Chapter 02: Theories of Aging My Nursing Test Banks

Wold: Basic Geriatric Nursing, 5th Edition

Chapter 02: Theories of Aging

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A theory differs from a fact in that a theory:

a.

proves how different influences affect a particular phenomenon.

b.

attempts to explain and give some logical order to observations.

c.

is a collection of facts about a particular phenomenon.

d.

shows a relationship among facts about a particular phenomenon.

ANS: B

A theory is an unproven concept that attempts to explain and give some logical order to observations. For a theory to become a fact, there must be reproducible evidence.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 28 OBJ: 1

TOP: Fact vs. Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

2. The biological theory of aging uses a genetic perspective and suggests that aging is a programmed process in which:

a.

each person will age exactly like those in the previous generation.

b.

a biological clock ticks off a predetermined number of cell divisions.

c.

genetic traits can overcome environmental influences.

d.

age-related physical changes are controlled only by genetic factors.

ANS: B

The biological theory of programmed process suggests that there is a biologic clock set with a predetermined number of cell divisions that will occur before the introduction of the aging process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 28 OBJ: 2

TOP: Biological Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

3. The Gene Theory of aging proposes that:

a.

the presence of a master gene prolongs youth.

b.

genes interact with each other to resist aging.

c.

specific genes target specific body systems to initiate system deterioration.

d.

the activation of harmful genes initiates the aging process.

ANS: D

The Gene Theory suggests that there is an activation of harmful genes that initiate the aging process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 28 OBJ: 2

TOP: Gene Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

4. The theory that identifies an unstable molecule as the causative factor in aging is the _____ theory.

a.

free radical

b.

molecular

c.

neuroendocrine

d.

crosslink

ANS: A

The free radical theory identifies free radicalsunstable moleculesthat will cause aging after accumulation in the body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 29 OBJ: 2

TOP: Free Radical Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

5. The nurse assesses that the patient who uses good health maintenance practices believes in the aging theory known as the _____ theory.

a.

wear-and-tear

b.

free radical

c.

neuroendocrine

d.

molecular

ANS: A

The wear-and-tear theory suggests that health maintenance practices will prevent wear and tear on the cells of the body and will delay the aging process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 29 OBJ: 2

TOP: Wear-and-Tear Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

6. The nurse describes the neuroendocrine theory of aging as a complex process of:

a.

relating thyroid function to age-related changes.

b.

the effects of adrenal corticosteroids, which inhibit the aging process.

c.

stimulation and/or inhibition of the hypothalamus, causing age-related changes.

d.

adrenal medulla inhibition of epinephrine, causing age-related changes.

ANS: C

The neuroendocrine theory proposes that the hypothalamus stimulates or inhibits the pituitary gland to produce hormones that initiate the aging process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 29 OBJ: 2

TOP: Neuroendocrine Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

7. The nurse explains that psychosocial theories differ from biologic theories in that psychosocial theories:

a.

focus on methods to delay the aging process.

b.

are directed at decreasing depression in the older adult.

c.

are organized to enhance the perception of aging.

d.

attempt to explain responses to the aging process.

ANS: D

Psychosocial theories attempt to explain the various responses of persons to the aging process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 30 OBJ: 3

TOP: Focus of Psychosocial Therapies KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

8. The major objection to the disengagement theory is that the theory:

a.

justifies ageism.

b.

addresses the diversity of older adults.

c.

does not clarify the aging process.

d.

diminishes the self-esteem of the older adult.

ANS: A

The disengagement theory seems to justify ageism by proposing that there is a mutual desire between the community and the older adult to be disengaged. According to the theory, this desire apparently does not diminish self-esteem because the older adult desires to be disengaged.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 30 OBJ: 3

TOP: Disengagement Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

9. The 80-year-old who teaches Sunday school every week and delivers food for Meals on Wheels is following _____ theory.

a.

Newmans developmental

b.

the life course

c.

the activity

d.

the disengagement

ANS: C

Purposeful activity increases self-esteem and maintains cognitive function well into older age.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 30 OBJ: 3

TOP: Activity Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

10. The nurse would recognize successful aging according to Jungs theory when the nurse notes that a resident at a long-term care facility:

a.

takes special care to dress for dinner in a manner that pleases his tablemates.

b.

asks permission to sit on the patio with other residents.

c.

asks persons in his hall if his television is bothering them.

d.

wears a large cowboy hat at all times because he likes it.

ANS: D

Jung describes a successful adjustment to aging as being accepting and valuing of self regardless of the view of others.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 30 OBJ: 3

TOP: Jungs Developmental Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

11. The older adult female patient is positive that the free radical lipofuscin can be counteracted by:

a.

avoiding animal fat.

b.

use of antioxidants.

c.

building up muscle mass.

d.

outdoor exercise.

ANS: B

Individuals who follow this theory believe that free radicals can be reduced by antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, E, zinc, and phytochemicals.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 29 OBJ: 2

TOP: Antioxidants KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

12. A recently widowed woman moved to an assisted living community because of her hypertension and joined a group to learn how to do water color painting with other women her age. The nurse assesses that the patient is following the aging theory of:

a.

Jung.

b.

Havighurst.

c.

Erikson.

d.

Newmon.

ANS: B

Havighurst proposes that the process of aging is defined by adjusting to the loss of a spouse, establishing a relationship with ones own age group, and establishing a satisfactory living arrangement.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 30 OBJ: 3

TOP: Havighurst KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The nurses list of age-related illnesses thought to cause the accumulation of free radicals includes __________. (Select all that apply.)

a.

arthritis

b.

colon cancer

c.

osteoporosis

d.

diabetes

e.

atherosclerosis

ANS: A, D, E

Cancer and osteoporosis are not considered to be diseases that accumulate free radicals.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 29 OBJ: 2

TOP: Free Radical Influence KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

2. The nurse emphasizes that the relatively new theory that correlates restricted caloric intake to slowing of the aging process would probably extend the life span of the person, provided that the person __________.(Select all that apply.)

a.

consistently eats high-nutrient, low-calorie foods

b.

maintains a regular exercise program

c.

consumes 2000 to 3000 mL of fluid a day

d.

supports the diet with adequate fat-soluble vitamins

e.

eats only organically grown foods

ANS: A, B

This new theory encourages high-nutrient, low-calorie foods combined with regular exercise to delay the aging process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 30 OBJ: 2

TOP: Calorie Restriction Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

3. The nurse points out that the positive outcomes from a life review, according to Erikson, would include __________. (Select all that apply.)

a.

wisdom and integrated self-image

b.

comparing self with others

c.

understanding self and relationships

d.

seeking anothers opinion of his or her achievement

e.

acceptance of self

ANS: A, C, E

Acceptance of self and understanding self and relationships with accumulated wisdom is the goal of Erikson. Seeking the opinion of others suggests that the older adult is experiencing doubt and gloom, which are negative outcomes according to Erikson.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 30 OBJ: 2

TOP: Eriksons Developmental Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

4. When a patient asks what can be done to neutralize the free radicals in his system, the nurse responds that antioxidant therapy is thought to inhibit free radicals. Antioxidants include __________. (Select all that apply.)

a.

fruits

b.

vegetables

c.

organ meat

d.

folic acid

e.

vitamin D

ANS: A, B, D

Antioxidants can be obtained largely from fruits and vegetables. Organ meat and vitamin D are not antioxidants.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 29 OBJ: 4

TOP: Antioxidants KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

COMPLETION

1. The theory that proposes that defects in ribonucleic acid (RNA) protein production cause a progressive decline in the function of all cells is the __________ theory.

ANS: error

The error theory proposes that errors in ribonucleic acid protein synthesis cause changes such as decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, and changes in reproductive function.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 28-29 OBJ: 2

TOP: Error Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

2. The nurse clarifies that the biologic theory that proposes that aging is based on the using up of a finite number of breaths or heartbeats is the __________ of __________ theory.

ANS: rate; living

The rate of living theory proposes that individuals have a finite number of breaths or heartbeats that are used up over a period of time.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 28 OBJ: 2

TOP: Rate of Living Theory KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

Copyright 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

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