Chapter 02(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

Osborn, Medical-Surgical Nursing, 2e
Chapter 02

Question 1

Type: MCSA

The nurse is a member of a committee that is studying the frequency of medication errors. Other committee members include a health care provider, pharmacist, pharmacy technician, and nurse manager. The nurse is most likely participating in which specific type of quality process?

1. Total quality management

2. Continuous quality improvement

3. Quality improvement

4. Quality assurance

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Total quality management is a way to ensure customer satisfaction by involving all employees in the improvement of the quality of every product or service.

Rationale 2: Continuous quality improvement is the process of improving a system by using multidisciplinary teams to analyze the system, collect measurements, and propose changes.

Rationale 3: Quality improvement programs are large programs that focus on accountability to the payer and consumer.

Rationale 4: Quality assurance refers to an organizations efforts to provide services that follow professional standards and guarantee or ensure quality of care.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-1

Question 2

Type: MCSA

At the end of a scheduled work shift, the nurse asks each of his patients if there was anything he could have done to make their day more comfortable. The nurse is most likely participating in which process?

1. Quality improvement

2. Self-assessment

3. Continuous quality improvement study

4. Departmental assessment

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: At the level of the individual nurse and patient, the quality improvement process is an appraisal of how the nurse performed in taking care of the patients.

Rationale 2: Self-assessment is not the best description of this activity.

Rationale 3: A continuous quality improvement study is conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze a system, collect data, and propose changes.

Rationale 4: There is no evidence to suggest a departmental assessment.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-1

Question 3

Type: MCSA

The hospital benefits manager describes a health care program in which the nurse employee will pay a certain amount of money each month for comprehensive health services. The nurse will have a primary physician who will direct care within a specific network of providers. The nurses heath care must be provided by these in-network physicians. The nurse will have which type of health care?

1. Health maintenance organization (HMO)

2. Traditional insurance service plan

3. Independent practice association (IPA) coverage

4. Preferred provider organization (PPO)

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: An HMO is a group health agency that provides basic and supplemental health treatment with a fee being set without regard to the amount or kind of service provided.

Rationale 2: Traditional insurance service plans contract with providers to accept payment based on a fee schedule. The insured may have some restrictions on providers, and the provider is paid directly by the plan.

Rationale 3: An IPA is a group of health care providers who join together to offer services to managed care organizations; the fees are collected and distributed according to fee-for-service arrangements. The physicians remain independent contractors.

Rationale 4: In a PPO, a network of physicians provide care. For a higher deductible, the insured can contract to be able to see providers outside the network.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-2

Question 4

Type: MCSA

A patient tells the nurse that her primary care provider wants her to see a specialist, but the specialist is out of the network and her deductible will be higher. The nurse realizes the patient is a member of which type of health care organization?

1. Medicare

2. Health maintenance organization (HMO)

3. Independent practice association (IPA)

4. Preferred provider organization (PPO)

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Medicare is the national health insurance program that covers people 65 years of age or older, some people under 65 with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease.

Rationale 2: HMOs deliver comprehensive care for fixed prepaid fees or capitation; they typically restrict access to a specific network of providers.

Rationale 3: An IPA is a type of health care provider business structure in which physicians contract with an HMO to provide services but remain independent contractors with separate practices. This business model does not match the described scenario.

Rationale 4: PPOs provide reimbursement for covered care to non-network providers but at a different rate, and the patient may have to pay a higher deductible.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-2

Question 5

Type: MCSA

A 46-year-old patient, unemployed and diagnosed with kidney disease, tells the nurse that he is having difficulty with his medical bills. What should the nurse do to help this patient?

1. Work with the pharmacist to determine which medications the patient can discontinue and still maintain an acceptable level of health.

2. Suggest the patient take prescribed medications every other day to make the prescription last longer.

3. Ask social services to discuss Medicare as a health care coverage option.

4. Assure the patient that the nurse will ask the health care provider if the patient can be quickly discharged to home.

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Encouraging the patient to discontinue medications is not an acceptable nursing practice.

Rationale 2: The nurse should not suggest that the patient skip doses. This practice would not constitute good care.

Rationale 3: The nurse should find out from social services whether the patient is eligible for Medicare coverage. Medicare is the national health insurance program that covers people 65 years or older, some people under age 65 with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease.

Rationale 4: The patient should remain hospitalized as long as necessary to receive essential care.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-2

Question 6

Type: MCMA

A patient brought into the emergency department tells the nurse that she does not need anything because she cannot pay for any health services. The nurses assessment is that the patient is very ill and needs care. What nursing actions are indicated?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Provide paperwork for the patient to sign out of the hospital against medical advice.

2. Explain that all care will be covered by the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA).

3. Ask the health care provider for medication because the patient is confused.

4. Encourage the patient to stay until care is provided.

5. Agree that services cannot be delivered without pay and refer the patient to the local free clinic.

Correct Answer: 1,4

Rationale 1: If the patient cannot be persuaded to receive services, the nurse should be certain paperwork is signed to indicate the patient is aware of the risks associated with leaving against medical advice.

Rationale 2: EMTALA does not reimburse the hospital for care provided.

Rationale 3: There is no indication that this patient is confused.

Rationale 4: The nurse should encourage the patient to receive care. Contact with social services may be suggested.

Rationale 5: The hospital cannot turn away a patient who requires emergency care services.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-1

Question 7

Type: MCSA

The state board of nursing has notified a hospital about the changes in mandatory continuing education requirements for the nurses. The administration realizes these changes would impact which activity?

1. Regulations

2. Accreditation

3. Licensure

4. Life safety

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Regulations are rules or laws that govern delivery of care or maintenance of the facility or work environment.

Rationale 2: Accreditation is the process of evaluating actual care delivered to patients, the hospitals performance as an organization, and the outcomes of treatment for patients.

Rationale 3: Licensing regulations differ from state to state and impact the delivery of care, including the credentials and competency of employees.

Rationale 4: Life safety standards and regulations vary from state to state and include having the facility checked for building code compliance and safety standards.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2-4

Question 8

Type: MCSA

A patient tells the nurse that he had made some decisions about his care when he thought he was going to die, but now that he knows he isnt, he wants all possible medical treatment. Which nursing action is indicated?

1. Tell the patient that he cannot change is mind or treatment plan.

2. Change the patients classification in the medical record.

3. Contact social services to discuss the change in plans.

4. Contact the health care provider for the patient to discuss the patients decision.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Advance directives can be changed as the individuals needs and goals change.

Rationale 2: Simply changing this classification will not result in wide dissemination of the decision.

Rationale 3: There is no reason to contact social services.

Rationale 4: The patient should discuss this change with the health care provider.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-7

Question 9

Type: MCSA

A patient tells the nurse that if he does not wake up after surgery, his friend should be contacted because the friend knows what should be done concerning his health care needs. After referring to the patients medical record, the nurse realizes that the friend has which relationship with the patient?

1. The patients best friend

2. The patients health care power of attorney

3. The patients next-door neighbor

4. The patients brother

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: There is not enough information to determine if this person is the patients best friend.

Rationale 2: The health care power of attorney is a legal document that establishes a surrogate decision maker to make medical decisions for the patient should he become incapacitated. The nurse reviewed the patients medical record to ensure that information about the friend was documented.

Rationale 3: There is not enough information to determine if the friend is the patients next-door neighbor.

Rationale 4: There is not enough information to determine if the friend is the patients brother.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-7

Question 10

Type: MCSA

A patient cries quietly while undergoing a painful treatment. The nurse realizes that although the treatment is painful, it is necessary for the patients healing and recovery. Which ethical principle does this situation exemplify?

1. Paternalism

2. Nonmaleficence

3. Veracity

4. Respect for others

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Paternalism allows one to make decisions for another.

Rationale 2: Even though the principle of nonmaleficence states that a person should do no harm, the focus of the projected treatment or procedure is on the consequences of the benefits to the patient, not on the harm that occurs at the time of the intervention.

Rationale 3: Veracity is the concept that individuals should always tell the truth.

Rationale 4: Respect for others acknowledges the right of individuals to make decisions and to live by those decisions.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-5

Question 11

Type: MCSA

The health care team is confronted with an ethical dilemma surrounding the types of care available for a particular patient. The team decides to apply ethical principles to determine the best course of action for this patient. This is an example of which ethical theory?

1. Deontological theories

2. Principlism

3. Utilitarianism

4. Teleological

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Deontological theories derive norms and rules from the duties human beings owe to one another by virtue of commitments made and roles assumed.

Rationale 2: Principlism incorporates existing ethical principles and attempts to resolve conflicts by applying one or more of the principles.

Rationale 3: Utilitarianism is another term for teleological theories and can be divided into rule and act utilitarianism.

Rationale 4: Teleological theories derive norms or rules for conduct from the consequences of actions.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-5

Question 12

Type: MCMA

A patient asks the nurse to promise that nothing bad will happen while the patient is under anesthesia for a surgical procedure. The patient is creating a conflict in which of the nurses ethical principles?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Fidelity

2. Respect for others

3. Paternalism

4. Veracity

5. Autonomy

Correct Answer: 1,4

Rationale 1: Fidelity means keeping ones promises or commitments. The patient is putting the nurse in the middle of a potentially conflicting situation. The nurse cannot promise that nothing bad will happen to the patient under anesthesia.

Rationale 2: Respect for others acknowledges the right of individuals to make decisions and to live by these decisions.

Rationale 3: Paternalism allows one person to make decisions for another.

Rationale 4: Veracity is the concept that one should always tell the truth. The nurse cannot truthfully make the statement that nothing bad will happen to the patient.

Rationale 5: Autonomy addresses personal freedom and the right of an individual to choose what will happen to herself. The nurses personal autonomy is not at risk in this situation as the nurse is expected to provide safe and effective care.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-5

Question 13

Type: MCSA

A health care provider is reviewing the steps taken to address an ethical issue with a patient. Within which step of the MORAL model is this health care provider working?

1. Massage the dilemma.

2. Look back and evaluate.

3. Outline the options.

4. Act by applying the chosen option.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Massaging the dilemma means identifying the issues.

Rationale 2: The health care provider is looking back and evaluating. This is the process of reviewing and reexamining whether desired outcomes were attained and whether new options need to be implemented.

Rationale 3: Outlining the options means fully examining the options, including those that are less realistic.

Rationale 4: Acting by applying the chosen option means implementing the chosen option to resolve the dilemma.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 2-5

Question 14

Type: MCSA

A patient is telling the nurse manager that she believes a wrongful act occurred when she was given the wrong medication. Which type of law would the nurse expect to address this issue?

1. Criminal law

2. Common law

3. Civil law

4. Tort law

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Criminal law is public law that involves the prosecution by the government of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime.

Rationale 2: Common law is derived from principles rather than rules and regulations. It is based on precedent rather than statutory laws.

Rationale 3: Civil law is based on normative principles that are codified in codes and statutes.

Rationale 4: A tort is a wrongful act committed against another person or the persons property and resulting in injury or harm, thereby constituting the basis for a claim by the injured party. Although some torts are crimes punishable by imprisonment, the primary aim of tort law is to provide relief for the damages incurred and to deter others from committing the same harms. The injured person may sue for an injunction to prevent the continuation of the tortuous conduct or for monetary damages.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-6

Question 15

Type: MCSA

A patient tells the nurse that he had money in the top drawer of his bedside table that is now missing. He is phoning his attorney and plans to press charges. The nurse realizes this patient is planning to implement which type of law?

1. Contract law

2. Tort law

3. Common law

4. Criminal law

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Contract law is a way to govern promises or agreements made between two parties.

Rationale 2: A tort is a wrongful act committed against another person or the persons property. The primary aim of tort law is to provide relief for damages.

Rationale 3: Common law is a system of law based on precedent rather than statutory laws.

Rationale 4: Criminal law involves the prosecution by the government of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime. The patient is claiming that money was stolen, which is a crime.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-6

Question 16

Type: MCSA

The nursing staff at a local hospital are unable to get to work because of deteriorating weather conditions. The administration realizes the lack of staff to provide care will impact which quality standard?

1. Improvement

2. Structure

3. Outcome

4. Process

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Quality improvement is an overall umbrella term that measures and evaluates all three quality standards.

Rationale 2: Structure standards focus on the internal characteristics of the organization and the personnel.

Rationale 3: Outcome standards measure the effectiveness, quality, and time allocated for care.

Rationale 4: Process standards focus on whether the activities within an organization are being conducted appropriately.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2-3

Question 17

Type: MCMA

The nurse is reviewing activities to assess the quality of care provided for a group of patients. Which situation would be used to measure a process standard?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. The patient is able to ambulate without assistance.

2. Every nurse scheduled to work has current cardiopulmonary resuscitation certification.

3. A patients output is 2400 cc after receiving one dose of a diuretic.

4. Nurses turn and reposition patients on bed rest every 2 hours and as needed.

5. Morning assessments will be completed and documented by 0800.

Correct Answer: 4,5

Rationale 1: A patients ability to ambulate would be considered an outcome standard.

Rationale 2: Evidence of current CPR certification would be considered a structure standard.

Rationale 3: A patients urine output after a medication is administered would be considered an outcome standard.

Rationale 4: Process standards focus on nursing activities, interventions, and the sequence of caregiving events.

Rationale 5: Process standards focus on activities, interventions, and the sequence of caregiving events.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 2-3

Question 18

Type: MCMA

The nurse has been asked to join a group reviewing patient-focused functions in the hospital. Which situations would the nurse anticipate reviewing?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Number of cases reviewed by the ethics committee over the last year

2. How information is managed in the hospital

3. Processes used to identify patients at risk for infection after surgery

4. The hospitals hiring practices

5. Implementation of a new drug distribution system

Correct Answer: 1,3,5

Rationale 1: Ethics, rights, and responsibilities are patient-focused functions.

Rationale 2: Management of information is an organization function.

Rationale 3: Surveillance, prevention, and control of infection are patient-focused functions.

Rationale 4: Human resources manages hiring practices. Management of human resources is an organization function.

Rationale 5: Medication management is a patient-focused function.

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 2-4

Question 19

Type: MCMA

A patient tells the nurse manager that he is going to charge a nurse with battery for actions that occurred in the emergency department. Which characteristics of battery should the manager consider when formulating a response?

Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. For battery to occur, actual contact must be made.

2. Battery could not have occurred unless the patient specifically told the nurse not to touch him just before the contact occurred.

3. Battery can occur even if the patient is not touched.

4. For the patient to prove battery, an injury must have occurred.

5. It will be difficult for the patient to prove battery occurred because he gave consent for treatment.

Correct Answer: 1,3,5

Rationale 1: Battery is actual contact with another person or the persons property.

Rationale 2: The patient does not have to be awake or alert for battery to occur.

Rationale 3: Battery has occurred if someone touches the patient, something the patient is holding, or the patients belongings.

Rationale 4: The patient does not need to experience any harm, injury, or pain to claim that battery has occurred.

Rationale 5: For battery to occur, there must be an absence of legal consent on the part of the patient.

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