Chapter 01(FREE) My Nursing Test Banks

Tabloski Gerontological Nursing, 3/e
Chapter 01

Question 1

Type: MCSA

The nurse is preparing discharge instructions for an 84-year-old patient that includes plans for smoking cessation. The nurse believes that since the patient has been smoking for years, he isnt going to stop now. Which concept does this nurses belief reflect?

1. Negative stereotyping

2. Character assessment

3. Reality orientation

4. Senescence

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Often people characterize the elderly in a negative way, believing that after a certain age, things cannot be changed. This is the concept of stereotyping in a negative way.
Reference: Page 4

Rationale 2: Character assessment is not an identified concept of gerontology but is a process of identifying aspects of an individuals personality and character.
Reference: Page 4

Rationale 3: Reality orientation is not an identified concept of gerontology but is a strategy to assist individuals when confused or delusional.
Reference: Page 4

Rationale 4: Senescence is the process of aging.
Reference: Page 4

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3. Identify common myths of aging and their contribution to ageism.

Question 2

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning to conduct a blood pressure screening at a local senior citizens high-rise apartment building in the inner-city impoverished location. What are characteristics of the residents living in this location?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Older women

2. Married men and women

3. Widowed women

4. Less educated women

5. Residents living alone

Correct Answer: 1,3,4,5

Rationale 1: Women now comprise the majority of the older population and in the United States, women outnumber men.
Reference: Page 7

Rationale 2: In the United States, women outnumber men and the ratio of men to women over the age of 65 is 49 men to every 100 women.
Reference: Page 7

Rationale 3: Since the life expectancy of men in the United States is less than that of women, the majority of the residents will most likely be widowed.
Reference: Page 7

Rationale 4: Older women are more likely to be less educated and have fewer years of labor experience, making older women more likely to live in poverty.
Reference: Page 7

Rationale 5: Since older women are more likely to be widowed, they are more likely to live alone.
Reference: Page 7

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1. Interpret demographic data according to race, gender, and age.

Question 3

Type: MCSA

While completing an admission assessment, the nurse learns that a female adult patient has smoked one pack/day for 20 years and works at a chemical plant. From this information, what is this patient at risk for developing?

1. Decreased fertility

2. Increased life expectancy because she is female

3. No difference in risk because of social and occupational circumstances

4. Environmental and occupational hazards that may affect life expectancy

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Given the limited information on the chemical exposures, it is inconclusive to consider any effect on fertility.
Reference: Page 8

Rationale 2: If women begin to approach the rates of tobacco and face the same environmental hazards as men, the gender gap in life expectancy may narrow.
Reference: Page 8

Rationale 3: If women begin to approach the rates of tobacco and face the same environmental hazards as men, the gender gap in life expectancy may narrow.
Reference: Page 8

Rationale 4: Exposure to environmental and occupational risk factors has been known to affect life expectancy in men and will have the same effect on women given similar circumstances.
Reference: Page 8

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 2. Relate leading causes of morbidity and mortality among older adults.

Question 4

Type: MCSA

An African American male patient has a blood pressure of 180/104 mm Hg. When asked about the blood pressure, the patient states that he is not on any medication and is unsure if the blood pressure level is unsafe. What should the nurse do?

1. Nothing since the blood pressure may not be accurate and does not need to be addressed

2. Initiate secondary prevention to prevent the progression of illness.

3. Nothing since this is normal for someone in the hospital

4. Reassess the blood pressure with the patient in a standing position.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: There is no way of knowing if the patients blood pressure is inaccurate. Even if it is not, the blood pressure should be measured again and addressed.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 2: One good strategy to control chronic illness and prevent progression and disability is to identify opportunities to diagnose and treat chronic illnesses. The nurse should initiate secondary prevention to prevent the progression of illness in the patient.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 3: This is not a normal blood pressure even if the patient is in the hospital.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 4: This is no evidence to support that this patients blood pressure needs to be reassessed in the standing position.
Reference: Page 10

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

Question 5

Type: MCSA

An older patient is worried about the cost of healthcare and supplies now that he has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. How should the nurse respond to this patients concerns?

1. I believe that some parts of Medicare will cover preventative care, such as diabetes monitoring.

2. You only need to check your blood sugar once a day, so the cost should not be too high.

3. Dont worry. I dont think the total bill will be too much.

4. I dont know anything about insurance.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: At the current time, Medicare pays for a yearly wellness visit and routine physical examination. Medicare also covers diabetes screening and diabetes self-management training.
Reference: Pages 10-11

Rationale 2: The patient may need to check the blood glucose level more than once a day. This statement would be inappropriate for the nurse to respond.
Reference: Pages 10-11

Rationale 3: The patient is stating concern, so telling him not to worry or assuming that even one day of costs is affordable is inappropriate.
Reference: Pages 10-11

Rationale 4: Stating that the nurse does not know anything about insurance is unacceptable. Changes in Medicare coverage occur on an ongoing basis and the nurse should keep track of these changes by visiting the Medicare website or calling the local Medicare office.
Reference: Pages 10-11

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

Question 6

Type: MCMA

The nurse is assessing an older female patient admitted to the hospital for generalized weakness and a cough. Which assessment findings would be considered normal changes related to aging?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Elevated blood pressure

2. Needing to urinate every 3 hours

3. Needing to wear eye glasses for reading

4. Pulse rate 104 beats per minute and thready

5. Respiratory rate 22 per minute after walking a short distance

Correct Answer: 2,3,5

Rationale 1: Even though the arteries stiffen with age, an elevation in blood pressure needs to be investigated and not assumed that it is a normal change related to aging.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 2: With aging, bladder capacity declines. Needing to urinate every 3 hours would be evidence of reduced bladder capacity.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 3: With aging, difficulty focusing up close would necessitate the need for reading glasses. This would be considered a normal change with aging.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 4: Even though the heart muscle thickens with age, a pulse rate of 104 and thready needs to be investigated and not assumed that it is a normal change related to aging.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 5: Maximum breathing capacity may decline by about 40% between the ages of 40 and 70. A respiratory rate of 22 per minute after walking a short distance can be considered a normal change related to aging.
Reference: Page 17

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 7

Type: MCSA

The family of an older male patient asks why the patient needs to be hospitalized for pneumonia when the youngest daughter had the same infection a few months ago and was treated at home. How should the nurse respond to the family?

1. The patient has chronic illnesses that put him at risk.

2. I dont think you can compare your grandfather to yourself.

3. There are some differences between men and women and illness.

4. Aging decreases the bodys ability to restore balance to body systems with an infection.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: There is not enough information to determine if the patient has chronic illnesses.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 2: This response does not address the issue that body systems return to balance slower after an illness as a part of aging.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 3: This response does not address that the patients age impacts the bodys ability to fight an infection and return to homeostasis.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 4: The loss of organ reserve that can occur with aging can lead to the concept of homeostenosis or inability of the body to restore homeostasis after even minor environmental challenges, such as trauma or infection. An older person may die from pneumonia, which may have only been a minor illness to a younger person.
Reference: Page 17

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 8

Type: MCSA

A patient takes herbal supplements in order to slow down the aging process. The nurse realizes that the patient is following which theory of aging?

1. Cross-link

2. Wear-and-tear

3. Free radical

4. Emerging biological

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: The cross-link theory states that cross-linked proteins resulting from binding of glucose to proteins causes various problems associated with nutrition.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 2: The wear-and-tear theory sees the human body as a machine and cellular function slows down with time.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 3: The free radical theory states that accumulated damage caused by oxygen radicals causes cells, and eventually organs, to lose function and organ reserve. The use of antioxidants and vitamins is believed to slow this damage.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 4: The emerging biological theory states that there are specific genes responsible for human aging.
Reference: Page 19

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 9

Type: MCMA

An older patient is demonstrating signs of sadness and depression. Upon assessment, the patient expresses remorse over not accomplishing much in life and is not looking forward to eventual death. Which theories of aging would be applicable for the nurse to use to help this patient?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Endocrine theory

2. Programmed longevity

3. Somatic DNA damage theory

4. Jungs theory of individualism

5. Eriksons developmental theory

Correct Answer: 4,5

Rationale 1: The endocrine theory focuses on biological changes with aging. This patient is demonstrating psychosocial changes with aging.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 2: The programmed longevity theory focuses on aging as a result of changes in gene function which is a biological theory. This patient is demonstrating psychosocial changes with aging.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 3: The somatic DNA damage theory focuses on genetic mutations as a cause for aging. This patient is demonstrating psychosocial changes with aging.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 4: Jungs theory of individualism states that with aging the focus is away from the external world and moves towards the inner experience. This is a psychosocial theory of aging and would be appropriate for the nurse to use to help this patient.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 5: Eriksons developmental theory states that there are developmental stages that a person goes through in life. This is a psychosocial theory of aging and would be appropriate for the nurse to use to help this patient.
Reference: Page 20

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 10

Type: MCSA

A 62-year-old former professional football player is in the hospital for a total knee replacement as a result of osteoarthritis. Which theory of aging would help explain this patients current health problem?

1. Cross-link

2. Free radical

3. Wear-and-tear

4. Somatic DNA damage

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: The cross-link theory is related to the accumulation of cross-linked proteins causing disease. This theory does not explain the damage done to the patients joint from playing football.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 2: The free radical theory states that cell damage is a result of accumulation of oxygen radicals. This theory does not explain the damage done to the patients joint from playing football.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 3: Osteoarthritis is characteristic of degeneration that results from joint usage. This disease is characteristic of the aspects of the wear-and-tear theory, which states that there is a master clock that controls all organs and cellular functions, which becomes less efficient over time. Abusing one organ or bodily system through repeated injury that occurs with contact sports may result in premature aging and diseases such as osteoarthritis.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 4: The somatic DNA damage theory states that genetic mutations occur and accumulate with increasing age. This theory does not explain the damage done to the patients joint from playing football.
Reference: Page 19

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 11

Type: MCSA

An older patient is refusing to receive the influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations because he believes he is too old. How should the nurse respond to this patient?

1. I understand your feelings.

2. I will report your concerns to the physician.

3. You are likely to get sick if you do not take the vaccines.

4. It is never too late in life to begin health promotion activities.

Correct Answer: 4

Rationale 1: Telling the patient that the nurse understands the patients feelings does not help the patient understand the importance of health promotion activities.
Reference: Pages 9-10

Rationale 2: Reporting the concerns to the physician does not help the patient understand the importance of health promotion activities.
Reference: Pages 9-10

Rationale 3: While the patient has an increased likelihood of developing an illness if the vaccines are not taken, stating this does little to meet the patients voiced concerns.
Reference: Pages 9-10

Rationale 4: Receiving vaccinations for communicable diseases is a form of health promotion. The patient should be advised that age should not restrict health-saving activities.
Reference: Pages 9-10

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

Question 12

Type: MCSA

A nursing student is preparing a program to review health concerns for seniors. Which statement should the student include in the presentation?

1. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for senior citizens.

2. Decreases have been shown in the rate of Alzheimers disease.

3. The rate of heart disease death for senior citizens is increasing.

4. Cancer is the leading cause of death in the senior citizen population.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the senior population even though it has decreased by 2.4% between 2009 and 2010.
Reference: Page 12

Rationale 2: The death rate increased significantly for 2009 to 2010 for Alzheimers disease.
Reference: Page 12

Rationale 3: The rate of heart disease in the senior population has decreased by 2.4% between 2009 and 2010.
Reference: Page 12

Rationale 4: Cancer is among the top causes of death but is not the number one cause of death.
Reference: Page 12

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

Question 13

Type: MCMA

The nurse provides care to patients in a long-term care facility that embraces the Continuity Theory of Aging. Which actions will the nurse plan to promote this theory?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Plan rest periods between activities.

2. Introduce patients to a wide variety of new activities.

3. Encourage family members to visit with the patients.

4. Suggest avoiding activities that do not bring satisfaction.

5. Remind patients that withdrawing from activities is expected

Correct Answer: 1,3,4

Rationale 1: In the Continuity Theory of Aging, the pace of activities may be slowed so rest periods between activities would be appropriate.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 2: In the Continuity Theory of Aging, older age is not viewed as a time for major life readjustments but rather as a time to continue being the same person. Introducing patients to new activities does not support this theory.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 3: In the Continuity Theory of Aging, successful aging involves maintaining family ties. Encouraging family members to visit with the patients would be appropriate.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 4: In the Continuity Theory of Aging, activities pursued in life that did not bring satisfaction may be dropped. Suggesting that patients avoid activities that do not bring satisfaction would be appropriate.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 5: In the Continuity Theory of Aging successful aging involves maintaining values, habits, and preferences that formed the basic underlying structure of adult life. Reminding patients that withdrawing from activities is expected supports the Disengagement Theory.
Reference: Page 20

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 14

Type: MCSA

A graduate nurse is nervous about caring for older adult patients because of the personality changes that occur with aging. How should the nurses preceptor respond to this statement?

1. Personality is relatively stable throughout life.

2. The losses many elderly experience understandably will impact their personality.

3. The personalities of the elderly do undergo some significant changes after the eighth decade of life.

4. After retirement, feelings of disuse cause many elderly to begin demonstrating personality changes.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Personality is stable throughout adult life and rarely do healthy older people show signs of personality change during their final years.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 2: Personality usually does not change radically even as a result of major lifestyle changes such as the death of a loved one.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 3: Personality is stable throughout adult life and rarely do healthy older people show signs of personality change during their final years.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 4: Personality usually does not change radically even as a result of major lifestyle changes such as retirement.
Reference: Page 17

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 15

Type: MCSA

A patient voices concerns about her body weight despite diligently following a healthy diet. Which age-related change would explain this patients issue with body weight?

1. Body fat increases until middle age.

2. Body weight increases after middle age.

3. Fat is redistributed to the hips after middle age.

4. Body fat promotes a pear-shaped appearance for aging women.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Body fat typically increases until middle age and then stabilizes until late life, when weight tends to decline.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 2: Body weight stabilizes after middle age.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 3: With aging, fat is redistributed to the deeper organs.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 4: With aging, fat is redistributed to the abdomen rather than to the hips. This promotes an apple shape rather than a pear shape.
Reference: Page 17

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 16

Type: MCSA

A 60-year-old patient in good health has asked the nurse about what steps can be taken to build muscle mass. What information should be provided to the patient?

1. Exercise can slow the loss of muscle mass.

2. Increasing protein and fat intake will increase muscle mass.

3. Muscle mass declines by 40% between the ages of 30 and 70.

4. There is little that can be done to reduce the loss of muscle mass associated with aging.

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Without exercise muscle mass declines 22% for women and 23% for men between the ages of 30 and 70. Exercise can slow this rate of loss.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 2: Calories are burned more slowly during aging, and adding fats can promote fat build-up, not an increase in muscle mass.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 3: Without exercise, muscle mass declines 22% for women and 23% for men between the ages of 30 and 70.
Reference: Page 17

Rationale 4: Without exercise, muscle mass declines 22% for women and 23% for men between the ages of 30 and 70. Exercise can slow this rate of loss.
Reference: Page 17

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 17

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning a program about the Immunological Theory of Aging for a group of senior citizens. Which information should the nurse include in this program?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Restrict spending time with others who are ill.

2. A healthy diet supports immune function in the older person.

3. A healthy lifestyle supports immune function in the older person.

4. Immune function improves after exposure to urinary tract infections and pneumonia.

5. Obtaining an annual influenza vaccination supports immune function in the older person.

Correct Answer: 1,2,3,5

Rationale 1: Limiting exposure to pathogens can support immune function in the older person.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 2: A healthy diet can support immune function in the older person.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 3: A healthy lifestyle supports immune function in the older person.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 4: Declines in immune function can affect the outcomes of illness such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia.
Reference: Page 19

Rationale 5: Preventive health measures such as a yearly influenza vaccination can support immune function in the older person.
Reference: Page 19

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 18

Type: MCSA

An older patient expresses anger about the loss of her husband to a younger, more attractive woman 4 years ago. She blames this for her physical and social decline. Which theory of aging supports this patients belief?

1. Activity Theory

2. Disengagement Theory

3. Jungs Theory of Individualism

4. Ericksons Developmental Theory

Correct Answer: 3

Rationale 1: The Activity Theory promotes the need for the older adult to stay active and engaged.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 2: The Disengagement Theory considers the need of an individual to engage in society and maintain equilibrium.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 3: A key focus of Jungs theory is the impact of an inability to accept past accomplishments and failures to promote successful aging.
Reference: Page 20

Rationale 4: In Eriksons theory, the task of the older adult includes ego integrity versus despair. During this stage, the older adult will become preoccupied with acceptance of eventual death without becoming morbid or obsessed with these thoughts. If major failures or disappointments have occurred in the older persons life, this final stage may be difficult to accomplish because the older person may be despairing rather than accepting of death. Older persons who have not achieved ego integrity may look back on their lives with dissatisfaction and feel unhappy, depressed, or angry over what they have done or failed to do.
Reference: Page 20

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

Question 19

Type: MCMA

The nurse at an assisted living facility is planning secondary prevention activities for a group of residents at risk for cardiac problems. Which activities would be appropriate for this level of care?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Blood pressure monitoring

2. Demonstration on the use of walkers and canes

3. Explanation on why tobacco should be avoided

4. Discussion with a dietitian for elevated cholesterol levels

5. Discussion with a physical therapist for loss of muscle tone

Correct Answer: 1,4,5

Rationale 1: Blood pressure monitoring is a secondary prevention intervention and would be appropriate for the residents at risk for cardiac problems.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 2: Demonstrating the use of walkers and canes is a tertiary prevention intervention and would not be appropriate for these residents.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 3: Explanation on the avoidance of tobacco would be a primary prevention intervention and would not be appropriate for these residents.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 4: Discussion with a dietitian for elevated cholesterol levels is a secondary prevention intervention and would be appropriate for these residents.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 5: Discussion with a physical therapist for loss of muscle tone is a secondary prevention intervention and would be appropriate for these residents.
Reference: Page 10

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

Question 20

Type: MCMA

A patient who is new to Medicare has been reviewing coverage for health screening tests. Which statements indicate the patient understands the recommendations provided by Medicare?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. I can have a Pap smear once a year.

2. I can have a mammogram once a year.

3. I can have a colonoscopy every 15 years.

4. I can have fecal occult blood testing every 2 years.

5. I can have bone mass screening every 2 years if Im at risk.

Correct Answer: 1,2,5

Rationale 1: Medicare recommends a Pap smear once a year.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 2: Medicare recommends a mammogram once a year.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 3: Medicare recommends a colonoscopy every 10 years for those with normal risk levels and every 2 years for those at high risk.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 4: Medicare recommends fecal occult blood testing once a year.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 5: Medicare recommends bone mass screening every 2 years for those at risk.
Reference: Page 10

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

Question 21

Type: MCSA

The nurse is preparing a care plan for an older African American patient at risk for colon cancer. What should be included in the plan of care?

1. Colonoscopy every 2 years

2. Serum cancer marker testing every year

3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy testing annually

4. Fecal occult blood screening every 2 years

Correct Answer: 1

Rationale 1: Currently, colonoscopy screening is recommended every 2 years for those at high risk.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 2: Serum cancer markers are not a recommended screening test.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 3: The flexible sigmoidoscopy is recommended every 4 years.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 4: Fecal occult blood screening is recommended annually.
Reference: Page 10

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

Question 22

Type: MCSA

The nurse manager recognizes that the types of patients and associated diagnoses admitted to a care area are consistent with nationwide demographics. Which statement supports this observation?

1. Diabetes is not a significant problem in the African American community.

2. Hispanic patients have a greater incidence of obesity than Caucasian patients.

3. African American patients have a lower incidence of hypertension than Caucasian patients.

4. Female patients with chronic disorders are more self-sufficient than men with similar ailments.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: A growing number of African Americans are reporting diabetes.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 2: There is an increasing rate of obesity in the Hispanic population.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 3: Nearly 60% of older African Americans report high blood pressure.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 4: In general, women of all ages require more help with activities of daily living than do men and the need for assistance tends to increase with age.
Reference: Page 13

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1. Interpret demographic data according to race, gender, and age.

Question 23

Type: MCMA

The nurse is planning a program for community members to highlight the Healthy People 2020 areas applicable to older people. Which topics would the nurse include in this program?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. Cancer

2. Food safety

3. Tobacco use

4. Employment

5. Heart disease

Correct Answer: 1,2,3,5

Rationale 1: Cancer is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.
Reference: Page 16

Rationale 2: Food safety is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.
Reference: Page 16

Rationale 3: Tobacco use is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.
Reference: Page 16

Rationale 4: Employment is not a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.
Reference: Page 16

Rationale 5: Heart disease is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.
Reference: Page 16

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

Question 24

Type: MCSA

The nurse is working on a care area that focuses on tertiary prevention. Which goal is consistent with this focus?

1. Patients at risk for skin breakdown will be turned every 2 hours.

2. Patients with pressure ulcers will have whirlpool therapy as indicated.

3. Patients are assessed for factors that place them at risk for skin breakdown.

4. Patients are instructed to move in bed at least every 2 hours to prevent skin breakdown.

Correct Answer: 2

Rationale 1: Turning a patient at risk for skin breakdown is an example of a primary prevention goal.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 2: Treating a pressure ulcer is an example of a tertiary prevention goal.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 3: Assessing a patient at risk for skin breakdown is an example of a primary prevention goal.
Reference: Page 10

Rationale 4: Teaching a patient how to prevent skin breakdown is an example of a primary prevention goal.
Reference: Page 10

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub:

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

Question 25

Type: MCMA

After completing an assessment, the nurse is concerned that a middle-aged patient is at risk for having a disability later in life. What did the nurse assess in this patient?

Standard Text: Select all that apply.

1. High blood pressure

2. Plays golf 3 times a week

3. Smokes 1 pack per day for 25 years

4. History of lower back pain

5. Works as a fork lift operator

Correct Answer: 1,3,4

Rationale 1: Atherosclerosis is considered one of the most common causes of disability in the United States. High blood pressure can be caused by atherosclerotic changes in the arteries.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 2: Physical activity such as golf is not considered a contributing factor to disability later in life.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 3: Smoking 1 ppd for 25 years can lead to lung or a respiratory problem, which is considered as being one of the most common causes of disability in the United States.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 4: Degenerative joint disease is considered one of the most common causes of disability in the United States. A history of lower back pain could be an indication of degenerative joint disease in the spine.
Reference: Page 13

Rationale 5: Employment history such as working as a fork lift operator is not considered a contributing factor to disability later in life.
Reference: Page 13

Global Rationale:

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2. Relate leading causes of morbidity and mortality among older adults.

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