but is not formed during digestion.

DIF:Cognitive Level: RememberingREFages 54-56 | Page 58

TOP:Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

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