Chapter 02(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

 

Kozier & Erbs Fundamentals of Nursing, 9/E
Chapter 02

Question 1

Type: SEQ

Although Florence Nightingale demonstrated the importance of research in nursing care as early as 1854, the research approach did not take hold in nursing until the beginning of the 20th century. Put these events in chronological order, starting with the earliest (1) and proceeding to the most recent (4):

Standard Text: Click and drag the options below to move them up or down.

Choice 1. The National Center for Nursing Research was created.

Choice 2. The National Institute for Nursing Research was created.

Choice 3. The journal Nursing Research was established.

Choice 4. End-of-life/palliative care research was conducted.

Correct Answer: 2,3,1,4

Rationale 1: The journal Nursing Research was established in 1952. The National Center for Nursing Research was created in 1985 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 1993, it was promoted to the National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR). End-of-life/palliative care was identified at NINR as an area of research for 2000-2004.

Rationale 2: The journal Nursing Research was established in 1952. The National Center for Nursing Research was created in 1985 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 1993, it was promoted to the National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR). End-of-life/palliative care was identified at NINR as an area of research for 2000-2004.

Rationale 3: The journal Nursing Research was established in 1952. The National Center for Nursing Research was created in 1985 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 1993, it was promoted to the National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR). End-of-life/palliative care was identified at NINR as an area of research for 2000-2004.

Rationale 4: The journal Nursing Research was established in 1952. The National Center for Nursing Research was created in 1985 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 1993, it was promoted to the National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR). End-of-life/palliative care was identified at NINR as an area of research for 2000-2004.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 29-30

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 02 Able to apply the steps of change used in implementing evidence based practice.

Question 2

Type: MCSA

Some nursing students have been given an assignment to develop a research question from a quantitative approach. Which of the following would be an example of a quantitative research question in the clinical area?

1. How do siblings react to a new baby of a second marriage after divorce of their parents?

2. What dressing selections work best for a wound dehiscence?

3. What support do terminal cancer clients find least beneficial in hospice care?

4. Does expression of client spirituality affect recovery time?

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Qualitative research most often explores the subjective experiences of human beings.

Rationale 2: Quantitative research is often viewed as hard science. It progresses through systematic, logical steps to collect information under controlled conditions. The information is analyzed using statistical procedures.

Rationale 3: Qualitative research most often explores the subjective experiences of human beings.

Rationale 4: Qualitative research most often explores the subjective experiences of human beings.

Global Rationale: Page Reference:30-31

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 04 Differentiate the quantitative approach from the qualitative approach in nursing research.

Question 3

Type: MCSA

A client has agreed to participate in a research study. Which of the following would constitute risk of harm to this client?

1. Withholding information about the study

2. Suggesting that participation would greatly benefit the clients financial situation

3. Giving the client false information about his or her participation

4. Providing the clients name as a participant in the study

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Risk of harm to a research subject is exposure to the possibility of injury, which could involve physical or psychological injury such as loss of confidentiality or loss of privacy. Withholding information or giving false information would be violations of full disclosure. Participants should feel free from coercion or undue influence to participate in a study or this would be a violation against the right of self-determination.

Rationale 2: Risk of harm to a research subject is exposure to the possibility of injury, which could involve physical or psychological injury such as loss of confidentiality or loss of privacy. Withholding information or giving false information would be violations of full disclosure. Participants should feel free from coercion or undue influence to participate in a study or this would be a violation against the right of self-determination.

Rationale 3: Risk of harm to a research subject is exposure to the possibility of injury, which could involve physical or psychological injury such as loss of confidentiality or loss of privacy. Withholding information or giving false information would be violations of full disclosure. Participants should feel free from coercion or undue influence to participate in a study or this would be a violation against the right of self-determination.

Rationale 4: Risk of harm to a research subject is exposure to the possibility of injury, which could involve physical or psychological injury such as loss of confidentiality or loss of privacy. Withholding information or giving false information would be violations of full disclosure. Participants should feel free from coercion or undue influence to participate in a study or this would be a violation against the right of self-determination.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 35-36

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 07 Describe the nurses role in protecting the rights of human participants in research.

Question 4

Type: MCSA

A nursing instructor is researching the implementation of assigning study guides for homework points and the effect this has on the students test grades. The instructor reports group data for published research. This is an example of which of the rights in research?

1. Right of full disclosure

2. Right of confidentiality

3. Right of self-determination

4. Risk of harm

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Right of full disclosure is the act of making clear the clients role in a research situation.

Rationale 2: Confidentiality means that any information a participant relates will not be made public and investigators must inform research participants about the measures to provide for these rights. Such measures may include the use of code numbers or reporting only group or aggregate data in published research.

Rationale 3: Right of self-determination means that participants should feel free from undue influence.

Rationale 4: Risk of harm is exposure to the possibility of injury going beyond everyday situations.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 36

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 07 Describe the nurses role in protecting the rights of human participants in research.

Question 5

Type: MCSA

The nurse researcher is considering whether the findings of a project may present uncertain results in the clinical area. The criteria this researcher is reflecting on would be which of the following?

1. Significance

2. Researchability

3. Confidentiality

4. Variables

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Significance deals with whether the research problem has the potential to contribute to nursing science by enhancing nursing care.

Rationale 2: Researchability means that the problem can be subjected to scientific investigation. If a significant problem produces ambiguity or uncertainty in clinical situations, it may not be appropriate to research.

Rationale 3: Confidentiality is one of the research participants rights.

Rationale 4: Quantitative research problems address relationships between independent and dependent variables.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 33

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 02 Able to apply the steps of change used in implementing evidence based practice.

Question 6

Type: MCSA

A nurse researcher is considering the use of various nonpharmacological distraction techniques that have shown success for behavior control in troubled adolescents. The criteria this researcher is considering is which of the following?

1. Significance

2. Researchability

3. Feasibility

4. Interest

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: The research problem has significance if it has the potential to contribute to nursing science by enhancing client care, testing or generating a theory, or resolving a day-to-day clinical problem. If the adolescents are showing improved behavior, then these techniques have significance in enhancing client care.

Rationale 2: Researchability means that the problem can be subjected to scientific investigation, without ambiguity or uncertainty.

Rationale 3: Feasibility pertains to the time and material as well as human resources needed to investigate a problem or question.

Rationale 4: Interest can be a factor for successful completion, depending on the attitude of the researcher.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 33

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 7

Type: MCSA

A nurse educator has asked the question, Do students who form study groups fare better on the NCLEX exam when compared to their peers who study independently? An example of a dependent variable would be which of the following?

1. Number of students in a study group

2. NCLEX scores of both groups

3. Students college GPAs

4. Time between graduation and sitting for the NCLEX

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: This option would be examples of independent variables, or those things that cause or have an influence on the dependent variable.

Rationale 2: The dependent variable is the behavior, characteristic, or outcome that the researcher wishes to explain or predict. The independent variable is the presumed cause of or influence on the dependent variable. In this situation, the prediction is the success on NCLEX.

Rationale 3: This option would be examples of independent variables, or those things that cause or have an influence on the dependent variable.

Rationale 4: The option would be examples of independent variables, or those things that cause or have an influence on the dependent variable.

Global Rationale: Page Reference:32

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 8

Type: MCSA

A nurse has defined the current research problem. What is the next step in the process?

1. Formulate a hypothesis

2. Define variables

3. Review the literature

4. Select a design

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Before progressing with the research design, the researcher determines what is known and not known about the problem. A thorough review of the literature provides the foundation on which to build new knowledge. Next, a hypothesis is formulated, variables are defined, and the research design is selected.

Rationale 2: Before progressing with the research design, the researcher determines what is known and not known about the problem. A thorough review of the literature provides the foundation on which to build new knowledge. Next, a hypothesis is formulated, variables are defined, and the research design is selected.

Rationale 3: Before progressing with the research design, the researcher determines what is known and not known about the problem. A thorough review of the literature provides the foundation on which to build new knowledge. Next, a hypothesis is formulated, variables are defined, and the research design is selected.

Rationale 4: Before progressing with the research design, the researcher determines what is known and not known about the problem. A thorough review of the literature provides the foundation on which to build new knowledge. Next, a hypothesis is formulated, variables are defined, and the research design is selected.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 28

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 9

Type: MCSA

A nurse researcher is testing the effects of a new dressing preparation on certain participants, while continuing to use older but more familiar products on others. This is an example of which type of research design?

1. Quasi-experimental

2. Experimental

3. Nonexperimental

4. Pilot study

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Quasi-experimental design is when the investigator manipulates the independent variable but without either randomization or control.

Rationale 2: Experimental design is one in which the investigator manipulates the independent variable by administering an experimental treatment to some participants while withholding it from others. This would be the situation if some of the participants were exposed to new products while others were not.

Rationale 3: In a nonexperimental design, the investigator does no manipulation of the independent variable.

Rationale 4: A pilot study is a test study before the actual one begins and is not a type of research design.

Global Rationale: Page Reference:32

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 04 Differentiate the quantitative approach from the qualitative approach in nursing research.

Question 10

Type: MCSA

A researcher is conducting a study involving only the single-parent families of a school system. The sample in this situation is which of the following?

1. The school system

2. Children

3. Parents

4. Single-parent families

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: The school system would be more representative of the population, which includes all possible members of the group who meet the criteria for the study.

Rationale 2: The children would be more representative of the population, which includes all possible members of the group who meet the criteria for the study.

Rationale 3: The parents would be more representative of the population, which includes all possible members of the group who meet the criteria for the study.

Rationale 4: The sample is the segment of the population from which the data will actually be collected-in this case, single-parent families.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 32

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 11

Type: MCSA

A nurse researcher is using an instrument that provides similar results each time its implemented. This is an example of which of the following?

1. Validity

2. Reliability

3. Consistency

4. Variability

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Validity is the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure.

Rationale 2: Reliability is the degree of consistency with which an instrument measures a concept or variable. If it is reliable, repeated measurement of the same variable should yield similar or nearly similar results.

Rationale 3: Consistency is a component of reliability.

Rationale 4: Variability does not describe instrument measurement, but variances in data.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 32

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 12

Type: MCSA

The student nurse is examining the dispersion of data in a research study. Measurements would include which of the following?

1. Mean, median, and mode

2. Range, variance, and standard deviation

3. Mean, range, and standard deviation

4. Measures of central tendency

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Measures of variability indicate the degree of dispersion or spread of the data. They include the range, variance, and standard deviation. Measures of central tendency describe the center of distribution of the data, denoting where most of the subjects lie. They include the mean, median, and mode.

Rationale 2: Measures of variability indicate the degree of dispersion or spread of the data. They include the range, variance, and standard deviation. Measures of central tendency describe the center of distribution of the data, denoting where most of the subjects lie. They include the mean, median, and mode.

Rationale 3: Measures of variability indicate the degree of dispersion or spread of the data. They include the range, variance, and standard deviation. Measures of central tendency describe the center of distribution of the data, denoting where most of the subjects lie. They include the mean, median, and mode.

Rationale 4: Measures of variability indicate the degree of dispersion or spread of the data. They include the range, variance, and standard deviation. Measures of central tendency describe the center of distribution of the data, denoting where most of the subjects lie. They include the mean, median, and mode.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 32

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 13

Type: MCSA

After the data have been analyzed, the nurse realizes that the probability has a value of less than .05. This means that the findings are which of the following?

1. Statistically significant

2. Statistically insignificant

3. Chance occurrences

4. Generalized

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: If findings in a research study are statistically significantwhich means they did not occur by chancethe probability value is less than .05, the acceptable level of significance.

Rationale 2: Values greater than .05 are considered to be statistically insignificant and there is a greater probability that the results were due to chance occurrences.

Rationale 3: Values greater than .05 are considered to be statistically insignificant and there is a greater probability that the results were due to chance occurrences.

Rationale 4: It is not known what the generalized findings would be.

Global Rationale: Page Reference:33

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 14

Type: MCSA

The student nurse is doing a literature review on evidence-based practice (EBP). Which of the following demonstrates the students understanding of EBP?

1. Presenting a paper about EBP

2. Repositioning a client at risk for skin breakdown every 2 hours

3. Explaining EBP to fellow students

4. Trying to find other problems to implement EBP

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Presenting papers or explaining what EBP is to someone else does not demonstrate the ability to put into practice that which is learned.

Rationale 2: In evidence-based practice, the nurse integrates research findings with clinical experience, the clients preferences, and available resources in planning and implementing care. Evidence-based practice would support frequent repositioning to prevent skin breakdown in an at-risk client, demonstrating that this student is able to incorporate research into practice.

Rationale 3: Explaining what EBP is to someone else does not demonstrate the ability to put into practice that which is learned.

Rationale 4: Attempting to find other problems to implement EBP does not demonstrate the ability to put into practice that which is learned.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 33-34

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 06 Describe research-related roles and responsibilities for nurses.

Question 15

Type: MCSA

A group of nurses is researching how care providers of Stage I/II Alzheimers clients use prior coping skills in dealing with their current situation. Which qualitative research tradition does this exemplify?

1. Grounded theory

2. Ethnography

3. Phenomenology

4. Substantive dimension

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Grounded theory is research to understand social structures and social processes.

Rationale 2: Ethnography is research that provides a framework to focus on the culture of a group of people.

Rationale 3: Phenomenology is research that investigates peoples life experiences and how they interpret those experiences. Using prior coping skills (life experiences) and applying them to current situations in order to interpret the process of Alzheimers disease is an example of phenomenology.

Rationale 4: Substantive dimension is not a research tradition, rather a way to critique research reports.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 31

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 04 Differentiate the quantitative approach from the qualitative approach in nursing research.

Question 16

Type: MCSA

In evaluating a research question regarding the safety of pharmacological interventions used to stop preterm labor, the nurse looks specifically at the various medications used and what effect, if any, they had on the baby. The nurse is critiquing the research based on which dimension?

1. Methodologic

2. Interpretive

3. Substantive and theoretical

4. Presentation and stylistic

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: Methodologic dimensions pertain to the appropriateness of the research design, of which we have no information for this situation.

Rationale 2: To critique interpretive dimensions, the nurse needs to ascertain the accuracy of the discussion, conclusions, and implications of the study results (no information is given regarding the results in this situation).

Rationale 3: For substantive and theoretical dimensions, the nurse needs to evaluate the significance of the research problem (preterm labor is a critical concern in obstetric nursing) and the congruence between the research question and the methods used to address it (in this case, using accepted means to treat preterm labor).

Rationale 4: The manner in which the research plan and results are communicated refers to the presentation and stylistic dimensions. Again, we have no examples of this dimension for this scenario to critique.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 34-35

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 06 Describe research-related roles and responsibilities for nurses.

Question 17

Type: MCSA

A nurse practitioner feels it is important to participate in nursing research. Which activity is most appropriate for this nurses level of education and position?

1. Helping to identify clinical problems in direct client care

2. Using research findings to develop policies and procedures

3. Critically analyzing and interpreting research for application to practice

4. Participating in data collection

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: All nurses, including new graduates, could help to identify clinical problems in direct client care

Rationale 2: Nurse managers would most likely use research findings to develop policies and procedures and may not necessarily have an advanced degree.

Rationale 3: The nurse practitioner, having a graduate level education as well as prior nursing experience, would most likely be analyzing and interpreting research for application.

Rationale 4: All nurses, including new graduates, could participate in data collection.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 29

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 06 Describe research-related roles and responsibilities for nurses.

Question 18

Type: MCMA

A nurse researcher is exploring and formulating research problems. Which of the following criteria should the nurse researcher consider in this process?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Significance.

2. Confidentiality.

3. Researchability.

4. Design.

5. Feasibility.

6. Interest to the researcher.

Correct Answer: 1,3,5,6

Rationale 1: Polit and Beck suggest that when formulating a research problem, significance (the potential to contribute to nursing science by enhancing client care) should be considered, along with researchability (the problem can be subjected to scientific investigation) and feasibility (the availability of time as well as material and human resources, space, money, etc.). Since researchers spend much time and energy while conducting a research project, it would also be important that they have genuine interest in the project. Confidentiality is one of the rights of the participant in research, and design focuses on how the research is done.

Rationale 2: Confidentiality is one of the rights of the participant in research.

Rationale 3: Polit and Beck suggest that when formulating a research problem, researchability (the problem can be subjected to scientific investigation) be considered.

Rationale 4: Design focuses on how the research is done.

Rationale 5: Polit and Beck suggest that when formulating a research problem, feasibility (the availability of time as well as material and human resources, space, money, etc.) be considered.

Rationale 6: Since researchers spend much time and energy while conducting a research project, it would also be important that they have genuine interest in the project.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 31-33

Cognitive Level: Understanding

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 19

Type: SEQ

When executing a research project directed towards identifying evidence-based practice, a specific progression of steps is recommended. While the steps may loop back to earlier steps as needed, please review the following steps and place them in the intended progression order:

Standard Text: Click and drag the options below to move them up or down.

Choice 1. Design practice change.

Choice 2. Assess the need for a change in practice.

Choice 3. Integrate and maintain change in practice.

Choice 4. Implement and evaluate the change.

Choice 5. Critically analyze the evidence.

Choice 6. Locate the best evidence.

Correct Answer: 2,6,5,1,4,3

Rationale 1: In this step, the nurse determines what human, physical, and financial resources are needed to implement the change, how affected persons will be involved in the change process, and what methods will be used to document the change.

Rationale 2: In this step, the nurse identifies the source of data indicating that a change is called for, and determines which members of the healthcare team should be involved in the planned change.

Rationale 3: If the evaluation in step 5 indicates an improvement in outcomes, various activities might be needed to embed the change in practice for the future. Also, the change may be rolled out, meaning that it begins in one segment of the practice setting and then is spread to other appropriate segments.

Rationale 4: If appropriate, a small test of the change can be done prior to broader implementation. After the change has gone into effect, outcome data are gathered and analyzed, and conclusions are drawn regarding effectiveness and next steps.

Rationale 5: The strengths of each piece of evidence are examined, as are the feasibility of implementing a change in a particular practice setting or population. The nurse determines whether any risks are outweighed by potential benefits.

Rationale 6: In addition to locating research reports, the nurse also gathers evidence from practice guidelines, standards of care/standards of practice, and literature reviews.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 31-33

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 05 Outline the steps of the research process.

Question 20

Type: MCMA

When discussing the currently expressed concerns about the use of research as the primary source of evidence for evidence based nursing practice, the nurse education includes references to the current practices:

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. When evidence-based practice is done appropriately, the process often becomes cost-prohibitive.

2. The strictly constructed and controlled circumstances of the research environment.

3. The inference that there is a best solution or practice for any specific research question.

4. Evidence-based practice is most applicable to physiological problems.

5. Research projects evidence can be flawed when applied to various cultures and ethnic groups.

Correct Answer: 2,3,4,5

Rationale 1: Research might be expensive in many incidences but not in all cases, and cost is not recognized as a negative factor at this time.

Rationale 2: Research is often done under very controlled circumstances, which is very different from the real world of healthcare delivery.

Rationale 3: Research evidence suggests that there is one best solution to a problem for all clients. This limited perspective stifles creativity.

Rationale 4: EBP appears to have greater relevance for physiological problems than for psychological, social, or spiritual ones.

Rationale 5: Implementing EBP may not take into consideration organizational culture and ethnic characteristics.

Global Rationale: Page Reference: 28

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Safe Effective Care Environment

Client Need Sub: Management of Care

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 03 Describe limitations in the current emphasis on research as the primary source of evidence based practice.

Kozier & Erbs Fundamentals of Nursing, 9/E Test Bank

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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