Chapter 03: Introduction to the Qualitative Research My Nursing Test Banks

Chapter 03: Introduction to the Qualitative Research

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What role does qualitative research play in evidence-based practice (EBP)?

a.

Because it does not involve random-controlled trials (RCTs), it does not contribute directly to EBP.

b.

It offers a systematic approach for yielding insights into human experience and behavior.

c.

It provides a way to measure and evaluate quality outcomes that affect patient care.

d.

It provides the basis for most EBP guidelines and patient care protocols.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Many insights gained through qualitative studies are used to develop theories on which RCTs may be based.

B

Qualitative research offers a systematic approach for collecting data about and evaluating human perception and experience that cannot be achieved through experimental research.

C

Qualitative research is not concerned solely with outcomes research, which looks at the effects of nursing interventions on patient care outcomes.

D

RCTs are the basis for most EBP guidelines and protocols

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 67

2. A researcher identifies a socioeconomic group of people to study. After developing a rapport with key members of the group, getting information about group members from the key members, and spending time working among group members, the researcher develops theories about the group based on this experience. Which type of qualitative research does this represent?

a.

Ethnographic

b.

Grounded theory

c.

Historical

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Ethnographic research was developed by anthropologists as a mechanism for studying cultures and involves immersion in the group in order to make observations and get information.

B

Grounded theory research is an inductive technique that emerged from the discipline of sociology. Ethnographic research was developed by anthropologists as a mechanism for studying cultures.

C

Historical research examines events of the past. Ethnographic research was developed by anthropologists as a mechanism for studying cultures.

D

Phenomenological research describes experiences as they are lived. Ethnographic research was developed by anthropologists as a mechanism for studying cultures.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 74-75

3. What is true about phenomena in qualitative research?

a.

Human behavior is generally the result of the direct influence of independent variables.

b.

Knowledge gained by qualitative research is concrete and derived from statistical data.

c.

Multiple realities are possible based on meanings created by individuals and groups.

d.

Time and context have very little influence on individual or group perspectives.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Human behavior is complex and not just the result of the influence of independent variables.

B

Knowledge gained in qualitative research is less concrete than that gained through quantitative research.

C

The understanding of phenomena in qualitative research is not the same as in quantitative research. In qualitative research, multiple realities, based on individual and group meanings, may be derived from research data.

D

Phenomena in qualitative research are considered unique to the individual and in the time and the context that they occur.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 67

4. A researcher conducts a qualitative study and learns that individuals have a variety of reactions to an event. What can the researcher conclude from this finding?

a.

The findings are interesting, but are not useful for theory development.

b.

The reactions described in this study may be generalized to a larger population.

c.

The study has little significance since there is no well-defined single outcome.

d.

The variety of reactions is expected since perception varies with individuals.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Findings in qualitative studies are often used to guide initial theory development whose constructs are later tested through experimental studies.

B

Reactions in qualitative studies do not have statistical significance and cannot be generalized to a larger population.

C

Even without a well-defined outcome, the results do have significance and contribute to the larger body of scientific knowledge.

D

Because meaning is subjective, there can be multiple realities in qualitative research, which seeks to learn how individuals and groups respond to experiences.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 67

5. A researcher develops a study to examine various phenomena that contribute to theory development. This is an example of which type of research?

a.

Ethnographic research

b.

Grounded theory research

c.

Historical research

d.

Phenomenological research

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Ethnographers observe and document interactions within a culture.

B

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data.

C

Historical research examines events of the past.

D

Phenomenological research attempts to capture the lived experience of study participants.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 67| p. 70

6. A researcher conducts a study to examine the feelings of cancer patients at various points during their disease, including at diagnosis, when beginning chemotherapy, and during remission. Which type of study will the researcher use for this study?

a.

Ethnographic

b.

Grounded Theory

c.

Historical

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Ethnographers observe and document interactions within a culture.

B

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data.

C

Historical research examines events of the past.

D

Phenomenological research attempts to capture the lived experience of study participants.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:p. 67| pp. 69-70

7. What is true about scientific rigor in qualitative nursing research?

a.

Studies are rigorous only when results are quantifiable.

b.

Study findings are considered trustworthy when rigor is applied.

c.

Scientific rigor is not applicable with qualitative studies.

d.

Scientific rigor is only used with random-controlled trials.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Rigor can be applied to qualitative research.

B

Rigor is valued because the findings of rigorous studies are seen as being more credible and of greater worth.

C

Rigor can be applied to both qualitative and quantitative research.

D

Rigor is used with qualitative research.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 68

8. When designing a study, which has the greatest influence as a researcher decides which type of qualitative study design to use?

a.

Funding and resources

b.

Literature review

c.

Population

d.

Research question

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Funding and resources influence the size of the population and the types of measures that may be employed.

B

The literature review and the population do not influence the study design directly.

C

The literature review and the population do not influence the study design directly.

D

Deciding which qualitative approach to use depends on the research question and the purpose of the study.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 68

9. A researcher wishes to learn about the experiences that women have when breastfeeding their infants in the workplace. Which type of study design will the researcher employ?

a.

Ethnographic

b.

Exploratory-descriptive

c.

Grounded theory

d.

Historical

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Ethnographers observe and document interactions within a culture.

B

Exploratory-descriptive studies are used when researchers are exploring a new topic or describing a situation.

C

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data.

D

Historical research examines events of the past.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 76-77

10. A researcher who bases phenomenological research on Husserls philosophy will:

a.

incorporate personal biases into conclusions and discussion of the research.

b.

interpret subjects experiences according to the researchers own biases.

c.

place personal biases aside when considering and reporting research findings.

d.

use personal biases to look for hidden meanings in research data.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

This is not an accurate statement.

B

This is not an accurate statement.

C

According to Husserl, to capture the lived experience of study participants, the researcher must set aside personal biases to describe the phenomena in a nave way.

Heidegger describes ways that personal biases are incorporated into qualitative research.

D

This is not an accurate statement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: pp. 69-70

11. What is a key element of hermeneutics in research?

a.

Analysis of documents and interviews to identify themes and subthemes in data

b.

Bracketing of the researchers own perceptions for the duration of the study

c.

Description of phenomena without interpretation by the researcher

d.

Focusing solely on phenomena themselves without consideration of biases

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Hermeneutics is a type of interpretive phenomenological research method that involves textual analysis and identification of themes and subthemes present in interviews and published documents in light of the studys research questions.

B

Husserl suggested that the researcher must bracket personal biases in order to examine the research data. Husserl differs from Heidigger in this regard.Heidigger argued that it is impossible to set aside beliefs and biases.

C

Heidiggers approach is interpretive and is part of hermeneutics.

D

Heidigger believed that researchers cannot set aside their biases.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: pp. 69-70

12. When performing an external criticism of the documents used in historical research, the reviewer must determine whether the documents are:

a.

genuine or fraudulent.

b.

interesting or dull.

c.

well known or obscure.

d.

written by authors who are still living.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

External criticism determines the validity of source material.

B

Whether or not the document is interesting has little to do with the importance of the document.

C

As long as the document is genuine and of interest to the study, whether it is well known or not is irrelevant.

D

Although it might be useful to know whether or not the writers of the document are living, this does not relate to external criticism.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 78-79

13. What is true about grounded theory research?

a.

It is a method used to quantify theoretical constructs in theory development.

b.

It is used to further research in areas where much concrete data is already known.

c.

Study designs use a theoretical basis to develop the research questions.

d.

Theory is developed from the data collected during the research.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Experimental studies are used to quantify theoretical constructs to test theories.

B

Grounded theory research is preliminary and is often used when little is known about a subject.

C

Theory is developed from the research findings of grounded theory research.

D

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 70

14. A researcher wishes to understand how inner-city Somali immigrants adapt health care practices into their experiences with the U.S. health care system. Which type of study approach will the researcher use?

a.

Descriptive-qualitative

b.

Ethnographic

c.

Grounded theory

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Exploratory-descriptive studies are used when researchers are exploring a new topic or describing a situation.

B

Ethnographic research involves observation and documentation of interactions within a culture.

C

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data.

D

Phenomenological research attempts to capture the lived experience of study participants.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 70-71

15. Which is an example of an etic approach in an ethnographic study?

a.

A longitudinal study examining individual immigrants attitudes about health care

b.

A study about African tribal women and their feelings about HIV prevention

c.

A study comparing various ethnic groups folk health practices

d.

A study of differences between BSN- and AND-prepared nurses attitudes about health care

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A study of immigrants attitudes about health care is a phenomenological study.

B

A study examining a particular cultural group is an ethnographic study.

C

The etic approach involves studying behavior from outside the culture and examining similarities and differences across cultures.

D

A study of attitudes about health care is a phenomenological study.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 74

16. Which qualitative study will call for an exploratory-descriptive study approach?

a.

An evaluation of clinical outcomes of standard nursing interventions

b.

An examination of the effects of a treatment on various ethnic groups

c.

A review of data in order to evaluate theoretical constructs

d.

A study on a topic about which little is known or understood

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Outcomes research is concerned with clinical outcomes of standard interventions.

B

Comparing the effects of a treatment on two groups of subjects is a quasi-experimental design.

C

Theory testing uses data to evaluate theoretical constructs.

D

Exploratory-descriptive studies are used when researchers are exploring a new topic or describing a situation.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: pp. 77-78

17. A researcher utilizes an emic approach in a research study in order to:

a.

gather data about lived experiences of individuals.

b.

trying to understand behaviors from within a culture.

c.

examine individual human behavior according to personal biases.

d.

use techniques such as bracketing and intuiting.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Phenomenological research attempts to capture the lived experience of study participants. The emic approach involves studying behaviors from within a culture.

B

The emic approach involves studying behaviors from within a culture.

C

The etic perspective studies behaviors from outside the culture and examines similarities and differences across cultures. (The emic approach involves studying behaviors from within a culture.) The ethnographic approach looks at groups, not individual behaviors.

D

Bracketing and intuiting are techniques used rather than the focus of a study. The emic approach involves studying behaviors from within a culture.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 74

18. The goal of grounded theory research is to:

a.

develop theories and hypotheses based on research findings.

b.

establish an ethnographic perspective on subjects.

c.

provide validity checks for constructs.

d.

test theoretical constructs and hypotheses.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Theory developed from grounded theory research is grounded in the data from which it was derived.

B

An ethnographic perception of research is part of an ethnographic perspective.

C

Validity checks for constructs are not the concern of grounded theory research.

D

Theory testing uses data to evaluate theoretical constructs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 74

19. A researcher wishes to examine the experiences and feelings of siblings of children who have cancer in order to gain information about this population. Which type of qualitative study method will the researcher use?

a.

Ethnographic

b.

Exploratory-descriptive

c.

Grounded theory

d.

Historical

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Ethnographic research involves observation and documentation of interactions within a culture.

B

Exploratory-descriptive studies are used when researchers are exploring a new topic or describing a situation.

C

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data.

D

Historical research uses historical documents to describe events.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 77-78

20. When conducting historical research about the experiences of women refugees from the Sudan, the researcher interviews women who served as nurses among this population. These nurses represent:

a.

control group subjects.

b.

experimental group subjects.

c.

primary data sources.

d.

secondary data sources.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Control and experimental group subjects are used in experimental, quantitative, and not in qualitative studies.

B

Control and experimental group subjects are used in experimental, quantitative, and not in qualitative studies.

C

Primary data sources are those gathered directly from the study subjects and can either be from direct interviews or from diaries or other documents written by the subjects.

D

A secondary data source can be a person who lived at the same time or who had contact with the subjects of the study. Nurses who cared for Sudanese woman immigrants would be secondary sources for this population.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 78-79

21. When conducting research about the experiences of early advanced practice nurses, the researcher may consult which possible secondary source?

a.

A textbook history of early advanced practice nurses

b.

Currently practicing advanced practice nurses

c.

Former patients of early advanced practice nurses

d.

The scope of practice guidelines for advanced practice nursing

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A textbook history may itself use primary and secondary data sources.

B

Currently practicing APRNs rely on primary and secondary sources for their information, but are not themselves sources of historical information.

C

A secondary data source can be a person who lived at the same time or who had contact with the subjects of the study.

D

The scope of practice guidelines may use historical information, but it is not a historical document.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 78-79

22. What are subjects in qualitative research studies usually called?

a.

Experimental subjects

b.

Participants

c.

Primary sources

d.

Secondary sources

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Experimental subjects are subjects who are part of experimental studies.

B

Subjects in qualitative studies are referred to as participants because the researcher and the participants cooperatively carry out the study.

C

Primary sources are subjects in historical studies who actually lived the experiences being described.

D

Secondary sources are people who knew or worked closely with primary sources in historical research.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: pp. 81-82

23. How are subjects selected for qualitative research studies?

a.

As volunteers through advertising for subjects

b.

Based on knowledge or experience

c.

By random sampling methods

d.

Through convenience sampling

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Subjects tend to be recruited and do not necessarily volunteer.

B

Subjects in qualitative research studies are selected based on their knowledge or experience or for their views related to the study.

C

Random sampling techniques are not generally used in qualitative research.

D

Convenience samples are used when random sampling techniques are not possible and generally in qualitative research. Subjects in qualitative research are selected based on knowledge or experience.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 82

24. What is the researcher-participant relationship in qualitative research?

a.

Attaching personal meanings of the researcher to subjects responses

b.

Controlling subjects responses by stating the aims of the study

c.

Creating empathetic and honest relationships with study subjects

d.

Keeping a distance to avoid skewing research findings

ANS: C

Feedback

A

It is necessary for the researcher to be open to the perceptions of the participants.

B

The researcher tries to avoid controlling the subjects responses.

C

In qualitative research, the researcher creates a respectful relationship with each participant that includes being honest and open about the studys purpose and methods.

D

The researcher does not maintain a detached distance as with quantitative studies, but must become closely involved in the subjects experience in order to interpret it.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 82

25. What type of data collection method is most common in qualitative research?

a.

Distribution and review of questionnaires from subjects

b.

Interviews with and observation of subjects

c.

Participation and immersion in the lives of subjects

d.

Review of historical documents and literature about subjects

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Questionnaires are used occasionally, but are often used in quantitative research as well.

B

Because the data in most qualitative studies are the participants thoughts, ideas, and perceptions, data collection is most often done by interviewing and observing participants.

C

Ethnographic research is a less common type of qualitative research and involves participation and immersion in the lives of subjects.

D

Historical research is a type of qualitative research that involves review of historical documents and literature.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 83

26. During a qualitative research study, a researcher asks subjects a fixed set of questions to which the participants respond freely. This is an example of a(n):

a.

open-ended interview.

b.

semi-structured interview.

c.

structured interview.

d.

unstructured interview.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

An open-ended interview is unstructured and, while the researcher defines the focus of the interview, there may be no fixed sequence of questions.

B

A semi-structured interview involves a fixed set of questions with no fixed responses.

C

A structured interview involves a fixed set of questions with a fixed set of answers.

D

An unstructured interview may not have fixed questions or answers.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 83-84

27. What may characterize questions asked by the researcher during an exploratory-descriptive study?

a.

A focus on participants biographical information

b.

Using structured individual questions

c.

One main question with follow-up questions

d.

Open-ended questions with probes to follow up

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Ethnographic researchers will focus on biographical data.

B

In an exploratory-descriptive study, the researcher may ask more structured questions to achieve the purpose of the study.

C

Interviews in a phenomenology study may have one main question with follow-up questions used as needed to elicit the participants perspective on the phenomenon.

D

Phenomenological research interviews begin with open-ended questions followed up with more probing questions to elicit participants perspectives.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: pp. 83-84

28. A researcher investigates how nurses in a rural hospital regard the importance of asthma education using an ethnographic approach. Why was this approach appropriate?

a.

To find out what it was like for nurses to provide this education

b.

To explore the theoretical basis of asthma education

c.

To improve understanding of how these nurses define asthma education

d.

To look at the history of asthma education to shed light on current practice

ANS: C

Feedback

A

A study to learn what it is like to do something would be best learned through an exploratory study.

B

Grounded theory research explores the theoretical basis for interventions.

C

The ethnographic approach looks at phenomena within a certain culture, in this case the hospital, and seeks to describe how that culture deals with the subject of interest.

D

Historical research studies the history of an intervention.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 74

29. When appraising a study in which data was collected by interview, the reviewer will assess for:

a.

adequate length of time for each interview.

b.

evidence that prompts were not used to encourage responses.

c.

use of clinical setting for conducting interviews.

d.

utilization of payment for participation of subjects.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

An important aspect of reviewing interview methods is to assess the length of time the researcher allowed for each interview to determine whether subjects had adequate time to respond.

B

Prompts may be used in interviews.

C

It is better if interviews are conducted in a natural, and not a clinical setting.

D

Subjects will ideally be volunteers, recruited for their knowledge and experience.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 83

30. A researcher may choose to use a focus group instead of one-to-one interviews in order to:

a.

encourage free expression of views of the participants.

b.

increase conformity and consistency of participants responses.

c.

reduce the time needed to collect data.

d.

allow more time for lengthy and complete responses.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

One of the assumptions underlying the use of focus groups is that group dynamics can help people to express and clarify their views in ways that are less likely to occur in a one-to-one setting.

B

The goal of a focus group is not to increase conformity, but this may sometimes occur if participants go along with the group.

C

This type of data collection often takes more time that with one-on-one interviews.

D

Focus groups often do not allow for lengthy responses by individuals.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF: p. 85

31. When gathering data for a study using observational methods, it is important for the data collector to:

a.

be observant of all that is done and said and unsaid.

b.

direct subjects by setting the stage through structured questions.

c.

record those actions and words that are related to the focus of the study.

d.

participate directly with subjects in order to better understand them.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

During observational experiences, the researcher should be observant and attempt to record what is said as well as unsaid and to record all that is done.

B

The observer should not try to direct the actions of the participants.

C

Unexpected events occurring during routine activities may be significant and are carefully noted.

D

Ethnographic research involves immersion and participation.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 86

32. To maximize collection of pertinent information when conducting an observational study, the researcher records field notes:

a.

after the observation has concluded.

b.

during or immediately after the observation.

c.

prior to beginning the observation.

d.

when writing the research discussion.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

This is not an accurate statement.

B

In studies that use observation, notes taken during or shortly after observations (field notes) are best recorded while the information is easily recalled. It may be necessary to avoid taking notes during the observation so that the recorder does not miss observing something important.

C

This is not an accurate statement.

D

This is not an accurate statement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 86

33. Which is true about data analysis in a qualitative study?

a.

It has very little structure.

b.

It is unnecessary in qualitative studies.

c.

It requires less time than with quantitative analysis.

d.

It should be consistent with the philosophical method of the study.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Data analysis is as rigorous as with quantitative studies.

B

Data analysis is as rigorous as with quantitative studies and as important.

C

Data analysis may take more time in qualitative studies because dwelling with the data requires considerable reading and reflection of the data.

D

Data analysis in qualitative studies should be consistent with the philosophical method of the study.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 89

34. A researcher classifies words and phrases that occur in data collected in a qualitative study. This process is called:

a.

coding the data.

b.

describing the data.

c.

dwelling with the data.

d.

interpreting the data.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Coding the data is the process of reading the data, breaking text down into subparts, and labeling that part of the text.

B

Describing the data requires less analysis of the data than coding.

C

Dwelling with the data involves spending time mulling over the data to read and reflect on its meaning.

D

During interpretation, the researcher places the findings in a larger context and may link different themes or factors in the findings to each other.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 89

35. Which type of research uses a less formal method of reporting data?

a.

Ethnographic

b.

Grounded theory

c.

Historical

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Reports of ethnographic research follow the traditional style. Historical research reports do not follow the traditional formalized style that is characteristic of much research.

B

Reports of grounded theory research follow the traditional style. Historical research reports do not follow the traditional formalized style that is characteristic of much research.

C

Historical research reports do not follow the traditional formalized style that is characteristic of much research.

D

Reports of phenomenological research follow the traditional style. Historical research reports do not follow the traditional formalized style that is characteristic of much research.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF: p. 78

36. A researcher describes phrases and terms discovered in a qualitative study and describes and links these with various themes. This is an example of:

a.

coding the data.

b.

describing the data.

c.

dwelling with the data.

d.

interpreting the data.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Coding the data is the process of reading the data, breaking text down into subparts, and labeling that part of the text.

B

Describing the data involves stating the findings in meaningful terms.

C

Dwelling with the data involves spending time mulling over the data to read and reflect on its meaning.

D

In qualitative research, data interpretation involves placing things discovered into categories that are linked with themes in order to identify meaning.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 89

37. While reviewing transcripts of interviews conducted for a qualitative study, the researcher appraises the data for congruence with the philosophical perspective of the study. This is an example of:

a.

perspective.

b.

reliability.

c.

rigor.

d.

validity.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The perspective identifies the initial intent of the study.

B

Reliability is used to evaluate measurement methods in quantitative research.

C

Rigor in qualitative research requires critically appraising the study for congruence with the philosophical perspective.

D

Validity is  used to evaluate measurement methods in quantitative research.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 90

38. What is the purpose of qualitative research?

a.

To allow researchers to interject their own values into studies

b.

To describe data that cannot be measured or quantified

c.

To describe experiences and insight from the subjects perspective

d.

To establish causal relationships among subjective data

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Qualitative research often involves the interaction of the researchers and the subjects perspectives and values, but that is not the purpose.

B

Measureable data may be included in qualitative research.

C

Qualitative research seeks to study the experiences of subjects and to gain insights from their perspective and not that of the researcher.

D

Qualitative research seeks to identify meaning and context and not cause and effect.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 90

39. How are findings from qualitative studies used to add to the body of nursing knowledge?

a.

Findings are useful only for describing study subjects.

b.

Findings may be generalized to a wide variety of population groups.

c.

Findings provide a broad overview from which meaning is derived.

d.

Findings reveal meanings that can be used to develop theory.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Although they describe the particular situation, they have relevance in theory development.

B

Findings are particular to the situation being observed and do not provide a broad overview.

C

Findings are particular to the situation being observed and do not provide a broad overview.

D

The findings from a qualitative study lead to an understanding of a phenomenon in a particular situation and are not generalized, but provide an initial picture or theory.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 67

40. A researcher uses film footage to collect data in which type of research?

a.

Ethnographic

b.

Grounded theory

c.

Historical

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Ethnographers observe and document interactions within a culture. Historians may observe film, videotapes, photographs, or artistic representations of historical events.

B

Grounded theory develops theory directly from the research data. Historians may observe film, videotapes, photographs, or artistic representations of historical events.

C

Historians may observe film, videotapes, photographs, or artistic representations of historical events.

D

Phenomenological research attempts to capture the lived experience of study participants. Historians may observe film, videotapes, photographs, or artistic representations of historical events.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF: p. 67|p. 78

41. Which is true about rigor in qualitative research?

a.

Data should be interpreted according to the initial expectations of the researcher.

b.

Findings of the study should be generalizable to a larger population.

c.

Studies are evaluated based on design detail and thoroughness of evaluation.

d.

There is no method for judging rigor in qualitative research.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The meaning of the data should be interpreted with an open mind, even if the meaning is not what was initially anticipated.

B

The findings of a qualitative study cannot be generalized but may be applied in other contexts or with other subjects.

C

Rigor in qualitative studies is assessed based on the degree of detail in study design, the care taken in data collection, and the thoroughness of data analysis.

D

Rigor is valued in all research as a means to ensure the credibility and worth of studies.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 68

42. Which is true about phenomenological research?

a.

It is a method that views the person and the environment as integrated.

b.

It seeks to quantify human behavior and experience.

c.

It disregards the meaning of lived experiences.

d.

It is a single approach that uses quantitative research methods.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Phenomenological research views the person as integrated with the environment.

B

Phenomenological research does not seek to quantify human behavior and experience

C

Phenomenological research seeks to find and interpret the meaning of lived experiences.

D

There are several philosophical approaches to phenomenological research.

PTS:1DIF:Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF: p. 69

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